Saudi Fire Code: SBC 801 - CR - PDFCOFFEE.COM (2024)

Saudi Fire Code SBC 801 - CR Code Requirements ‫ﻛﻮد اﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺮاﺋﻖ‬

2018

Saudi Fire Code SBC 801 Key List of the Saudi Codes: Designations and brief titles Code Req.1 SBC 201-CR SBC 301-CR SBC 302- CR SBC 303- CR SBC 304- CR SBC 305- CR

Title The General Building Code Structural – Loading and Forces Structural – Construction Structural – Soil and Foundations Structural – Concrete Structures Structural – Masonry Structures Structural – Steel Structures Electrical Code Mechanical Code Energy Conservation- Nonresidential Energy Conservation-Residential Plumbing Code Private sewage Code

SBC 401- CR SBC 501-CR

Existing Buildings Code Green Construction Code Residential Building Code* Fuel Gas Code* 1. 2. 3. *

SBC 303-CC SBC 304-CC SBC 305-CC

Arabic Prov. 3 SBC 201-AR SBC 301-AR SBC 302-AR SBC 303-AR SBC 304-AR SBC 305-AR

SBC 501-CC SBC 601- CC SBC 602- CC SBC 701-CC

SBC 401-AR SBC 501-AR SBC 601- AR SBC 602- AR SBC 701-AR SBC 702-AR

SBC 801-CR

SBC 801-CC

SBC 801-AR

SBC 901- CR SBC 1001- CR SBC 1101- CR SBC 1201- CR

SBC 901-CC SBC 1001-CC SBC 1101-CC SBC 1201-CC

SBC 901-AR SBC 1001-AR SBC 1101-AR SBC 1201-AR

SBC 701- CR SBC 702-CR

Fire Code

Code &Com.2 SBC 201-CC SBC 301-CC

CR: Code Requirements without Commentary CC: Code Requirements with Commentary AR: Arabic Code Provisions Under Development

COPYRIGHT © 2018 by The Saudi Building Code National Committee (SBCNC).

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. All intellectual property rights of this Saudi Code is owned by the National Committee of Saudi Building Code as per the Saudi Laws of the intellectual property. No part of this code may be reproduced, distributed or leased in any form or by any means, including but not limited to publishing on cloud sites, computer networks or any electronic means of communication, without prior written permission from the National Committee for the Saudi Building Code. The purchase of an electronic or paper copy does not exempt the individual or entity from complying with the above limitations.

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE (SBC 801): 1

Engr. Nasser M. Al-Dossari

2 3 4 5 6

Engr. Ali A. Al-Mudhei Engr. Ali J. Alshamrani Engr. Mohammed A. Al-Saeefan Engr. Hamad A. Al-Qahtani Engr. Said Y. Ibrahim

Chairman Member Member Member Member Member

REVIEW COMMITTEE: 1

Dr. Naif M. Alabbadi

2 3 4 5

Dr. Khaled M. Aljammaz Dr. Abdulrahman G. Al-enizi Eng. Saeed K. Kadasah Eng. Tawifik I. Aljrayed

Chairman Member Member Member Member

TECHNICAL EDITING COMMITTEE: SAUDI BUILDING CODE NATIONAL COMMITTEE (SBCNC):

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

H. E. Dr. Saad O. AlKasabi Dr. Naif M. Alabbadi Dr. Abdulrahman G. Al-enizi Engr. Saeed K. Kadasah Dr. Hassan S. Alhazmi Engr. Badr S. AL-maayoof Engr. Fayez A. Alghamdi Engr. Mohammed A. Alwaily Dr. Bandar S. Alkahlan Engr. Ahmad N. Hassan Engr. Abdulnasser S. Alabdullatif Dr. Hani M. Zahran Engr. Khalifa S. Alyahyai Dr. Khaled M. Aljammaz Dr. Ibrahim O. Habiballah Dr. Saeed A. Asiri Dr. Abdallah M. Al-Shehri Engr. Saad S. Shuail

Chairman Vice Chairman Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member

1

Prof. Ahmed B. Shuraim

Chairman

2 3

Dr. Abdallah M. Al-Shehri Eng. Tawifik I. Aljrayed

Member Member

EDITORIAL SUPPORT: Dr. Fahed Alrshoudi Dr. Fahid Aslam Engr. Rais Mirza Engr. Rizwan Iqbal Dr. Aun Bashir

Dr. Yassir M. Abbas Dr. Mohammed A. Othman Dr. Mubashir Aziz Engr. Abdullah S. Alghamdi Engr. Sardar Umer Sial

ADVISORY COMMITTEE :

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Dr. Khaled M. Aljammaz Eng. Khalifa S. Alyahyai Dr. Hani M. Zahran Prof. Ali A. Shash Prof. Ahmed B. Shuraim Dr. Khalid M. Wazira Dr. Abdulhameed A. Al Ohaly Dr. Hamza A. Ghulman Engr. Hakam A. Al-Aqily Prof. Saleh F. Magram Engr. Nasser M. Al-Dossari Dr. Waleed H. Khushefati Dr. Waleed M. Abanomi Dr. Fahad S. Al-Lahaim

Chairman Vice Chairman Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member

SBC 801-CR-18

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PREFACE

PREFACE The Saudi Fire Code (SBC 801) provides minimum fire safety requirements for new and existing buildings, facilities, storage and processes. The SBC 801 addresses fire prevention, fire protection, life safety and safe storage and use of hazardous materials in new and existing buildings, facilities and processes. The SBC 801 provides a total approach of controlling hazards in all buildings and sites, regardless of the hazard being indoors or outdoors. Depending on the building’s occupancy and uses, the SBC 801 regulates the various hazards that may be housed within the building, including refrigeration systems, application of flammable finishes, fueling of motor vehicles, high-piled combustible storage and the storage and use of hazardous materials. SBC 801 sets forth minimum requirements for these and other hazards and contains requirements for maintaining the life safety of building occupants, the protection of emergency responders, and to limit the damage to a building and its contents as the result of a fire, explosion or unauthorized hazardous material discharge. 2015 International Fire Code (IFC 2015), published by the International Code Council (ICC), is the base code in the development of this Code. Saudi Building Code National Committee (SBCNC) has made an agreement with the ICC to use their materials and modify them as per the local construction needs and regulatory requirements of Saudi Arabia. The ICC is not responsible or liable in any way to SBCNC or to any other party or entity for any modifications or changes that SBCNC makes to such documents. The writing process of SBC 801-18 followed the methodology approved by the Saudi Building Code National Committee. Many changes and modifications were made in its base code (IFC 2015) to meet the local weather, materials, construction and regulatory requirements. The committees responsible for SBC 801 Code have taken all precautions to avoid ambiguities, omissions, and errors in the document. Despite these efforts, the users of SBC 801 may find information or requirements that may be subject to more than one interpretation or may be incomplete. The SBCNC alone possesses the authority and responsibility for updating, modifying and interpreting the Code. It is a common assumption that engineering knowledge is a prerequisite in understanding code provisions and requirements; thus, the code is oriented towards individuals who possess the background knowledge to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations. They shall be able to determine the applicability of all regulatory limitations before applying the Code and must comply with all applicable laws and regulations. The requirements related to administration and enforcement of this Code are advisory only. SBCNC and governmental organizations, in charge of enforcing this Code, possess the authority to modify these administrative requirements.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I—ADMINISTRATIVE AND DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................... 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION ................................................................................................................... 2 SECTION 101 SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................................................... 2 SECTION 102 APPLICABILITY .............................................................................................................................................. 2 SECTION 103 DEPARTMENT OF FIRE PREVENTION ........................................................................................................... 3 SECTION 104 GENERAL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES ............................................................................................ 4 SECTION 105 PERMITS ...................................................................................................................................................... 6 SECTION 106 INSPECTIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 14 SECTION 107 MAINTENANCE ........................................................................................................................................... 15 SECTION 108 BOARD OF APPEALS................................................................................................................................... 15 SECTION 109 VIOLATIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 16 SECTION 110 UNSAFE BUILDINGS ................................................................................................................................... 16 SECTION 111 STOP WORK ORDER ................................................................................................................................... 17 SECTION 112 SERVICE UTILITIES ..................................................................................................................................... 17 SECTION 113 FEES ........................................................................................................................................................... 17 DEFINITIONS ..............................................................................................................................................23 SECTION 201 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................... 23 SECTION 202 GENERAL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................. 23 PART II—GENERAL SAFETY PROVISIONS ......................................................................................................................66 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .........................................................................................................................67 SECTION 301 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................... 67 SECTION 302 DEFINITIONS.............................................................................................................................................. 67 SECTION 303 ASPHALT KETTLES ...................................................................................................................................... 67 SECTION 304 COMBUSTIBLE WASTE MATERIAL ............................................................................................................. 67 SECTION 305 IGNITION SOURCES ................................................................................................................................... 68 SECTION 306 MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS AND FILM ................................................................................... 68 SECTION 307 OPEN BURNING, RECREATIONAL FIRES AND PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACES ...................................... 69 SECTION 308 OPEN FLAMES ........................................................................................................................................... 69 SECTION 309 POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS AND EQUIPMENT ................................................................................... 71 SECTION 310 SMOKING .................................................................................................................................................. 72 SECTION 311 VACANT PREMISES .................................................................................................................................... 72 SECTION 312 VEHICLE IMPACT PROTECTION .................................................................................................................. 73 SECTION 313 FUELED EQUIPMENT ................................................................................................................................. 74 SECTION 314 INDOOR DISPLAYS ..................................................................................................................................... 74 SECTION 315 GENERAL STORAGE ................................................................................................................................... 74 SECTION 316 HAZARDS TO FIRE FIGHTERS ...................................................................................................................... 75 SECTION 317 ROOFTOP GARDENS AND LANDSCAPED ROOFS ........................................................................................ 76 SECTION 318 LAUNDRY CARTS ........................................................................................................................................ 76 SECTION 319 MOBILE FOOD PREPARATION VEHICLES .............................................................................................................. 76 EMERENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS .............................................................................................81 SECTION 401 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................... 81 SECTION 402 DEFINITIONS.............................................................................................................................................. 81 SECTION 403 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS REQUIREMENTS ......................................................................................... 81 SECTION 404 FIRE SAFETY, EVACUATION AND LOCKDOWN PLANS ................................................................................ 88 SECTION 405 EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILLS ............................................................................................................ 89 SECTION 406 EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND RESPONSE PROCEDURES ................................................................................ 90 SECTION 407 HAZARD COMMUNICATION ...................................................................................................................... 90 PART III—BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN FEATURES ...........................................................................................94 FIRE SERVICE FEATURES.............................................................................................................................95

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TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 501 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................... 95 SECTION 502 DEFINITIONS.............................................................................................................................................. 95 SECTION 503 FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS .............................................................................................................. 95 SECTION 504 ACCESS TO BUILDING OPENINGS AND ROOFS ........................................................................................... 97 SECTION 505 PREMISES IDENTIFICATION ....................................................................................................................... 97 SECTION 506 KEY BOXES ................................................................................................................................................. 97 SECTION 507 FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES ......................................................................................................... 98 SECTION 508 FIRE COMMAND CENTER .......................................................................................................................... 99 SECTION 509 FIRE PROTECTION AND UTILITY EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION AND ACCESS........................................... 100 SECTION 510 EMERGENCY RESPONDER RADIO COVERAGE .......................................................................................... 100 BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS..........................................................................................................107 SECTION 601 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................. 107 SECTION 602 DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................................................ 107 SECTION 603 FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES ......................................................................................................................... 107 SECTION 604 EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS ....................................................................................... 110 SECTION 605 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, WIRING AND HAZARDS .................................................................................. 113 SECTION 606 MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION ................................................................................................................ 115 SECTION 607 ELEVATOR OPERATION, MAINTENANCE AND FIRE SERVICE KEYS ........................................................... 118 SECTION 608 STATIONARY STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEMS ............................................................................................. 119 SECTION 609 COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOODS .............................................................................................................. 121 SECTION 610 COMMERCIAL KITCHEN COOKING OIL STORAGE..................................................................................... 122 SECTION 611 HYPERBARIC FACILITIES ........................................................................................................................... 122 FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES...............................................................................................126 SECTION 701 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................. 126 SECTION 702 DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................................................ 126 SECTION 703 FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION .............................................................................................. 126 SECTION 704 FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS ............................................................................................................... 127 INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS ..............................................................130 SECTION 801 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................. 130 SECTION 802 DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................................................ 130 SECTION 803 INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH AND TRIM IN EXISTING BUILDINGS ............................................... 130 SECTION 804 INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING TRIM AND INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS .. 132 SECTION 805 UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS ................................ 133 SECTION 806 DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS ............................................................... 136 SECTION 807 DECORATIVE MATERIALS OTHER THAN DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 137 SECTION 808 FURNISHINGS OTHER THAN UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES OR DECORATIVE MATERIALS IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS................................................................................................................................ 139 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS .....................................................................................................................143 SECTION 901 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................. 143 SECTION 902 DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................................................ 145 SECTION 903 AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS........................................................................................................... 146 SECTION 904 ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS ................................................................... 153 SECTION 905 STANDPIPE SYSTEMS ............................................................................................................................... 157 SECTION 906 PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ............................................................................................................. 160 SECTION 907 FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS .................................................................................................. 162 SECTION 908 EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS ................................................................................................................ 176 SECTION 909 SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 176 SECTION 910 SMOKE AND HEAT REMOVAL .................................................................................................................. 185 SECTION 911 EXPLOSION CONTROL ............................................................................................................................. 187 SECTION 912 FIRE DEPARTMENT (CIVIL DEFENSE) CONNECTIONS .............................................................................. 187 SECTION 913 FIRE PUMPS ............................................................................................................................................. 188 SECTION 914 FIRE PROTECTION BASED ON SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS OF USE AND OCCUPANCY ................ 189 SECTION 915 CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTION ............................................................................................................ 193

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TABLE OF CONTENTS MEANS OF EGRESS ................................................................................................................................206 SECTION 1001 ADMINISTRATION ................................................................................................................................. 206 SECTION 1002 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 206 SECTION 1003 GENERAL MEANS OF EGRESS ................................................................................................................ 207 SECTION 1004 OCCUPANT LOAD .................................................................................................................................. 208 SECTION 1005 MEANS OF EGRESS SIZING ..................................................................................................................... 209 SECTION 1006 NUMBER OF EXITS AND EXIT ACCESS DOORWAYS ................................................................................ 210 SECTION 1007 EXIT AND EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY CONFIGURATION ............................................................................ 212 SECTION 1008 MEANS OF EGRESS ILLUMINATION ....................................................................................................... 213 SECTION 1009 ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS............................................................................................................. 214 SECTION 1010 DOORS, GATES AND TURNSTILES .......................................................................................................... 217 SECTION 1011 STAIRWAYS ........................................................................................................................................... 225 SECTION 1012 RAMPS .................................................................................................................................................... 230 SECTION 1013 EXIT SIGNS ............................................................................................................................................... 231 SECTION 1014 HANDRAILS ............................................................................................................................................... 232 SECTION 1015 GUARDS ................................................................................................................................................... 234 SECTION 1016 EXIT ACCESS ............................................................................................................................................. 236 SECTION 1017 EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE .................................................................................................................... 236 SECTION 1018 AISLES ..................................................................................................................................................... 237 SECTION 1019 EXIT ACCESS STAIRWAYS AND RAMPS ............................................................................................................ 237 SECTION 1020 CORRIDORS............................................................................................................................................... 238 SECTION 1021 EGRESS BALCONIES .................................................................................................................................... 239 SECTION 1022 EXITS ....................................................................................................................................................... 240 SECTION 1023 INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAYS AND RAMPS .......................................................................................................... 240 SECTION 1024 EXIT PASSAGEWAYS .................................................................................................................................... 242 SECTION 1025 LUMINOUS EGRESS PATH MARKINGS ............................................................................................................. 243 SECTION 1026 HORIZONTAL EXITS ..................................................................................................................................... 245 SECTION 1027 EXTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAYS AND RAMPS ......................................................................................................... 246 SECTION 1028 EXIT DISCHARGE ........................................................................................................................................ 247 SECTION 1029 ASSEMBLY ................................................................................................................................................ 248 SECTION 1030 EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE ................................................................................................................. 255 SECTION 1031 MAINTENANCE OF THE MEANS OF EGRESS........................................................................................... 256 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS..................................................................269 SECTION 1101 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 269 SECTION 1102 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 269 SECTION 1103 FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS ....................................................................... 269 SECTION 1104 MEANS OF EGRESS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS ....................................................................................... 276 SECTION 1105 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING GROUP I-2 ................................................................. 281 SECTION 1106 REQUIREMENTS FOR OUTDOOR OPERATIONS ..................................................................................... 284 PART III—RESERVED FOR FUTURE USE.......................................................................................................................291 INDEX ........................................................................................................................................................................294 PART IV—SPECIAL OCCUPANCIES AND OPERATIONS .................................................................................................343 AVIATION FACILITIES .............................................................................................................................344 SECTION 2001 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 344 SECTION 2002 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 344 SECTION 2003 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS ....................................................................................................................... 344 SECTION 2004 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ..................................................................................................................... 344 SECTION 2005 PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ........................................................................................................... 345 SECTION 2006 AIRCRAFT FUELING ................................................................................................................................ 346 SECTION 2007 HELISTOPS AND HELIPORTS................................................................................................................... 351 DRY CLEANING .......................................................................................................................................355 SECTION 2101 GENERAL .................................................................................................................................................. 355

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TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 2102 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 355 SECTION 2103 CLASSIFICATIONS .................................................................................................................................. 355 SECTION 2104 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 355 SECTION 2105 OPERATING REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................ 356 SECTION 2106 SPOTTING AND PRETREATING............................................................................................................... 357 SECTION 2107 DRY CLEANING SYSTEMS ....................................................................................................................... 357 SECTION 2108 FIRE PROTECTION .................................................................................................................................. 358 COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING OPERATIONS ....................................................................................360 SECTION 2201 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 360 SECTION 2202 DEFINITION ........................................................................................................................................... 360 SECTION 2203 PRECAUTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 360 SECTION 2204 EXPLOSION PROTECTION ...................................................................................................................... 360 MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES ...............................................................364 SECTION 2301 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 364 SECTION 2302 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 364 SECTION 2303 LOCATION OF DISPENSING DEVICES ...................................................................................................... 364 SECTION 2304 DISPENSING OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................................... 365 SECTION 2305 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................................ 366 SECTION 2306 FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES ................................. 367 SECTION 2307 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES..................................................... 372 SECTION 2308 COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES .................................................... 374 SECTION 2309 HYDROGEN MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING AND GENERATION FACILITIES ................................................. 375 SECTION 2310 MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES..................................................................................... 378 SECTION 2311 REPAIR GARAGES .................................................................................................................................. 380 FLAMMABLE FINISHES ...........................................................................................................................386 SECTION 2401 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 386 SECTION 2402 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 386 SECTION 2403 PROTECTION OF OPERATIONS .............................................................................................................. 386 SECTION 2404 SPRAY FINISHING .................................................................................................................................. 388 SECTION 2405 DIPPING OPERATIONS ........................................................................................................................... 393 SECTION 2406 POWDER COATING ................................................................................................................................ 395 SECTION 2407 ELECTROSTATIC APPARATUS................................................................................................................. 396 SECTION 2408 ORGANIC PEROXIDES AND DUAL-COMPONENT COATINGS .................................................................. 397 SECTION 2409 INDOOR MANUFACTURING OF REINFORCED PLASTICS ........................................................................ 397 SECTION 2410 FLOOR SURFACING AND FINISHING OPERATIONS................................................................................. 398 FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING ...................................................................................................................402 SECTION 2501 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 402 SECTION 2502 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 402 SECTION 2503 ETHYLENE GAS....................................................................................................................................... 402 SECTION 2504 SOURCES OF IGNITION .......................................................................................................................... 402 SECTION 2505 COMBUSTIBLE WASTE ........................................................................................................................... 402 SECTION 2506 ETHYLENE GENERATORS ....................................................................................................................... 402 SECTION 2507 WARNING SIGNS ................................................................................................................................... 403 FUMIGATION AND INSECTICIDAL FOGGING ...........................................................................................406 SECTION 2601 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 406 SECTION 2602 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 406 SECTION 2603 FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................ 406 SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES ..........................................................................................410 SECTION 2701 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 410 SECTION 2702 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 410 SECTION 2703 GENERAL SAFETY PROVISIONS .............................................................................................................. 410

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TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 2704 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 415 SECTION 2705 USE AND HANDLING .............................................................................................................................. 416 LUMBER YARDS AND AGRO-INDUSTRIAL, SOLID BIOMASS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES...............424 SECTION 2801 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 424 SECTION 2802 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 424 SECTION 2803 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 424 SECTION 2804 FIRE PROTECTION .................................................................................................................................. 425 SECTION 2805 PLYWOOD, VENEER AND COMPOSITE BOARD MILLS ............................................................................ 425 SECTION 2806 LOG STORAGE AREAS ............................................................................................................................ 425 SECTION 2807 STORAGE OF WOOD CHIPS AND HOGGED MATERIAL ASSOCIATED WITH TIMBER AND LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES .............................................................................................................................................. 425 SECTION 2808 STORAGE AND PROCESSING OF WOOD CHIPS, HOGGED MATERIAL, FINES, COMPOST, SOLID BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK AND RAW PRODUCT ASSOCIATED WITH YARD WASTE, AGRO-INDUSTRIAL AND RECYCLING FACILITIES . 426 SECTION 2809 EXTERIOR STORAGE OF FINISHED LUMBER AND SOLID BIOFUEL PRODUCTS ........................................ 427 MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS ...............................................................................................430 SECTION 2901 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 430 SECTION 2902 DEFINITION ........................................................................................................................................... 430 SECTION 2903 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS ....................................................................................................................... 430 SECTION 2904 SECTION 2904 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND PROTECTION ................................................................. 430 SECTION 2905 PROCESS STRUCTURES .......................................................................................................................... 431 SECTION 2906 PROCESS MILLS AND KETTLES ............................................................................................................... 431 SECTION 2907 PROCESS PIPING .................................................................................................................................... 432 SECTION 2908 RAW MATERIALS IN PROCESS AREAS .................................................................................................... 432 SECTION 2909 RAW MATERIALS AND FINISHED PRODUCTS ......................................................................................... 432 INDUSTRIAL OVENS ...............................................................................................................................436 SECTION 3001 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 436 SECTION 3002 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 436 SECTION 3003 LOCATION ............................................................................................................................................. 436 SECTION 3004 FUEL PIPING .......................................................................................................................................... 436 SECTION 3005 INTERLOCKS .......................................................................................................................................... 436 SECTION 3006 FIRE PROTECTION .................................................................................................................................. 436 SECTION 3007 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE .......................................................................................................... 437 TENTS AND OTHER MEMBRANE STRUCTURES .......................................................................................440 SECTION 3101 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 440 SECTION 3102 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 440 SECTION 3103 TEMPORARY TENTS AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES ............................................................................. 440 SECTION 3104 TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT TENTS AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES ............................................... 443 SECTION 3105 TEMPORARY STAGE CANOPIES ............................................................................................................. 445 HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE ....................................................................................................449 SECTION 3201 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 449 SECTION 3202 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 449 SECTION 3203 COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION .............................................................................................................. 450 SECTION 3204 DESIGNATION OF HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREAS .................................................................................... 452 SECTION 3205 HOUSEKEEPING AND MAINTENANCE ................................................................................................... 453 SECTION 3206 GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY FEATURES ..................................................................... 453 SECTION 3207 SOLID-PILED AND SHELF STORAGE ........................................................................................................ 455 SECTION 3208 RACK STORAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 455 SECTION 3209 AUTOMATED STORAGE ......................................................................................................................... 456 SECTION 3210 SPECIALTY STORAGE ............................................................................................................................. 456 FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION .....................................................................462 SECTION 3301 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 462

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TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 3302 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 462 SECTION 3303 TEMPORARY HEATING EQUIPMENT...................................................................................................... 462 SECTION 3304 PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE ................................................................................................................ 462 SECTION 3305 FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS ............................................................................................ 463 SECTION 3306 FLAMMABLE GASES............................................................................................................................... 463 SECTION 3307 EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS .......................................................................................................................... 463 SECTION 3308 OWNER’S RESPONSIBILITY FOR FIRE PROTECTION................................................................................ 464 SECTION 3309 FIRE REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 464 SECTION 3310 ACCESS FOR FIRE FIGHTING ................................................................................................................... 464 SECTION 3311 MEANS OF EGRESS ................................................................................................................................ 464 SECTION 3312 WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION ................................................................................................. 464 SECTION 3313 STANDPIPES .......................................................................................................................................... 464 SECTION 3314 AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM .......................................................................................................... 465 SECTION 3315 PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ........................................................................................................... 465 SECTION 3316 MOTORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................... 465 SECTION 3317 SAFEGUARDING ROOFING OPERATIONS ............................................................................................... 465 TIRE REBUILDING AND TIRE STORAGE ...................................................................................................468 SECTION 3401 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 468 SECTION 3402 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 468 SECTION 3403 TIRE REBUILDING .................................................................................................................................. 468 SECTION 3404 PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE ................................................................................................................ 468 SECTION 3405 OUTDOOR STORAGE ............................................................................................................................. 468 SECTION 3406 FIRE DEPARTMENT (CIVIL DEFENSE) ACCESS ........................................................................................ 469 SECTION 3407 FENCING ................................................................................................................................................ 469 SECTION 3408 FIRE PROTECTION .................................................................................................................................. 469 SECTION 3409 INDOOR STORAGE ARRANGEMENT ...................................................................................................... 469 WELDING AND OTHER HOT WORK ........................................................................................................472 SECTION 3501 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 472 SECTION 3502 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 472 SECTION 3503 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 472 SECTION 3504 FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................ 473 SECTION 3505 GAS WELDING AND CUTTING ................................................................................................................ 474 SECTION 3506 ELECTRIC ARC HOT WORK ..................................................................................................................... 475 SECTION 3507 CALCIUM CARBIDE SYSTEMS ................................................................................................................. 475 SECTION 3508 ACETYLENE GENERATORS ..................................................................................................................... 475 SECTION 3509 PIPING MANIFOLDS AND HOSE SYSTEMS FOR FUEL GASES AND OXYGEN ............................................ 475 SECTION 3510 HOT WORK ON FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID STORAGE TANKS .......................................... 476 MARINAS ...............................................................................................................................................479 SECTION 3601 SCOPE .................................................................................................................................................... 479 SECTION 3602 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 479 SECTION 3603 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS ....................................................................................................................... 479 SECTION 3604 FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................................. 479 SECTION 3605 MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES..................................................................................... 480 COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS ............................................................................................................................483 SECTION 3701 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 483 SECTION 3702 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 483 SECTION 3703 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS ....................................................................................................................... 483 SECTION 3704 LOOSE FIBER STORAGE .......................................................................................................................... 483 SECTION 3705 BALED STORAGE .................................................................................................................................... 484 PART IV—RESERVED FOR FUTURE USE ......................................................................................................................487 PART V—HAZARDOUS MATERIALS ............................................................................................................................489

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PART V—HAZARDOUS MATERIALS ............................................................................................................................489 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS—GENERAL PROVISIONS ................................................................................490 SECTION 5001 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 490 SECTION 5002 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 493 SECTION 5003 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 494 SECTION 5004 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 502 SECTION 5005 USE, DISPENSING AND HANDLING ........................................................................................................ 505 AEROSOLS .............................................................................................................................................523 SECTION 5101 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 523 SECTION 5102 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 523 SECTION 5103 CLASSIFICATION OF AEROSOL PRODUCTS ............................................................................................. 523 SECTION 5104 INSIDE STORAGE OF AEROSOL PRODUCTS ............................................................................................ 523 SECTION 5105 OUTSIDE STORAGE ................................................................................................................................ 525 SECTION 5106 RETAIL DISPLAY ..................................................................................................................................... 525 SECTION 5107 MANUFACTURING FACILITIES ............................................................................................................... 527 RESERVED ..............................................................................................................................................533 COMPRESSED GASES .............................................................................................................................534 SECTION 5301 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 534 SECTION 5302 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 534 SECTION 5303 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 534 SECTION 5304 STORAGE OF COMPRESSED GASES ........................................................................................................ 538 SECTION 5305 USE AND HANDLING OF COMPRESSED GASES ...................................................................................... 539 SECTION 5306 MEDICAL GASES .................................................................................................................................... 540 SECTION 5307 CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) SYSTEMS USED IN BEVERAGE DISPENSING APPLICATIONS ............................. 540 SECTION 5308 COMPRESSED GASES NOT OTHERWISE REGULATED ............................................................................. 541 CORROSIVE MATERIALS .........................................................................................................................544 SECTION 5401 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 544 SECTION 5402 DEFINITION ........................................................................................................................................... 544 SECTION 5403 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 544 SECTION 5404 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 544 SECTION 5405 USE ........................................................................................................................................................ 544 CRYOGENIC FLUIDS ................................................................................................................................547 SECTION 5501 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 547 SECTION 5502 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 547 SECTION 5503 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 547 SECTION 5504 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 549 SECTION 5505 USE AND HANDLING .............................................................................................................................. 550 EXPLOSIVES AND FIREWORKS................................................................................................................556 SECTION 5601 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 556 SECTION 5602 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 559 SECTION 5603 RECORD KEEPING AND REPORTING ...................................................................................................... 559 SECTION 5604 EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS STORAGE AND HANDLING ............................................................................... 560 SECTION 5605 MANUFACTURE, ASSEMBLY AND TESTING OF EXPLOSIVES, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS AND FIREWORKS 563 SECTION 5606 SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION AND SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION COMPONENTS ................................... 566 SECTION 5607 BLASTING .............................................................................................................................................. 568 SECTION 5608 FIREWORKS DISPLAY ............................................................................................................................. 569 SECTION 5609 TEMPORARY STORAGE OF CONSUMER FIREWORKS ............................................................................. 570 FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS ............................................................................................579 SECTION 5701 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 579

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TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 5702 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 579 SECTION 5703 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 580 SECTION 5704 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 582 SECTION 5705 DISPENSING, USE, MIXING AND HANDLING .......................................................................................... 599 SECTION 5706 SPECIAL OPERATIONS ............................................................................................................................ 604 FLAMMABLE GASES AND FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUIDS ...................................................................630 SECTION 5801 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 630 SECTION 5802 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 630 SECTION 5803 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 630 SECTION 5804 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 631 SECTION 5805 USE ........................................................................................................................................................ 631 SECTION 5806 FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUIDS .......................................................................................................... 631 SECTION 5807 METAL HYDRIDE STORAGE SYSTEMS..................................................................................................... 633 SECTION 5808 HYDROGEN FUEL GAS ROOMS .............................................................................................................. 634 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS ..............................................................................................................................638 SECTION 5901 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 638 SECTION 5902 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 638 SECTION 5903 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 638 SECTION 5904 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 638 SECTION 5905 USE ........................................................................................................................................................ 638 SECTION 5906 MAGNESIUM ......................................................................................................................................... 638 HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC MATERIALS ..................................................................................................643 SECTION 6001 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 643 SECTION 6002 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 643 SECTION 6003 HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS ................................................................................... 643 SECTION 6004 HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC COMPRESSED GASES ................................................................................... 644 SECTION 6005 OZONE GAS GENERATORS ..................................................................................................................... 649 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES ..............................................................................................................654 SECTION 6101 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 654 SECTION 6102 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 654 SECTION 6103 INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................................. 654 SECTION 6104 LOCATION OF LP-GAS CONTAINERS ...................................................................................................... 655 SECTION 6105 PROHIBITED USE OF LP-GAS .................................................................................................................. 655 SECTION 6106 DISPENSING AND OVERFILLING ............................................................................................................. 656 SECTION 6107 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND DEVICES .................................................................................................... 656 SECTION 6108 FIRE PROTECTION .................................................................................................................................. 656 SECTION 6109 STORAGE OF PORTABLE LP-GAS CONTAINERS AWAITING USE OR RESALE ........................................... 656 SECTION 6110 LP-GAS CONTAINERS NOT IN SERVICE ................................................................................................... 658 SECTION 6111 PARKING AND GARAGING OF LP-GAS TANK VEHICLES .......................................................................... 658 ORGANIC PEROXIDES ............................................................................................................................664 SECTION 6201 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 664 SECTION 6202 DEFINITION ........................................................................................................................................... 664 SECTION 6203 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 664 SECTION 6204 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 664 SECTION 6205 USE ........................................................................................................................................................ 666 OXIDIZERS, OXIDIZING GASES AND OXIDIZING CRYOGENIC FLUIDS .......................................................670 SECTION 6301 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 670 SECTION 6302 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 670 SECTION 6303 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 670 SECTION 6304 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 671 SECTION 6305 USE ........................................................................................................................................................ 672

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TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 6306 LIQUID OXYGEN IN HOME HEALTH CARE .............................................................................................. 672 PYROPHORIC MATERIALS ......................................................................................................................679 SECTION 6401 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 679 SECTION 6402 DEFINITION ........................................................................................................................................... 679 SECTION 6403 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 679 SECTION 6404 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 679 SECTION 6405 USE ........................................................................................................................................................ 680 PYROXYLIN (CELLULOSE NITRATE) PLASTICS ..........................................................................................684 SECTION 6501 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 684 SECTION 6502 DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 684 SECTION 6503 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 684 SECTION 6504 STORAGE AND HANDLING ..................................................................................................................... 684 UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIALS ........................................................................................................688 SECTION 6601 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 688 SECTION 6602 DEFINITION ........................................................................................................................................... 688 SECTION 6603 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 688 SECTION 6604 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 689 SECTION 6605 USE ........................................................................................................................................................ 689 WATER-REACTIVE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS ................................................................................................692 SECTION 6701 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 692 SECTION 6702 DEFINITION ........................................................................................................................................... 692 SECTION 6703 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 692 SECTION 6704 STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... 692 SECTION 6705 USE ........................................................................................................................................................ 693 PART V—RESERVED FOR FUTURE USE .......................................................................................................................696 PART VI—REFERENCED STANDARDS ..........................................................................................................................699 REFERENCED STANDARDS .....................................................................................................................700 PART VII—APPENDICES .............................................................................................................................................717 APPENDIX A. A101

GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................................... 718

APPENDIX B. B101 B102 B103 B104 B105 B106

FIRE HYDRANT LOCATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION ...............................................................................727

GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................................... 727 NUMBER OF FIRE HYDRANTS ........................................................................................................................... 727 FIRE HYDRANT SPACING .................................................................................................................................. 727 CONSIDERATION OF EXISTING FIRE HYDRANTS ............................................................................................... 727 REFERENCED STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................... 727

APPENDIX D. D101 D102 D103

FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDINGS ....................................................................................721

GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................................... 721 DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................................................... 721 MODIFICATIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 721 FIRE-FLOW CALCULATION AREA ...................................................................................................................... 721 FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDINGS .................................................................................................. 721 REFERENCED STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................... 721

APPENDIX C. C101 C102 C103 C104 C105

BOARD OF APPEALS ..........................................................................................................................718

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS ......................................................................................................731

GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................................... 731 REQUIRED ACCESS ........................................................................................................................................... 731 MINIMUM SPECIFICATIONS............................................................................................................................. 731

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TABLE OF CONTENTS D104 D105 D106 D107 D108

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS .......................................................................................... 732 AERIAL FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS......................................................................................................... 732 MULTIPLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS .......................................................................................... 732 ONEOR TWO-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS ...................................................................................... 732 REFERENCED STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................... 733

APPENDIX E. E101 E102 E103 E104

HAZARD CATEGORIES .......................................................................................................................738

GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................................... 738 HAZARD CATEGORIES ...................................................................................................................................... 738 EVALUATION OF HAZARDS .............................................................................................................................. 742 REFERENCED STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................... 743

APPENDIX F. F101 F102

HAZARD RANKING ............................................................................................................................745

GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................................... 745 REFERENCED STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................... 745

APPENDIX G. G101

CRYOGENIC FLUIDS WEIGHT AND VOLUME EQUIVALENTS ...............................................................748

GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................................... 748

APPENDIX H. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PLAN (HMMP) AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INVENTORY STATEMENT (HMIS) INSTRUCTIONS ...........................................................................................................................750 H101 H102 H103 H104

HMMP ............................................................................................................................................................. 750 HMIS ................................................................................................................................................................ 750 EMERGENCY PLAN ........................................................................................................................................... 751 REFERENCED STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................... 751

APPENDIX I. I101 I102

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS— NONCOMPLIANT CONDITIONS ..........................................................759

NONCOMPLIANT CONDITIONS ........................................................................................................................ 759 REFERENCED STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................... 760

APPENDIX J. J101 J102

BUILDING INFORMATION SIGNS .......................................................................................................762

GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................................... 762 REFERENCED STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................... 764

APPENDIX K. K101 K102 K103 K104 K105

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING AMBULATORY CARE FACILITIES .............................767

GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................................... 767 FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING AMBULATORY CARE FACILITIES ................................................. 767 INCIDENTAL USES IN EXISTING AMBULATORY CARE FACILITIES ...................................................................... 768 MEANS OF EGRESS REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING AMBULATORY CARE FACILITIES ....................................... 768 REFERENCED STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................... 769

APPENDIX L. L101 L102 L103 L104 L105 L106 L107

REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE FIGHTER AIR REPLENISHMENT SYSTEMS .................................................772

GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................................... 772 DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................................................... 772 PERMITS .......................................................................................................................................................... 772 DESIGN AND INSTALLATION ............................................................................................................................ 772 ACCEPTANCE TESTS ......................................................................................................................................... 774 INSPECTION, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE .................................................................................................... 775 REFERENCED STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................... 775

APPENDIX M. M101 M102 M103 M104

HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS—RETROACTIVE AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER REQUIREMENT ...........................778

SCOPE .......................................................................................................................................................... 778 WHERE REQUIRED ....................................................................................................................................... 778 COMPLIANCE............................................................................................................................................... 778 REFERENCED STANDARD ............................................................................................................................. 778

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Part I—Administrative and definitions

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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION

PART 1—GENERAL PROVISIONS

SECTION 101 SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Saudi Fire Code for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, hereinafter referred to as this code and designated as SBC 801. 101.2 Scope. This code establishes regulations affecting or relating to structures, processes, premises and safeguards regarding all of the following: 1. The hazard of fire and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of structures, materials or devices. 2. Conditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy of structures or premises. 3. Fire hazards in the structure or on the premises from occupancy or operation. 4. Matters related to the construction, extension, repair, alteration or removal of fire suppression or alarm systems.

101.5 Validity. In the event any part or provision of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provisions hereof, which are determined to be legal; and it shall be presumed that this code would have been adopted without such illegal or invalid parts or provisions.

SECTION 102 APPLICABILITY 102.1 Construction and design provisions. The construction and design provisions of this code shall apply to: 1. Structures, facilities and conditions arising after the adoption of this code. 2. Existing structures, facilities and conditions not legally in existence at the time of adoption of this code. 3. Existing structures, facilities and conditions where required in Chapter 11. 4. Existing structures, facilities and conditions that, in the opinion of the fire code official, constitute a distinct hazard to life or property.

5. Conditions affecting the safety of fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

102.2 Administrative, operational and maintenance provisions. The administrative, operational and maintenance provisions of this code shall apply to:

101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically adopted.

1. Conditions and operations arising after the adoption of this code.

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements consistent with nationally recognized good practice for providing a reasonable level of life safety and property protection from the hazards of fire, explosion or dangerous conditions in new and existing buildings, structures and premises, and to provide a reasonable level of safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

2. Existing conditions and operations.

101.4 Severability. If a section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this code is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this code.

102.3 Change of use or occupancy. Changes shall not be made in the use or occupancy of any structure that would place the structure in a different division of the same group or occupancy or in a different group of occupancies, unless such structure is made to comply with the requirements of this code and the SBC 201. Subject to the approval of the fire code official, the use or occupancy of an existing structure shall be allowed to be changed and the structure is allowed to be occupied for purposes in other groups without conforming to all of the requirements of this code and the SBC 201 for those groups, provided the new or proposed use is less hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than the existing use.

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102.4 Application of building code. The design and construction of new structures shall comply with the SBC 201 and any alterations, additions, changes in use or changes in structures required by this code, which are within the scope of the SBC 201, shall be made in accordance therewith. 102.5 Application of residential code. Where structures are designed and constructed in accordance with the SBC 1101, the provisions of this code shall apply as follows: 1. Construction and design provisions of this code pertaining to the exterior of the structure shall apply including, but not limited to, premises identification, fire apparatus access and water supplies. Where interior or exterior systems or devices are installed, construction permits required by Section 105.7 of this code shall apply. 2. Administrative, operational and maintenance provisions of this code shall apply. 102.6 Historic buildings. The provisions of this code relating to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, relocation or moving of buildings or structures shall not be mandatory for existing buildings or structures identified and classified by the government-body-in-charge as historic buildings where such buildings or structures do not constitute a distinct hazard to life or property. Fire protection in designated historic buildings shall be provided with an approved fire protection plan as required in Section 1103.1.1. 102.7 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed in Chapter 80, and such codes and standards shall be considered to be part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference and as further regulated in Sections 102.7.1 and 102.7.2. 102.7.1 Conflicts. Where conflicts occur between provisions of this code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this code shall apply. 102.7.2 Pr ovisions in referenced codes and standar ds. Where the extent of the reference to a referenced code or standard includes subject matter that is within the scope of this code, the provisions of this code, as applicable, shall take precedence over the provisions in the referenced code or standard. 102.8 Subjects not regulated by this code. Where applicable standards or requirements are not set forth in this code, or are contained within other

laws, codes, regulations, ordinances or by laws adopted by the jurisdiction, compliance with applicable standards of the National Fire Protection Association or other nationally recognized fire safety standards, as approved, shall be deemed as prima facie evidence of compliance with the intent of this code. Nothing herein shall derogate from the authority of the fire code official to determine compliance with codes or standards for those activities or installations within the fire code official’s jurisdiction or responsibility. 102.9 Matters not provided for. Requirements that are essential for the public safety of an existing or proposed activity, building or structure, or for the safety of the occupants thereof, that are not specifically provided for by this code, shall be determined by the fire code official. 102.10 Conflicting provisions. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable. Where, in a specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. 102.11 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions of government law. 102.12 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

PART 2—ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

SECTION 103 DEPARTMENT OF FIRE PREVENTION 103.1 General. The department of fire prevention is established within the jurisdiction under the direction of the fire code official. The function of the department shall be the implementation, administration and enforcement of the provisions of this code. 103.2 Appointment. The fire code official shall be appointed by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction; and the fire code official shall not be removed from office except for cause and after full opportunity to be heard on specific and relevant charges by and before the appointing authority.

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103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing authority, the fire code official shall have the authority to appoint a deputy fire code official, other related technical officers, inspectors and other employees. 103.4 Liability. The fire code official, member of the board of appeals, officer or employee charged with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction, in good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered civilly or criminally liable personally, and is hereby relieved from all personal liability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of an act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official duties. 103.4.1 Legal defense. Any suit or criminal complaint instituted against any officer or employee because of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall be defended by the legal representatives of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. The fire code official or any subordinate shall not be liable for costs in an action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code; and any officer of the department of fire prevention, acting in good faith and without malice, shall be free from liability for acts performed under any of its provisions or by reason of any act or omission in the performance of official duties in connection therewith.

SECTION 104 GENERAL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES 104.1 General. The fire code official is hereby authorized to enforce the provisions of this code and shall have the authority to render interpretations of this code, and to adopt policies, procedures, rules and regulations in order to clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies, procedures, rules and regulations shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code and shall not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this code. 104.2 Applications and permits. The fire code official is authorized to receive applications, review construction documents and issue permits for construction regulated by this code, issue permits for operations regulated by this code, inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued

and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code. 104.3 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the fire code official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a building or upon any premises any conditions or violations of this code that make the building or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the fire code official shall have the authority to enter the building or premises at all reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed upon the fire code official by this code. If such building or premises is occupied, the fire code official shall present credentials to the occupant and request entry. If such building or premises is unoccupied, the fire code official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner, the owner’s authorized agent or other person having charge or control of the building or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the fire code official has recourse to every remedy provided by law to secure entry. 104.3.1 War r ant. Where the fire code official has first obtained a proper inspection warrant or other remedy provided by law to secure entry, an owner, the owner’s authorized agent or occupant or person having charge, care or control of the building or premises shall not fail or neglect, after proper request is made as herein provided, to permit entry therein by the fire code official for the purpose of inspection and examination pursuant to this code. 104.4 Identification. The fire code official shall carry proper identification when inspecting structures or premises in the performance of duties under this code. 104.5 Notices and orders. The fire code official is authorized to issue such notices or orders as are required to affect compliance with this code in accordance with Sections 109.1 and 109.2. 104.6 Official records. The fire code official shall keep official records as required by Sections 104.6.1 through 104.6.4. Such official records shall be retained for not less than 5 years or for as long as the structure or activity to which such records relate remains in existence, unless otherwise provided by other regulations. 104.6.1 Appr ovals. A record of approvals shall be maintained by the fire code official and shall be available for public inspection during business hours in accordance with applicable laws.

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104.6.2 Inspections. The fire code official shall keep a record of each inspection made, including notices and orders issued, showing the findings and disposition of each. 104.6.3 Fire recor ds. The fire department (Civil Defense) shall keep a record of fires occurring within its jurisdiction and of facts concerning the same, including statistics as to the extent of such fires and the damage caused thereby, together with other information as required by the fire code official. 104.6.4 Administr ative. Application for modification, alternative methods or materials and the final decision of the fire code official shall be in writing and shall be officially recorded in the permanent records of the fire code official. 104.7 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equipment and devices approved by the fire code official shall be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 104.7.1 Material and equipment reuse. Materials, equipment and devices shall not be reused or reinstalled unless such elements have been reconditioned, tested and placed in good and proper working condition and approved. 104.7.2 Technical assistance. To determine the acceptability of technologies, processes, products, facilities, materials and uses attending the design, operation or use of a building or premises subject to inspection by the fire code official, the fire code official is authorized to require the owner or owner’s authorized agent to provide, without charge to the jurisdiction, a technical opinion and report. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified engineer, specialist, laboratory or fire safety specialty organization acceptable to the fire code official and shall analyze the fire safety properties of the design, operation or use of the building or premises and the facilities and appurtenances situated thereon, to recommend necessary changes. The fire code official is authorized to require design submittals to be prepared by, and bear the stamp of, a registered design professional.

104.8 Modifications. Where there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the fire code official shall have the authority to grant modifications for individual cases, provided the fire code official shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements. The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded and

entered in the files of the department of fire prevention. 104.9 Alternative materials and methods. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. The fire code official is authorized to approve an alternative material or method of construction where the fire code official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. Where the alternative material, design or method of construction is not approved, the fire code official shall respond in writing, stating the reasons why the alternative was not approved. 104.9.1 Resear ch repor ts. Supporting data, where necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources. 104.9.2 Tests. Where there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative materials or methods, the fire code official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the fire code official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the fire code official for the period required for retention of public records. 104.10 Fire investigations. The fire code official, the fire department (Civil Defense) or other responsible authority shall have the authority to investigate the cause, origin and circ*mstances of any fire, explosion or other hazardous condition. Information that could be related to trade secrets or processes shall not be made part of the public record, except as directed by a court of law. 104.10.1 Assistance from other agencies. Police and other enforcement agencies shall have

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authority to render necessary assistance in the investigation of fires when requested to do so. 104.11 Authority at fires and other emergencies. The fire chief or officer of the fire department (Civil Defense) in charge at the scene of a fire or other emergency involving the protection of life or property, or any part thereof, shall have the authority to direct such operation as necessary to extinguish or control any fire, perform any rescue operation, investigate the existence of suspected or reported fires, gas leaks or other hazardous conditions or situations, or take any other action necessary in the reasonable performance of duty. In the exercise of such power, the fire chief is authorized to prohibit any person, vehicle, vessel or thing from approaching the scene, and is authorized to remove, or cause to be removed or kept away from the scene, any vehicle, vessel or thing that could impede or interfere with the operations of the fire department (Civil Defense) and, in the judgment of the fire chief, any person not actually and usefully employed in the extinguishing of such fire or in the preservation of property in the vicinity thereof. 104.11.1 Bar ricades. The fire chief or officer of the fire department (Civil Defense) in charge at the scene of an emergency is authorized to place ropes, guards, barricades or other obstructions across any street, alley, place or private property in the vicinity of such operation so as to prevent accidents or interference with the lawful efforts of the fire department (Civil Defense) to manage and control the situation and to handle fire apparatus. 104.11.2 Obstr ucting oper ations. Persons shall not obstruct the operations of the fire department (Civil Defense) in connection with extinguishment or control of any fire, or actions relative to other emergencies, or disobey any lawful command of the fire chief or officer of the fire department (Civil Defense) in charge of the emergency, or any part thereof, or any lawful order of a police officer assisting the fire department. 104.11.3 Systems and devices. Persons shall not render a system or device inoperative during an emergency unless by direction of the fire chief or fire department (Civil Defense) official in charge of the incident.

SECTION 105 PERMITS 105.1 General. Permits shall be in accordance with Sections 105.1.1 through 105.7.18.

105.1.1 Per mits required. A property owner or owner’s authorized agent who intends to conduct an operation or business, or install or modify systems and equipment that are regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be performed, shall first make application to the fire code official and obtain the required permit. 105.1.2 Types of per mits. There shall be two types of permits as follows: 1. Operational permit. An operational permit allows the applicant to conduct an operation or a business for which a permit is required by Section 105.6 for either: 1.1. A prescribed period. 1.2. Until renewed or revoked. 2. Construction permit. A construction permit allows the applicant to install or modify systems and equipment for which a permit is required by Section 105.7. 105.1.3 Multiple per mits for the same location. Where more than one permit is required for the same location, the fire code official is authorized to consolidate such permits into a single permit provided that each provision is listed in the permit. 105.1.4 Emer gency repairs. Where equipment replacement and repairs must be performed in an emergency situation, the permit application shall be submitted within the next working business day to the fire code official. 105.1.5 Repairs. Application or notice to the fire code official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, equipment or systems. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or change of any required means of egress, or rearrangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress requirements; nor shall any repairs include addition to, alteration of, replacement or relocation of any standpipe, fire protection water supply, automatic sprinkler system, fire alarm system or other work affecting fire protection or life safety. 105.1.6 Annual per mit. Instead of an individual construction permit for each alteration to an already approved system or equipment installation, the fire code official is authorized to issue an annual permit upon application therefor to any person, firm or corporation regularly employing one or more qualified tradespersons in the building, structure or on the premises owned or operated by the applicant for the permit.

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105.1.6.1 Annual permit records. The person to whom an annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of alterations made under such annual permit. The fire code official shall have access to such records at all times or such records shall be filed with the fire code official as designated. 105.2 Application. Application for a permit required by this code shall be made to the fire code official in such form and detail as prescribed by the fire code official. Applications for permits shall be accompanied by such plans as prescribed by the fire code official. 105.2.1 Refusal to issue per mit. If the application for a permit describes a use that does not conform to the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws and ordinances, the fire code official shall not issue a permit, but shall return the application to the applicant with the refusal to issue such permit. Such refusal shall, where requested, be in writing and shall contain the reasons for refusal. 105.2.2 Inspection author ized. Before a new operational permit is approved, the fire code official is authorized to inspect the receptacles, vehicles, buildings, devices, premises, storage spaces or areas to be used to determine compliance with this code or any operational constraints required. 105.2.3 Time limitation of application. An application for a permit for any proposed work or operation shall be deemed to have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, unless such application has been diligently prosecuted or a permit shall have been issued; except that the fire code official is authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding 90 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated. 105.2.4 Action on application. The fire code official shall examine or cause to be examined applications for permits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after filing. If the application or the construction documents do not conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the fire code official shall reject such application in writing, stating the reasons therefor. If the fire code official is satisfied that the proposed work or operation conforms to the requirements of this code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the fire code official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable.

105.3 Conditions of a permit. A permit shall constitute permission to maintain, store or handle materials; or to conduct processes that produce conditions hazardous to life or property; or to install equipment utilized in connection with such activities; or to install or modify any fire protection system or equipment or any other construction, equipment installation or modification in accordance with the provisions of this code where a permit is required by Section 105.6 or 105.7. Such permission shall not be construed as authority to violate, cancel or set aside any of the provisions of this code or other applicable regulations or laws of the jurisdiction. 105.3.1 Expir ation. An operational permit shall remain in effect until reissued, renewed or revoked, or for such a period of time as specified in the permit. Construction permits shall automatically become invalid unless the work authorized by such permit is commenced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. Permits are not transferable and any change in occupancy, operation, tenancy or ownership shall require that a new permit be issued. 105.3.2 Extensions. A permittee holding an unexpired permit shall have the right to apply for an extension of the time within which the permittee will commence work under that permit where work is unable to be commenced within the time required by this section for good and satisfactory reasons. The fire code official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more extensions of the time period of a permit for periods of not more than 180 days each. Such extensions shall be requested by the permit holder in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated. 105.3.3 Occupancy pr ohibited before appr oval. The building or structure shall not be occupied prior to the fire code official issuing a permit and conducting associated inspections indicating the applicable provisions of this code have been met. 105.3.4 Conditional per mits. Where permits are required and upon the request of a permit applicant, the fire code official is authorized to issue a conditional permit to occupy the premises or portion thereof before the entire work or operations on the premises is completed, provided that such portion or portions will be occupied safely prior to full completion or installation of equipment and operations without endangering life or public welfare. The fire code official shall notify the

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permit applicant in writing of any limitations or restrictions necessary to keep the permit area safe. The holder of a conditional permit shall proceed only to the point for which approval has been given, at the permit holder’s own risk and without assurance that approval for the occupancy or the utilization of the entire premises, equipment or operations will be granted.

105.4.1 Submittals. Construction documents and supporting data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each application for a permit and in such form and detail as required by the fire code official. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.

105.3.5 Posting the per mit. Issued permits shall be kept on the premises designated therein at all times and shall be readily available for inspection by the fire code official.

Exception: The fire code official is authorized to waive the submission of construction documents and supporting data not required to be prepared by a registered design professional if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that review of construction documents is not necessary to obtain compliance with this code.

105.3.6 Compliance with code. The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction documents and other data shall not prevent the fire code official from requiring the correction of errors in the construction documents and other data. Any addition to or alteration of approved construction documents shall be approved in advance by the fire code official, as evidenced by the issuance of a new or amended permit. 105.3.7 Infor mation on the per mit. The fire code official shall issue all permits required by this code on an approved form furnished for that purpose. The permit shall contain a general description of the operation or occupancy and its location and any other information required by the fire code official. Issued permits shall bear the signature of the fire code official or other approved legal authorization. 105.3.8 Validity of per mit. The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction documents, operational documents and other data shall not prevent the fire code official from requiring correction of errors in the documents or other data. 105.4 Construction documents. Construction documents shall be in accordance with Sections 105.4.1 through 105.4.6.

105.4.1.1 Examination of documents. The fire code official shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying construction documents and shall ascertain by such examinations whether the work indicated and described is in accordance with the requirements of this code. 105.4.2 Infor mation on constr uction documents. Construction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are allowed to be submitted where approved by the fire code official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations as determined by the fire code official. 105.4.2.1 Fire protection system shop drawings. Shop drawings for the fire protection system(s) shall be submitted to indicate compliance with this code and the construction documents, and shall be approved prior to the start of installation. Shop drawings shall contain all information as required by the referenced installation standards in Chapter 9. 105.4.3 Applicant responsibility. It shall be the responsibility of the applicant to ensure that the construction documents include all of the fire protection requirements and the shop drawings are complete and in compliance with the applicable codes and standards. 105.4.4 Appr oved documents. Construction documents approved by the fire code official are approved with the intent that such construction documents comply in all respects with this code. Review and approval by the fire code official shall not relieve the applicant of the responsibility of compliance with this code.

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105.4.4.1 Phased approval. The fire code official is authorized to issue a permit for the construction of part of a structure, system or operation before the construction documents for the whole structure, system or operation have been submitted, provided that adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for parts of a structure, system or operation shall proceed at the holder’s own risk with the building operation and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure, system or operation will be granted. 105.4.5 Amended constr uction documents. Work shall be installed in accordance with the approved construction documents, and any changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction documents. 105.4.6 Retention of constr uction documents. One set of construction documents shall be retained by the fire code official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by government or local laws. One set of approved construction documents shall be returned to the applicant, and said set shall be kept on the site of the building or work at all times during which the work authorized thereby is in progress. 105.5 Revocation. The fire code official is authorized to revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code where it is found by inspection or otherwise that there has been a false statement or misrepresentation as to the material facts in the application or construction documents on which the permit or approval was based including, but not limited to, any one of the following: 1. The permit is used for a location or establishment other than that for which it was issued. 2. The permit is used for a condition or activity other than that listed in the permit. 3. Conditions and limitations set forth in the permit have been violated. 4. There have been any false statements or misrepresentations as to the material fact in the application for permit or plans submitted or a condition of the permit.

5. The permit is used by a different person or firm than the name for which it was issued. 6. The permittee failed, refused or neglected to comply with orders or notices duly served in accordance with the provisions of this code within the time provided therein. 7. The permit was issued in error or in violation of an ordinance, regulation or this code. 105.6 Required operational permits. The fire code official is authorized to issue operational permits for the operations set forth in Sections 105.6.1 through 105.6.48. 105.6.1 Aerosol products. An operational permit is required to manufacture, store or handle an aggregate quantity of Level 2 or Level 3 aerosol products in excess of 225 kg net weight. 105.6.2 Amusem*nt buildings. An operational permit is required to operate a special amusem*nt building. 105.6.3 Aviation facilities. An operational permit is required to use a Group H or Group S occupancy for aircraft servicing or repair and aircraft fuelservicing vehicles. Additional permits required by other sections of this code include, but are not limited to, hot work, hazardous materials and flammable or combustible finishes. 105.6.4 Car bon dioxide systems used in bever age dispensing applications. An operational permit is required for carbon dioxide systems used in beverage dispensing applications having more than 45 kg of carbon dioxide. 105.6.5 Car nivals and fairs. An operational permit is required to conduct a carnival or fair. 105.6.6 Cellulose nitr ate film. An operational permit is required to store, handle or use cellulose nitrate film in a Group A occupancy. 105.6.7 Combustible dust-pr oducing oper ations. An operational permit is required to operate a grain elevator, flour starch mill, feed mill, or a plant pulverizing aluminum, coal, cocoa, magnesium, spices or sugar, or other operations producing combustible dusts as defined in Chapter 2. 105.6.8 Combustible fibers. An operational permit is required for the storage and handling of combustible fibers in quantities greater than 2.8 m3. Exception: A permit is not required for agricultural storage. 105.6.9 Compr essed gases. An operational permit is required for the storage, use or handling at normal

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temperature and pressure (NTP) of compressed gases in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.9. Exception: Vehicles equipped for and using compressed gas as a fuel for propelling the vehicle. 105.6.10 Covered and open mall buildings. An operational permit is required for: 1. The placement of retail fixtures and displays, concession equipment, displays of highly combustible goods and similar items in the mall. 2. The display of liquid or gas-fired equipment in the mall. 3. The use of open-flame or flame-producing equipment in the mall. 105.6.11 Cr yogenic fluids. An operational permit is required to produce, store, transport on site, use, handle or dispense cryogenic fluids in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.11.

Exception: A permit is not required for authorized employees of the water company that supplies the system or the fire department (Civil Defense) to use or operate fire hydrants or valves. 105.6.17 Flammable and combustible liquids. An operational permit is required: 1. To use or operate a pipeline for the transportation within facilities of flammable or combustible liquids. This requirement shall not apply to the off-site transportation in pipelines regulated by the Ministry of Transportation or any other government agency nor does it apply to piping systems. 2. To store, handle or use Class I liquids in excess of 19 L in a building or in excess of 38 L outside of a building, except that a permit is not required for the following: 2.1. The storage or use of Class I liquids in the fuel tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, motorboat, mobile power plant or mobile heating plant, unless such storage, in the opinion of the fire code official, would cause an unsafe condition.

Exception: Permits are not required for vehicles equipped for and using cryogenic fluids as a fuel for propelling the vehicle or for refrigerating the lading.

2.2. The storage or use of paints, oils, varnishes or similar flammable mixtures where such liquids are stored for maintenance, painting or similar purposes for a period of not more than 30 days.

105.6.12 Cutting and welding. An operational permit is required to conduct cutting or welding operations within the jurisdiction. 105.6.13 Dry cleaning. An operational permit is required to engage in the business of dry cleaning or to change to a more hazardous cleaning solvent used in existing dry cleaning equipment. 105.6.14 Exhibits and tr ade shows. An operational permit is required to operate exhibits and trade shows. 105.6.15 Explosives. An operational permit is required for the manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use of any quantity of explosives, explosive materials, fireworks or pyrotechnic special effects within the scope of Chapter 56. Exception: Storage in Group R-3 occupancies of smokeless propellant, black powder and small arms primers for personal use, not for resale and in accordance with Section 5606. 105.6.16 Fire hydr ants and valves. An operational permit is required to use or operate fire hydrants or valves intended for fire suppression purposes that are installed on water systems and accessible to a fire apparatus access road that is open to or generally used by the public.

3. To store, handle or use Class II or Class IIIA liquids in excess of 95 L in a building or in excess of 225 L outside a building, except for fuel oil used in connection with oil-burning equipment. 4. To store, handle or use Class IIIB liquids in tanks or portable tanks for fueling motor vehicles at motor fuel-dispensing facilities or where connected to fuelburning equipment. Exception: Fuel oil and used motor oil used for space heating or water heating. 5. To remove Class I or II liquids from an underground storage tank used for fueling motor vehicles by any means other than the approved, stationary on-site pumps normally used for dispensing purposes. 6. To operate tank vehicles, equipment, tanks, plants, terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing stations, refineries, distilleries and similar facilities where flammable and combustible liquids are produced, processed, transported, stored, dispensed or used.

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7. To place temporarily out of service (for more than 90 days) an underground, protected above-ground or above-ground flammable or combustible liquid tank. 8. To change the type of contents stored in a flammable or combustible liquid tank to a material that poses a greater hazard than that for which the tank was designed and constructed.

1. Public exhibitions and demonstrations where hot work is conducted. 2. Use of portable hot work equipment inside a structure. Exception: Work that is conducted under a construction permit. 3. Fixed-site hot work equipment, such as welding booths.

9. To manufacture, process, blend or refine flammable or combustible liquids.

4. Hot work conducted within a wildfire risk area.

10. To engage in the dispensing of liquid fuels into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles at commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments.

5. Application of roof coverings with the use of an open flame device.

11. To utilize a site for the dispensing of liquid fuels from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles, marine craft and other special equipment at commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments. 105.6.18 Floor finishing. An operational permit is required for floor finishing or surfacing operations exceeding 33 m2 using Class I or Class II liquids. 105.6.19 Fr uit and crop ripening. An operational permit is required to operate a fruitor crop-ripening facility or conduct a fruit-ripening process using ethylene gas. 105.6.20 Fumigation and insecticidal fogging. An operational permit is required to operate a business of fumigation or insecticidal fogging, and to maintain a room, vault or chamber in which a toxic or flammable fumigant is used. 105.6.21 Hazar dous mater ials. An operational permit is required to store, transport on site, dispense, use or handle hazardous materials in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.21. 105.6.22 HPM facilities. An operational permit is required to store, handle or use hazardous production materials. 105.6.23 High-piled stor age. An operational permit is required to use a building or portion thereof as a high-piled storage area exceeding 46 m2. 105.6.24 Hot work oper ations. An operational permit is required for hot work including, but not limited to:

6. Where approved, the fire code official shall issue a permit to carry out a hot work program. This program allows approved personnel to regulate their facility’s hot work operations. The approved personnel shall be trained in the fire safety aspects denoted in this chapter and shall be responsible for issuing permits requiring compliance with the requirements found in Chapter 35. These permits shall be issued only to their employees or hot work operations under their supervision. 105.6.25 Industr ial ovens. An operational permit is required for operation of industrial ovens regulated by Chapter 30. 105.6.26 Lumber yar ds and woodworking plants. An operational permit is required for the storage or processing of lumber exceeding 235 cubic meters. 105.6.27 Liquid or gas-fueled vehicles or equipment in assembly buildings. An operational permit is required to display, operate or demonstrate liquid or gas-fueled vehicles or equipment in assembly buildings. 105.6.28 required for:

LP-gas. An operational permit is

1. Storage and use of LP-gas. Exception: A permit is not required for individual containers with a 1900 L water capacity or less or multiple container systems having an aggregate quantity not exceeding 1900 L, serving occupancies in Group R-3. 2. Operation of cargo tankers that transport LPgas.

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105.6.29 Magnesium. An operational permit is required to melt, cast, heat treat or grind more than 4.5 kg of magnesium. 105.6.30 Miscellaneous combustible stor age. An operational permit is required to store in any building or upon any premises in excess of 70 m3 gross volume of combustible empty packing cases, boxes, barrels or similar containers, rubber tires, rubber, cork or similar combustible material. 105.6.31 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities. An operational permit is required for the operation of automotive, marine and fleet motor fueldispensing facilities. 105.6.32 Open bur ning. An operational permit is required for the kindling or maintaining of an open fire or a fire on any public street, alley, road, or other public or private ground. Instructions and stipulations of the permit shall be adhered to. Exception: Recreational fires. 105.6.33 Open flames and torches. An operational permit is required to remove paint with a torch; or to use a torch or open-flame device in a wildfire risk area. 105.6.34 Open flames and candles. An operational permit is required to use open flames or candles in connection with assembly areas, dining areas of restaurants or drinking establishments. 105.6.35 Or ganic coatings. An operational permit is required for any organic-coating manufacturing operation producing more than 4 L of an organic coating in one day. 105.6.36 Places of assembly. An operational permit is required to operate a place of assembly.

and for the assembly or manufacture of articles involving pyroxylin plastics. 105.6.40 Refriger ation equipment. An operational permit is required to operate a mechanical refrigeration unit or system regulated by Chapter 6. 105.6.41 Repair gar ages and motor fueldispensing facilities. An operational permit is required for operation of repair garages. 105.6.42 Rooftop helipor ts. An operational permit is required for the operation of a rooftop heliport. 105.6.43 Spr aying or dipping. An operational permit is required to conduct a spraying or dipping operation utilizing flammable or combustible liquids, or the application of combustible powders regulated by Chapter 24. 105.6.44 Stor age of scrap tires and tir e byproducts. An operational permit is required to establish, conduct or maintain storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts that exceeds 71 m3 of total volume of scrap tires, and for indoor storage of tires and tire byproducts. 105.6.45 Tempor ar y membr ane str uctur es and tents. An operational permit is required to operate an air-supported temporary membrane structure, a temporary stage canopy or a tent having an area in excess of 35 m2. Exceptions: 1. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping purposes. 2. Tents open on all sides, which comply with all of the following: 2.1. Individual tents having a maximum size of 65 m2.

105.6.37 Pr ivate fire hydr ants. An operational permit is required for the removal from service, use or operation of private fire hydrants.

2.2. The aggregate area of multiple tents placed side by side without a fire break clearance of not less than 3.5 m shall not exceed 65 m2 total.

Exception: A permit is not required for private industry with trained maintenance personnel, private fire brigade or fire departments to maintain, test and use private hydrants. 105.6.38 Pyrotechnic special effects material. An operational permit is required for use and handling of pyrotechnic special effects material. 105.6.39 Pyr oxylin plastics. An operational permit is required for storage or handling of more than 10 kg of cellulose nitrate (pyroxylin) plastics,

2.3. A minimum clearance of 3.5 m to structures and other tents shall be provided. 105.6.46 Tire-rebuilding plants. An operational permit is required for the operation and maintenance of a tire-rebuilding plant. 105.6.47 Waste handling. An operational permit is required for the operation of wrecking

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yards, junk yards and waste material-handling facilities. 105.6.48 Wood pr oducts. An operational permit is required to store chips, hogged material, lumber or plywood in excess of 6 m3. 105.7 Required construction permits. The fire code official is authorized to issue construction permits for work as set forth in Sections 105.7.1 through 105.7.18. 105.7.1 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to an automatic fire-extinguishing system. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit. 105.7.2 Batter y systems. A permit is required to install stationary storage battery systems having a liquid capacity of more than 190 L. 105.7.3 Compr essed gases. Where the compressed gases in use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 105.6.9, a construction permit is required to install, repair damage to, abandon, remove, place temporarily out of service, or close or substantially modify a compressed gas system. Exceptions: 1. Routine maintenance. 2. For emergency repair work performed on an emergency basis, application for permit shall be made within two working days of commencement of work. 105.7.4 Cr yogenic fluids. A construction permit is required for installation of or alteration to outdoor stationary cryogenic fluid storage systems where the system capacity exceeds the amounts listed in Table 105.6.11. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be an alteration and does not require a construction permit. 105.7.5 Emer gency responder radio coverage system. A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to emergency responder radio coverage systems and related equipment. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a construction permit. 105.7.6 Fire alar m and detection systems and related equipment. A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to fire alarm and detection systems and related equipment.

Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a construction permit. 105.7.7 Fire pumps and related equipment. A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to fire pumps and related fuel tanks, jockey pumps, controllers and generators. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a construction permit. 105.7.8 Flammable and combustible liquids. A construction permit is required: 1. To install, repair or modify a pipeline for the transportation of flammable or combustible liquids. 2. To install, construct or alter tank vehicles, equipment, tanks, plants, terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing stations, refineries, distilleries and similar facilities where flammable and combustible liquids are produced, processed, transported, stored, dispensed or used. 3. To install, alter, remove, abandon or otherwise dispose of a flammable or combustible liquid tank. 105.7.9 Gates and bar r icades acr oss fire appar atus access roads. A construction permit is required for the installation of or modification to a gate or barricade across a fire apparatus access road. 105.7.10 Hazar dous materials. A construction permit is required to install, repair damage to, abandon, remove, place temporarily out of service, or close or substantially modify a storage facility or other area regulated by Chapter 50 where the hazardous materials in use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 105.6.21. Exceptions: 1. Routine maintenance. 2. For repair work performed on an emergency basis, application for permit shall be made within two working days of commencement of work. 105.7.11 Industr ial ovens. A construction permit is required for installation of industrial ovens covered by Chapter 30. Exceptions: 1. Routine maintenance.

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2. For repair work performed on an emergency basis, application for permit shall be made within two working days of commencement of work.

2.1. Individual tents shall maximum size of 65 m2.

105.7.14 Smoke control or smoke exhaust systems. Construction permits are required for installation of or alteration to smoke control or smoke exhaust systems. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be an alteration and does not require a permit. 105.7.15 Solar photovoltaic power systems. A construction permit is required to install or modify solar photovoltaic power systems. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit. 105.7.16 Spr aying or dipping. A construction permit is required to install or modify a spray room, dip tank or booth. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit. 105.7.17 Standpipe systems. A construction permit is required for the installation, modification or removal from service of a standpipe system. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit. 105.7.18 Tempor ar y membr ane str uctur es and tents. A construction permit is required to erect an air-supported temporary membrane structure, a temporary stage canopy or a tent having an area in excess of 35 m2. Exceptions: 1. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping purposes. 2. Tents and awnings open on all sides, which comply with all of the following:

a

2.2. The aggregate area of multiple tents placed side by side without a fire break clearance of not less than 3.5 m shall not exceed 65 m2 total.

105.7.12 LP-gas. A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to an LPgas system. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit. 105.7.13 Pr ivate fire hydr ants. A construction permit is required for the installation or modification of private fire hydrants. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit.

have

2.3. A minimum clearance of 3.5 m to structures and other tents shall be maintained.

SECTION 106 INSPECTIONS 106.1 Inspection authority. The fire code official is authorized to enter and examine any building, structure, marine vessel, vehicle or premises in accordance with Section 104.3 for the purpose of enforcing this code. 106.2 Inspections. The fire code official is authorized to conduct such inspections as are deemed necessary to determine the extent of compliance with the provisions of this code and to approve reports of inspection by approved agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be prepared and submitted in writing for review and approval. Inspection reports shall be certified by a responsible officer of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The fire code official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to report upon unusual, detailed or complex technical issues subject to the approval of the governing body. 106.2.1 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of the permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the fire code official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code. 106.2.2 Appr oval required. Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the fire code official. The fire code official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected, and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the fire code official.

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106.3 Concealed work. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Where any installation subject to inspection prior to use is covered or concealed without having first been inspected, the fire code official shall have the authority to require that such work be exposed for inspection. Neither the fire code official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to allow inspection. 106.4 Approvals. Approval as the result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid.

SECTION 107 MAINTENANCE 107.1 Maintenance of safeguards. Where any device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection, or any other feature is required for compliance with the provisions of this code, or otherwise installed, such device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection, or other feature shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with this code and applicable referenced standards. 107.2 Testing and operation. Equipment requiring periodic testing or operation to ensure maintenance shall be tested or operated as specified in this code. 107.2.1 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or installation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the necessary corrections shall be made so as to achieve compliance with this code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to the fire code official for inspection and testing. 107.3 Record-keeping. A record of periodic inspections, tests, servicing and other operations and maintenance shall be maintained on the premises or other approved location for not less than 3 years, or a different period of time where specified in this code or referenced standards. Records shall be made available for inspection by the fire code official, and a copy of the records shall be provided to the fire code official upon request. The fire code official is authorized to prescribe the form and format of such record-keeping. The fire

code official is authorized to require that certain required records be filed with the fire code official. 107.4 Supervision. Maintenance and testing shall be under the supervision of a responsible person who shall ensure that such maintenance and testing are conducted at specified intervals in accordance with this code. 107.5 Rendering equipment inoperable. Portable or fixed fire-extinguishing systems or devices, and fire-warning systems, shall not be rendered inoperative or inaccessible, except as necessary during emergencies, maintenance, repairs, alterations, drills or prescribed testing. 107.6 Overcrowding. Overcrowding or admittance of any person beyond the approved capacity of a building or a portion thereof shall not be allowed. The fire code official, upon finding any overcrowding conditions or obstructions in aisles, passageways or other means of egress, or upon finding any condition that constitutes a life safety hazard, shall be authorized to cause the event to be stopped until such condition or obstruction is corrected.

SECTION 108 BOARD OF APPEALS 108.1 Board of appeals established. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the fire code official relative to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The fire code official shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall not have a vote on any matter before the board. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the fire code official. 108.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the intent of this code or the rules legally adopted hereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an equivalent method of protection or safety is proposed. The board shall not have authority to waive requirements of this code. 108.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training to pass on matters pertaining to hazards of fire, explosions, hazardous conditions or fire

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protection systems, and are not employees of the jurisdiction.

SECTION 109 VIOLATIONS 109.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for a person, firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, demolish or utilize a building, occupancy, premises or system regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code. 109.2 Owner/occupant responsibility. Correction and abatement of violations of this code shall be the responsibility of the owner or the owner’s authorized agent. Where an occupant creates, or allows to be created, hazardous conditions in violation of this code, the occupant shall be held responsible for the abatement of such hazardous conditions. 109.3 Notice of violation. Where the fire code official finds a building, premises, vehicle, storage facility or outdoor area that is in violation of this code, the fire code official is authorized to prepare a written notice of violation describing the conditions deemed unsafe and, where compliance is not immediate, specifying a time for reinspection. 109.3.1 Service. A notice of violation issued pursuant to this code shall be served upon the owner, the owner’s authorized agent, operator, occupant or other person responsible for the condition or violation, either by personal service, mail or by delivering the same to, and leaving it with, some person of responsibility upon the premises. For unattended or abandoned locations, a copy of such notice of violation shall be posted on the premises in a conspicuous place at or near the entrance to such premises and the notice of violation shall be mailed by certified mail with return receipt requested or a certificate of mailing, to the last known address of the owner, the owner’s authorized agent, or occupant. 109.3.2 Compliance with order s and notices. A notice of violation issued or served as provided by this code shall be complied with by the owner, the owner’s authorized agent, operator, occupant or other person responsible for the condition or violation to which the notice of violation pertains. 109.3.3 Pr osecution of violations. If the notice of violation is not complied with promptly, the fire code official is authorized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate legal proceedings at law or in equity to

restrain, correct or abate such violation or to require removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made pursuant hereto. 109.3.4 Unauthorized tamper ing. Signs, tags or seals posted or affixed by the fire code official shall not be mutilated, destroyed or tampered with, or removed, without authorization from the fire code official. 109.4 Violation penalties. Persons who shall violate a provision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter, repair or do work in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of the fire code official, or of a permit or certificate used under provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a [SPECIFY OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not more than [AMOUNT] Saudi Riyals or by imprisonment not exceeding [NUMBER OF DAYS], or both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a violation continues after due notice has been served shall be deemed a separate offense. 109.4.1 Abatement of violation. In addition to the imposition of the penalties herein described, the fire code official is authorized to institute appropriate action to prevent unlawful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a violation; or to prevent illegal occupancy of a structure or premises; or to stop an illegal act, conduct of business or occupancy of a structure on or about any premises.

SECTION 110 UNSAFE BUILDINGS 110.1 General. If during the inspection of a premises, a building or structure, or any building system, in whole or in part, constitutes a clear and inimical threat to human life, safety or health, the fire code official shall issue such notice or orders to remove or remedy the conditions as shall be deemed necessary in accordance with this section, and shall refer the building to the building department for any repairs, alterations, remodeling, removing or demolition required. 110.1.1 Unsafe conditions. Structures or existing equipment that are or hereafter become unsafe or deficient because of inadequate means of egress or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life or the public welfare, or which involve illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be deemed an unsafe condition. A vacant structure that is not secured

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Scope and Administration

against unauthorized entry as required by Section 311 shall be deemed unsafe. 110.1.2 Str uctur al hazar ds. Where an apparent structural hazard is caused by the faulty installation, operation or malfunction of any of the items or devices governed by this code, the fire code official shall immediately notify the building code official in accordance with Section 110.1. 110.2 Evacuation. The fire code official or the fire department (Civil Defense) official in charge of an incident shall be authorized to order the immediate evacuation of any occupied building deemed unsafe where such building has hazardous conditions that present imminent danger to building occupants. Persons so notified shall immediately leave the structure or premises and shall not enter or re-enter until authorized to do so by the fire code official or the fire department (Civil Defense) official in charge of the incident. 110.3 Summary abatement. Where conditions exist that are deemed hazardous to life and property, the fire code official or fire department (Civil Defense) official in charge of the incident is authorized to abate summarily such hazardous conditions that are in violation of this code. 110.4 Abatement. The owner, the owner’s authorized agent, operator or occupant of a building or premises deemed unsafe by the fire code official shall abate or cause to be abated or corrected such unsafe conditions either by repair, rehabilitation, demolition or other approved corrective action.

SECTION 111 STOP WORK ORDER 111.1 Order. Where the fire code official finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner contrary to the provisions of this code, or in a dangerous or unsafe manner, the fire code official is authorized to issue a stop work order. 111.2 Issuance. A stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property, or to the owner’s authorized agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the conditions under which the cited work is authorized to resume. 111.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the fire code official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to stopping the work.

111.4 Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine of not less than [AMOUNT] Saudi riyals or more than [AMOUNT] Saudi riyals.

SECTION 112 SERVICE UTILITIES Authority to disconnect service utilities. The fire code official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of utility service to the building, structure or system in order to safely execute emergency operations or to eliminate an immediate hazard. The fire code official shall notify the serving utility and, where possible, the owner or the owner’s authorized agent and the occupant of the building, structure or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such action. If not notified prior to disconnection, then the owner, the owner’s authorized agent or occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be notified in writing as soon as practical thereafter.

SECTION 113 FEES 113.1 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid. 113.2 Schedule of permit fees. A fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority. 113.3 Work commencing before permit issuance. A person who commences any work, activity or operation regulated by this code before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to an additional fee established by the applicable governing authority, which shall be in addition to the required permit fees. 113.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition of work done in connection to or concurrently with the work or activity authorized by a permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law. 113.5 Refunds. The applicable governing authority is authorized to establish a refund policy.

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Bibliography The following resource materials were used in the preparation of the commentary for this chapter of the code: 1. 2009 International Code Interpretations. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2009. 2. Complete Revision History to the 2015 I-Codes. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2014. 3. NFPA 550—07, Fire Safety Concepts Tree. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 2007. 4. Robertson, J. C. and W.E. Koffel, Jr. Fire Prevention Organization and Management. Course Guide. Emmitsburg, MD: Executive Office of the President, 5. U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Fire Administration, National Fire Academy and Open Learning Fire Service Program, 1990. 6. Rosenbauer, D. L. Introduction to Fire Protection Law. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1978.

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Tables TABLE 105.6.9 PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR COMPRESSED GASES AMOUNT (cubic meter at NTP)

TYPE OF GAS

Corrosive

6

Flammable (except cryogenic fluids and liquefied petroleum gases)

6

Highly toxic

Any Amount

Inert and simple asphyxianta

170

Oxidizing (including oxygen)

14

Pyrophoric

Any Amount

Toxic

Any Amount

a. For carbon dioxide used in beverage dispensing applications, see Section 105.6.4.

TABLE 105.6.11 PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR CRYOGENIC FLUIDS INSIDE BUILDING (Liters)

OUTSIDE BUILDING (Liters)

More than 3.8 227

227 1893

Oxidizing (includes oxygen)

38

190

Physical or health hazard not indicated above

Any Amount

Any Amount

TYPE OF CRYOGENIC FLUID

Flammable Inert

Scope and Administration

TABLE 105.6.21 PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TYPE OF MATERIAL

AMOUNT

Combustible liquids

See Section 105.6.17

Corrosive materials Gases Liquids Solids

See Section 105.6.9 208 liters 454 kilograms

Explosive materials

See Section 105.6.15

Flammable materials Gases Liquids Solids

See Section 105.6.9 See Section 105.6.17 45 kilograms

Highly toxic materials Gases Liquids Solids

See Section 105.6.9 Any Amount Any Amount

Oxidizing materials Gases Liquids Class 4 Class 3 Class 2 Class 1 Solids Class 4 Class 3 Class 2 Class 1

See Section 105.6.9 Any Amount 3.8 liters a 38 liters 208 liters Any Amount 4.5 kilograms b 45 kilograms 227 kilograms

Organic peroxides Liquids Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V Solids Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V

Any Amount Any Amount 3.8 liters 7.6 liters No Permit Required Any Amount Any Amount 4.5 kilograms 9 kilograms No Permit Required

Pyrophoric materials Gases Liquids Solids

Any Amount Any Amount Any Amount

Toxic materials Gases Liquids Solids

See Section 105.6.9 38 liters 45 kilograms

Unstable (reactive) materials Liquids Class 4 Class 3 Class 2 Class 1 Solids Class 4 Class 3 Class 2 Class 1

Any Amount Any Amount 19 liters 38 liters Any Amount Any Amount 23 kilograms 45 kilograms

(continued)

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TABLE 105.6.21—continued PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TYPE OF MATERIAL

Water-reactive materials Liquids Class 3 Class 2 Class 1 Solids Class 3 Class 2 Class 1

AMOUNT

Any Amount 19 liters 208 liters Any Amount 23 kilograms 227 kilograms

a. 76 liters where Table 5003.1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard identification signs in accordance with Section 5003.5 are provided for quantities of 76 liters or less. b. 91 kilograms where Table 5003.1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard identification signs in accordance with Section 5003.5 are provided for quantities of 91 kilograms or less.

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DEFINITIONS

SECTION 201 GENERAL

equal to 20 kJ/g.

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings shown in this chapter.

Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 20 kJ/ g, but less than or equal to 30 kJ/g.

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural, the singular. 201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the SBC 201, SBC 501 or SBC 701, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes. 201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition, shall be considered as providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

SECTION 202 GENERAL DEFINITIONS 24-HOUR BASIS. The actual time that a person is an occupant within a facility for the purpose of receiving care. It shall not include a facility that is open for 24 hours and is capable of providing care to someone visiting the facility during any segment of the 24 hours.

Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 30 kJ/g. AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can, or a glass or plastic bottle designed to dispense an aerosol. AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. A building used for warehousing aerosol products. AGENCY. Any emergency responder department within the jurisdiction that utilizes radio frequencies for communication. This could include, but not be limited to, various public safety agencies such as Civil Defenses, emergency medical services and law enforcement. AGENT. A person who shall have charge, care or control of any structure as owner, or agent of the owner, or as executor, executrix, administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of the estate of the owner. Any such person representing the actual owner shall be bound to comply with the provisions of this code to the same extent as if that person was the owner.

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in a building or facility to a public way.

AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public.

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. A continuous, unobstructed path that complies with Chapter 11 of the SBC 201.

AGRO-INDUSTRIAL. A facility, or portion thereof, housing operations involving the transforming of raw agricultural products into intermediate or consumable products.

AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol container by a propellant. Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calculation of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be designated Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3. Level 1 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is less than or

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. A structure that uses air-pressurized membrane beams, arches or other elements to enclose space. Occupants of such a structure do not occupy the pressurized areas used to support the structure. AIR-SUPPORTED

STRUCTURE.

A structure

wherein the shape of the structure is attained by air

Definitions

pressure, and occupants of the structure are within the elevated pressure area. Air supported structures are of two basic types:

a given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal.

Double skin. Similar to a single skin, but with an attached liner that is separated from the outer skin and provides an airspace which serves for insulation, acoustic, aesthetic or similar purposes.

ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. An alcoholcontaining preparation designed for application to the hands for reducing the number of viable microorganisms on the hands and containing ethanol or isopropanol in an amount not exceeding 95-percent by volume.

Single skin. Where there is only the single outer skin and the air pressure is directly against that skin. AIRCRAFT DISPENSING

MOTOR-VEHICLE

FUEL-

FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed automotive-type equipment into the fuel tanks of aircraft. AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). Any area used or intended for use for the parking, taxiing,

takeoff, landing or other ground-based aircraft activity. AIRPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off of aircraft with an overall length greater than 12 m and an overall exterior fuselage width greater than 2 m, and any appurtenant areas that are used or intended for use for airport buildings and other airport facilities. AISLE. An unenclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel. AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that leads to an aisle. ALARM, NUISANCE. See “Nuisance alarm.” ALARM DEVICE, MULTIPLE STATION. See “Multiple-station alarm device.”

ALCOHOL-BLENDED FUELS. Flammable liquids consisting of 10-percent or greater, by volume, ethanol or other alcohols blended with gasoline. ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than a repair or addition. ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device

that

has a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on the same level at the same time. AMBULATORY CARE FACILITY. Buildings or

portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or similar care on a less-than24-hour basis to persons who are rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided. AMMONIUM NITRATE. A chemical compound represented by the formula NH4NO3. ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in which each indication provides status information about a circuit, condition or location.

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn,

APPROVED. Acceptable to the fire code official.

speaker, light or text display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any combination thereof. See also “Audible alarm notification appliance” or “Visible alarm notification appliance.”

AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.

ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire. ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within

AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assistance during emergency evacuation. ARRAY. The configuration of storage. Characteristics considered in defining an array include the type of packaging, flue spaces, height of

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Definitions

storage and compactness of storage. ARRAY, CLOSED. A storage configuration having a 150 mm or smaller width vertical flue space that restricts air movement through the stored commodity. ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, airconditioning or other equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505 of the SBC 201. ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story and the roof rafters. AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by

the sense of hearing. AUTOMATED RACK STORAGE. Automated rack storage is a stocking method whereby the movement of pallets, products, apparatus or systems are automatically controlled by mechanical or electronic devices. AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a device or system providing an emergency function without the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or combustion products. AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An approved system of devices and equipment

which automatically detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire. AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire alarm system that has initiation devices that

utilize smoke detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space with detectors to provide early warning of fire. AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.

AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM. A system consisting of a water supply, a pressure source and

a distribution piping system with attached nozzles which, at or above a minimum operating pressure, defined by its listing, discharges water in fine droplets meeting the requirements of NFPA 750 for the purpose of the control, suppression or extinguishment of a fire. Such systems include wetpipe, dry-pipe and pre-action types. The systems are designed as engineered, pre-engineered, localapplication or total flooding systems. AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where

flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles. AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever time period is less. AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is partially or wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight frame structure over which a covering is attached. BALANCED DOOR. A door equipped with double-pivoted hardware so designed as to cause a semi-counter balanced swing action when opening. BALED COTTON. See “Cotton.” BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. See “Cotton.” BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial barrier. Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment with a minimum thickness of 900 mm. Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the magazine or building containing explosives when the trees are bare of leaves. BARRICADED. The effective screening of a building containing explosive materials from the magazine or other building, railway or highway by

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Definitions

a natural or an artificial barrier. A straight line from the top of any sidewall of the building containing explosive materials to the eave line of any magazine or other building or to a point 3.7 m above the center of a railway or highway shall pass through such barrier. BAsem*nT. A story that is not a story above grade plane. BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. A system which consists of three

interconnected subsystems: 1. A lead-acid battery. 2. A battery charger. 3. A collection of rectifiers, inverters, converters and associated electrical equipment as required for a particular application. BATTERY TYPES. Lithium-ion battery. A storage battery that consists of lithium ions embedded in a carbon graphite or nickel metal-oxide substrate. The electrolyte is a carbonate mixture or a gelled polymer. The lithium ions are the charge carriers of the battery. Lithium metal polymer battery. A storage battery that is comprised of non-aqueous liquid or polymerized electrolytes, which provide ionic conductivity between lithiated positive active material electrically separated from metallic lithium or lithiated negative active material. Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. An alkaline storage battery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the negative contains cadmium and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide.

discharge capacity of the entire battery. After discharge, it may be restored to a fully charged condition by an electric current flowing in a direction opposite to the flow of current when the battery is discharged. Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. A lead-acid battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve that opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pressure of the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. In VRLA batteries, the liquid electrolyte in the cells is immobilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batteries) or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled batteries). Vented (flooded) lead-acid battery. A lead-acid battery consisting of cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a provision for the user to add water to the cell and are equipped with a flame-arresting vent which permits the escape of hydrogen and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner such that a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell will not ignite the gases inside the cell. BIN BOX. A five-sided container with the open side facing an aisle. Bin boxes are self-supporting or supported by a structure designed so that little or no horizontal or vertical space exists around the boxes. BIOMASS. Plant or animal-based material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geologic formations or transformed into fossils. BLAST AREA. The area including the blast site and the immediate adjacent area within the influence of flying rock, missiles and concussion.

Nonrecombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gasses created by electrolysis are vented into the air outside of the battery.

BLAST SITE. The area in which explosive materials are being or have been loaded and which includes all holes loaded or to be loaded for the same blast and a distance of 15 m in all directions.

Recombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases created by electrolysis are converted back into water inside the battery instead of venting into the air outside of the battery.

BLASTER. A person qualified in accordance with Section 3301.4 to be in charge of and responsible for the loading and firing of a blast.

Stationary storage battery. A group of electrochemical cells interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC power to a suitably connected electrical load, designed for service in a permanent location. The number of cells connected in a series determines the nominal voltage rating of the battery. The size of the cells determines the

BLASTING AGENT. A material or mixture consisting of fuel and oxidizer, intended for blasting provided that the finished product, as mixed for use or shipment, cannot be detonated by means of a No. 8 test detonator when unconfined. BLEACHERS. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see

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Definitions

“Grandstand”). BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied as a single-family unit. BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa. Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20percent evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid. BONFIRE. An outdoor fire utilized for ceremonial purposes. BREAKOUT. For revolving doors, a process whereby wings or door panels can be pushed open manually for means of egress travel. BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to raise the temperature of 0.454 kg of water by 0.5565°C. BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy. BUILDING AREA. See “Area, building.” BUILDING HEIGHT. See “Height, building.” BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of the SBC 201, or a duly authorized representative. BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment, such as oxygen storage containers, pressure regulators, safety devices, vaporizers, manifolds and interconnecting piping, that has a storage capacity of more than 565 m3 of oxygen at normal temperature and pressure (NTP) including unconnected reserves on hand at the site. The bulk oxygen system terminates at the point where oxygen at service pressure first enters the supply line. The oxygen containers can be stationary or movable, and the oxygen can be stored as a gas or liquid. BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. That portion of a property where flammable or combustible liquids are received by tank vessel, pipelines, tank car or tank vehicle and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel, pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle, portable tank or container. BULK TRANSFER. The loading or unloading of

flammable or combustible liquids from or between tank vehicles, tank cars or storage tanks. BULLET RESISTANT. Constructed so as to resist penetration of a bullet of 150-grain M2 ball ammunition having a nominal muzzle velocity of 824 meter per second (mps) when fired from a 30caliber rifle at a distance of 30 m, measured perpendicular to the target. CANOPY. A structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identity or decoration, and may be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer end. CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A system supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a

pressurized vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a manual or automaticactuating mechanism. CARE SUITE. In Group I-2 occupancies, a group of treatment rooms, care recipient sleeping rooms and the support rooms or spaces and circulation space within the suite where staff are in attendance for supervision of all care recipients within the suite, and the suite is in compliance with the requirements of Section 407.4.4 of SBC 201. CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product. CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an air-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed. The ceiling limits utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. The ceiling Recommended Exposure Limit (REL-C) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold Limit Value-Ceiling (TLV-C) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Ceiling Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL-Ceiling) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the use of a building or a portion of a building. A change of occupancy shall include any change of occupancy classification, any change from one group to another group within an occupancy classification or any change in use within a group for a specific occupancy classification.

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CHEMICAL. An element, chemical compound or mixture of elements or compounds or both. CHEMICAL NAME. The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the Chemical Abstracts Service rules of nomenclature, or a name which will clearly identify a chemical for the purpose of conducting an evaluation. CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical structure containing one or more flues for the purpose of carrying gaseous products of combustion and air from a fuel-burning appliance to the outdoor atmosphere. Factory-built chimney. A listed and labeled chimney composed of factory-made components, assembled in the field in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions and the conditions of the listing. Masonry chimney. A field-constructed chimney composed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones, or concrete. Metal chimney. A field-constructed chimney of metal. CIVIL DEFENSE MASTER KEY. A limited issue key of special or controlled design to be carried by Civil Defense officials in command which will open key boxes on specified properties. CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evaporation. CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical care on a less-than24-hour basis to persons who are not rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided. CLOSED CONTAINER. A container sealed by means of a lid or other device such that liquid, vapor or dusts will not escape from it under ordinary conditions of use or handling. CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a closed vessel or system that remains closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed systems for solids and

liquids include product conveyed through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of equipment. COLD DECK. A pile of unfinished cut logs. COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material which is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through a 420 microns standard sieve. COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burning materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does not include densely packed baled cotton. COMBUSTIBLE GAS DETECTOR. An instrument that samples the local atmosphere and indicates the presence of ignitable vapors or gases within the flammable or explosive range expressed as a volume percent in air. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point at or above 38°C. Combustible liquids shall be subdivided as follows: Class II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 38°C and below 60°C. Class IIIA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 60°C and below 93°C.

Class IIIB. Liquids having closed cup flash points at or above 93°C. The category of combustible liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids. COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. Appliances used in a commercial food service establishment for heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, steam, fumes, smoke or odors that are required to be removed through a local exhaust ventilation system. Such appliances include deep fat fryers, upright broilers, griddles, broilers, steam-jacketed kettles, hot-top ranges, under-fired broilers (charbroilers), ovens, barbecues, rotisseries, and similar appliances. For the purpose of this definition, a food service establishment shall include any building or a portion thereof used for the preparation and serving of food. COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE. A motor vehicle used to transport passengers or property

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Definitions

where the motor vehicle: 1. Has a gross vehicle weight rating of 4500 kg or more; or 2. Is designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver. COMMODITY. A combination of products, packing materials and containers. COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of the exit access travel distance measured

from the most remote point within a story to that point where the occupants have separate and distinct access to two exits or exit access doorways. COMMON USE. Interior or exterior circulation paths, rooms, spaces or elements that are not for public use and are made available for the shared use of two or more people. COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials that: 1. Is a gas at 20°C or less at 101 kPa of pressure; and 2. Has a boiling point of 20°C or less at 101 kPa which is either liquefied, non-liquefied or in solution, except those gases which have no other healthor physical-hazard properties are not considered to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 282 kPa at 20°C. The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows: 1. Non-liquefied compressed gases are gases, other than those in solution, which are in a packaging under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a temperature of 20°C. 2. Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packaging under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a temperature of 20°C. 3. Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that are dissolved in a solvent. 4. Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the hazard properties of which are represented by the properties of the mixture as a whole. COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. A pressure vessel designed to hold compressed gases at pressures greater than one atmosphere at 20°C and includes cylinders, containers and tanks.

COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment designed to contain, distribute or transport compressed gases. It can consist of a compressed gas container or containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pumps, compressors and connecting piping and tubing. CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building

or part thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share bathroom and/or kitchen facilities. CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated location at a facility staffed by trained

personnel on a continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire department (Civil Defense) or other emergency services. CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. The written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a permit. CONTAINER. A vessel of 225 L or less in capacity used for transporting or storing hazardous materials. Pipes, piping systems, engines and engine fuel tanks are not considered to be containers. CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. A gas-tight recovery system comprised of equipment or devices which can be placed over a leak in a compressed gas container, thereby stopping or controlling the escape of gas from the leaking container. CONTAINMENT VESSEL. A gas-tight recovery vessel designed so that a leaking compressed gas container can be placed within its confines thereby encapsulating the leaking container. CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas detection system where the analytical

instrument is maintained in continuous operation and sampling is performed without interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled. See also the definition of “Outdoor control area.” CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel. CORRIDOR, OPEN-ENDED. See “Open-ended corridor.”

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Definitions

CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described in DOTn 49 CFR 173.137, such chemical destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces. COTTON. Baled cotton. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and secured with industry-accepted materials, usually consisting of burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands, or wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) and motes (residual materials from the ginning process). Baled cotton, densely packed. Cotton, made into banded bales, with a packing density of not less than 360 kg/m3, and dimensions complying with the following: a length of 1400 mm, a width of 535 mm and a height of 700 to 900 mm. Seed cotton. Perishable raw agricultural commodity consisting of cotton fiber (lint) attached to the seed of the cotton plant, which requires ginning to become a commercial product. COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or other enclosing devices. COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusem*nt facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. Anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term “covered mall building” shall include open mall buildings as defined below. Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term “mall” shall include open malls as defined below. Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading

to exits discharging at grade. Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusem*nt facilities, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls. Anchor buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building. CRITICAL CIRCUIT. A circuit that requires continuous operation to ensure safety of the structure and occupants. CRYOGENIC CONTAINER. A cryogenic vessel of any size used for the transportation, handling or storage of cryogenic fluids. CRYOGENIC FLUID. A fluid having a boiling point lower than -89.9°C at an absolute pressure of 101.3 kPa. CRYOGENIC VESSEL. A pressure vessel, lowpressure tank or atmospheric tank designed to contain a cryogenic fluid on which venting, insulation, refrigeration or a combination of these is used in order to maintain the operating pressure within the design pressure and the contents in a liquid phase. CUSTODIAL CARE. Assistance with day-to-day living tasks; such as assistance with cooking, taking medication, bathing, using toilet facilities and other tasks of daily living. Custodial care includes persons receiving care who have the ability to respond to emergency situations and evacuate at a slower rate and/or who have mental and psychiatric complications. CYLINDER. A pressure vessel designed for pressures higher than 276 kPa and having a circular cross section. It does not include a portable tank, multiunit tank car tank, cargo tank or tank car. DAMPER. See “Fire damper” and “Smoke damper.” DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive materials and constructed in accordance with the requirements for a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter 56. DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other effect including, but not limited to, curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and all other materials utilized for decorative effect including, but not limited to, bulletin boards, artwork, posters, photographs, paintings, batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, leaves, trees,

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Definitions

moss and similar items, foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials do not include wall coverings, ceiling coverings, floor coverings, ordinary window shades, interior finish and materials 0.64 mm or less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate. DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an explosive effect. DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto. DESIGN PRESSURE. The maximum gauge pressure that a pressure vessel, device, component or system is designed to withstand safely under the temperature and conditions of use expected. DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, without a basem*nt or crawl space, used for the storage or use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from all structures. DETEARING. A process for rapidly removing excess wet coating material from a dipped or coated object or material by passing it through an electrostatic field. DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat, either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both. DETONATING CORD. A flexible cord containing a center core of high explosive used to initiate other explosives. DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. Detonations have an explosive effect. DETONATOR. A device containing any initiating or primary explosive that is used for initiating detonation. A detonator shall not contain more than 10 grams of total explosives by weight, excluding ignition or delay charges. The term includes, but is not limited to, electric blasting caps of

instantaneous and delay types, blasting caps for use with safety fuses, detonating cord delay connectors, and non-instantaneous and delay blasting caps which use detonating cord, shock tube or any other replacement for electric leg wires. All types of detonators in strengths through No. 8 cap should be rated at 0.68 kg of explosives per 1,000 caps. For strengths higher than No. 8 cap, consult the manufacturer. DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that provide treatment for substance abuse serving care recipients who are incapable of selfpreservation or who are harmful to themselves or others. DIP TANK. A tank, vat or container of flammable or combustible liquid in which articles or materials are immersed for the purpose of coating, finishing, treating and similar processes. DISCHARGE SITE. The immediate area surrounding the fireworks mortars used for an outdoor fireworks display.

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere. DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. A dispensing device that consists of one or more

individual units intended for installation in conjunction with each other, mounted above a dispensing area typically within the motor fueldispensing facility canopy structure, and characterized by the use of an overhead hose reel. DISPLAY SITE. The immediate area where a fireworks display is conducted. The display area includes the discharge site, the fallout area and the required separation distance from the mortars to spectator viewing areas. The display area does not include spectator viewing areas or vehicle parking areas. DOOR, BALANCED. See “Balanced door.” DOOR, DUTCH. See “Dutch door.” DOOR, LOW ENERGY POWEROPERATED. See “Low energy power-operated door.” DOOR, POWER-ASSISTED. assisted door.”

See

“Power-

DOOR, POWER-OPERATED. See “Poweroperated door.”

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Definitions

DOORWAY, EXIT ACCESS. See “Exit access doorway.”

more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses.

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) SPRINKLER. A sprinkler listed for early suppression fast response performance.

DRAFT CURTAIN. A structure arranged to limit the spread of smoke and heat along the underside of the ceiling or roof. DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics. DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder composed of small particles, usually of

sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, ureapotassium-based bicarbonate, potassium chloride or mono-ammonium phosphate, with added particulate material supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities. DRY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt, grease, paints and other stains from such items as wearing apparel, textiles, fabrics and rugs by use of non-aqueous liquids (solvents). DRY CLEANING PLANT. A facility in which dry cleaning and associated operations are conducted, including the office, receiving area and storage rooms. DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a building used for performing dry cleaning operations, the installation of solvent-handling equipment or the storage of dry cleaning solvents. DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Machinery or equipment in which textiles are immersed or agitated in solvent or in which dry cleaning solvent is extracted from textiles. DUTCH DOOR. A door divided horizontally so that the top can be operated independently from the bottom. DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or

EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a public way for one or more exits. ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material that is electrically charged with a charge opposite to that of the object to be coated. Such object is transported through the container immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order to be coated. ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a building located adjacent or directly across from one another that respond to a common hall call button(s). EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide indication and warning of emergency situations involving hazardous materials. EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved location on the premises where signals from emergency equipment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel. EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable window, door or other

similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emergency. EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. An exercise performed to train staff and occupants and to evaluate their efficiency and effectiveness in carrying out emergency evacuation procedures. EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM. A source of automatic electric power of a required capacity and duration to operate required life safety, fire alarm, detection and ventilation systems in the event of a failure of the primary power. Emergency power systems are required for electrical loads where interruption of the primary power could result in loss of human life or serious injuries. EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE. A valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids. EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, AUTOMATIC. A fail-safe automatic-closing valve

designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids initiated by a control system that is activated by automatic means.

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Definitions

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, MANUAL. A manually operated valve designed to shut off the

flow of gases or liquids. EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS.

VOICE/ALARM

Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a building. EMPLOYEE WORK AREA. All or any portion of a space used only by employees and only for work. Corridors, toilet rooms, kitchenettes and break rooms are not employee work areas. EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated platform used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, including the associated elevated walkways, stairways, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to access the platform (see Section 505.3 of SBC 201). EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. A fail-safe system or other approved means designed to shut off flow caused by a rupture in pressurized piping systems. EXCESS FLOW VALVE. A valve inserted into a compressed gas cylinder, portable tank or stationary tank that is designed to positively shut off the flow of gas in the event that its predetermined flow is exceeded. EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of equipment which consists of a top, a back and two sides providing a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to retain and exhaust locally the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures. EXISTING. Buildings, facilities or conditions that are already in existence, constructed or officially authorized prior to the adoption of this code. EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system between the exit access and the exit discharge or public way. Exit components include exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge, interior exit stairways and ramps, exit passageways, exterior exit stairways and ramps and horizontal exits. EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an exit. EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access

point along the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor, exit access stairway or ramp. EXIT ACCESS RAMP. A ramp within the exit access portion of the means of egress system. EXIT ACCESS STAIRWAY. A stairway within the exit access portion of the means of egress system. EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way. EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The story at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins. EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and

opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to the exit discharge. EXPANDED PLASTIC. A foam or cellular plastic material having a reduced density based on the presence of numerous small cavities or cells dispersed throughout the material. EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or structures. An explosion could result from any of the following: 1. Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration or detonation, decomposition of molecules and runaway polymerization (usually detonations). 2. Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures. 3. Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion). EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and display fireworks, 1.3G. The term “Explosive” includes any material determined to be within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes any material classified as an explosive other than consumer fireworks, 1.4G by the hazardous materials regulations of

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Definitions

DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185. High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap where unconfined. Low explosive. Explosive material that will burn or deflagrate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explosives include, but are not limited to, black powder, safety fuse, igniters, igniter cord, fuse lighters, fireworks, 1.3G and propellants, 1.3C. Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur immediately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so that two or more quantities must be considered as one for quantity-distance purposes. UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification system used by DOTn included the terms “high” and “low” explosives as defined herein. The following terms further define explosives under the current system applied by DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 materials. Compatibility group letters are used in concert with the division to specify further limitations on each division noted (for example, the letter G identifies the material as a pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance and similar materials). Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the entire load instantaneously. Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard. Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.

Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package. Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion hazard but which are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport. Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised of articles that contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation. EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL. The term “explosive” material means explosives, blasting agents and detonators. EXTERIOR EXIT RAMP. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and is open to yards, courts or public ways. EXTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and is open to yards, courts or public ways. EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that is used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than a fire wall, and that has a slope of 60 degrees or greater with the horizontal plane. EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage on racks of Class I, II, III or IV

commodities that exceed 12 m in height and storage on racks of high-hazard commodities that exceed 9 m in height. FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility and related research and development areas in which there are processes using hazardous production materials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to the fabrication area processes. FACILITY. A building or use in a fixed location including exterior storage areas for flammable and

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Definitions

combustible substances and hazardous materials, piers, wharves, tank farms and similar uses. This term includes recreational vehicles, mobile home and manufactured housing parks, sales and storage lots. FAIL-SAFE. A design condition incorporating a feature for automatically counteracting the effect of an anticipated possible source of failure; also, a design condition eliminating or mitigating a hazardous condition by compensating automatically for a failure or malfunction. FALLOUT AREA. The area over which aerial shells are fired. The shells burst over the area, and unsafe debris and malfunctioning aerial shells fall into this area. The fallout area is the location where a typical aerial shell dud falls to the ground depending on the wind and the angle of mortar placement. FALSE ALARM. The willful and knowing initiation or transmission of a signal, message or other notification of an event of fire when no such danger exists. FINES. Small pieces or splinters of wood byproducts that will pass through a 6.4 mm screen. FIRE ALARM. The giving, signaling or transmission to any public fire station, or company or to any officer or employee thereof, whether by telephone, spoken word or otherwise, of information to the effect that there is a fire at or near the place indicated by the person giving, signaling or transmitting such information. FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See “Manual fire alarm box.” FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices and may be capable of supplying power to detection devices and transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit may be capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification appliances and transfer of condition to relays or devices. FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic fire detector, waterflow switch or other device whose activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combination system consisting of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory signal-initiating

devices and to initiate the appropriate response to those signals. FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that provides fire apparatus access from a fire station to a facility, building or portion thereof. This is a general term inclusive of all other terms such as fire lane, public street, private street, parking lot lane and access roadway. FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or horizontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor next above. FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained. FIRE CHIEF. The chief officer of the fire department (Civil Defense) serving the jurisdiction, or a duly authorized representative. FIRE CODE OFFICIAL. The fire chief or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of the code, or a duly authorized representative. FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or unattended location where the status of detection, alarm communications and control systems is displayed, and from which the system(s) can be manually controlled. FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detection of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are classified for use in either static systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow. FIRE DEPARTMENT (CIVIL DEFENSE) MASTER KEY. A limited issue key of special or controlled design to be carried by fire department (Civil Defense) officials in command which will open key boxes on specified properties. FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action. FIRE DOOR. The door component of a fire door assembly.

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Definitions

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, frame, hardware and other accessories that together provide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening. FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed for use on fire door assemblies. FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessarily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus. FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are protected. FIRE POINT. The lowest temperature at which a liquid will ignite and achieve sustained burning when exposed to a test flame in accordance with ASTM D 92. FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an opening protective assembly will maintain the ability to confine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 716. Ratings are stated in hours or minutes. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof. FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use. FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a building element, component or assembly maintains the ability to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on tests, prescribed in Section 703 of the SBC 201. FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of specific materials or products that are

designed, tested and fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1966 or UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of fire through joints made in or between fireresistance-rated assemblies. FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for occupants or to control the spread of the harmful effects of fire. FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance

measured from the building face to one of the following: 1. The closest interior lot line. 2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way. 3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the lot. The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face of the wall. FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof, with sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall. FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure continuous and systematic surveillance of a building or portion thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the purposes of identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting early signs of unwanted fire, raising an alarm of fire and notifying the fire department. FIREBLOCKING. Building materials, or materials approved for use as fire blocking, installed to resist the free passage of flame to other areas of the building through concealed spaces. FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose of producing a visible or an audible effect for entertainment purposes by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks. Fireworks, 1.4G. Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts of pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce visible or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks which comply with the construction, chemical composition and labeling regulations of the DOTn for Fireworks, UN 0336, and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR Parts 1500 and 1507, are not explosive materials for the purpose of this code. Fireworks, 1.3G. Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation. Such 1.3G fireworks include, but are not limited to, firecrackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 grams of

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Definitions

pyrotechnic composition and other display pieces which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks. Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as Fireworks, UN 0335 by the DOTn. FIREWORKS DISPLAY. A presentation of fireworks for a public or private gathering. FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and flight instruction. FIXED SEATING. Furniture or fixtures designed and installed for the use of sitting and secured in place including bench-type seats and seats with or without back or arm rests. FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface. FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID. A cryogenic fluid that is flammable in its vapor state. FLAMMABLE FINISHES. Coatings to articles or materials in which the material being applied is a flammable liquid, combustible liquid, combustible powder, fiberglass resin or flammable or combustible gel coating. FLAMMABLE GAS. A material which is a gas at 20°C or less at 101 kPa of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 20°C or less at 101 kPa] which: 1. Is ignitable at 101 kPa when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air; or 2. Has a flammable range at 101 kPa with air of not less than 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit. The limits specified shall be determined at 101 kPa of pressure and a temperature of 20°C in accordance with ASTM E 681. FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A liquefied compressed gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 20°C and which is flammable. FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point below 38°C. Flammable liquids are further categorized into a group known as Class I

liquids. The Class I category is subdivided as follows: Class IA. Liquids having a flash point below 23°C and having a boiling point below 38°C. Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 23°C and having a boiling point at or above 38°C. Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 23°C and below 38°C. The category of flammable liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids. FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature of 316°C or less. FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has an ignition temperature below 100°C or which burns so vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid as determined in accordance with the test method of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.44, if it ignites and burns with a selfsustained flame at a rate greater than 2.2 mm per second along its major axis. FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. An area in which the concentration of flammable constituents (vapor, gas, fume, mist or dust) in air exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL) because of the flammable finish processes operation. It shall include: 1. The interior of spray booths. 2. The interior of ducts exhausting from spraying processes. 3. Any area in the direct path of spray or any area containing dangerous quantities of airsuspended powder, combustible residue, dust, deposits, vapor or mists as a result of spraying operations. 4. The area in the vicinity of dip tanks, drain boards or associated drying, conveying or other equipment during operation or shutdown periods. The fire code official is authorized to determine the extent of the flammable vapor area, taking into consideration the material characteristics of the flammable materials, the degree of sustained ventilation and the nature of the operations.

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Definitions

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of flammable constituents in air that exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL). FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Celsius at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278. FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUELDISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of a commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing property where liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles that are used in connection with such businesses, by persons within the employ of such businesses. FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads, winders or combination thereof from one landing to another. FLOAT. A floating structure normally used as a point of transfer for passengers and goods, or both, for mooring purposes. FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corridors, stairways, ramps, closets, the thickness of interior walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with no openings or interior courts. FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, ramps, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets. FLUE SPACES.

Longitudinal flue space. The flue space between rows of storage perpendicular to the direction of loading. Transverse flue space. The space between rows of storage parallel to the direction of loading. FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to

form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material through which the preheated object to be coated is immersed and transported. FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system discharging a foam made from concentrates, either mechanically or chemically, over the area to be protected. FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating having an overall shape and size that is capable of being reduced for purposes of moving or storing and is not a building element. FOSTER CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care to more than five children, 21/2 years of age or less. FUEL LIMIT SWITCH. A mechanism, located on a tank vehicle, that limits the quantity of product dispensed at one time. FUMIGANT. A substance which by itself or in combination with any other substance emits or liberates a gas, fume or vapor utilized for the destruction or control of insects, fungi, vermin, germs, rats or other pests, and shall be distinguished from insecticides and disinfectants which are essentially effective in the solid or liquid phases. Examples are methyl bromide, ethylene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, carbon disulfide and sulfuryl fluoride. FUMIGATION. The utilization within an enclosed space of a fumigant in concentrations that are hazardous or acutely toxic to humans. FURNACE CLASS A. An oven or furnace that has heat utilization equipment operating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there is a potential explosion or fire hazard that could be occasioned by the presence of flammable volatiles or combustible materials processed or heated in the furnace. Note: Such flammable volatiles or combustible materials can, for instance, originate from the following: 1. Paints, powders, inks, and adhesives from finishing processes, such as dipped, coated, sprayed and impregnated materials. 2. The substrate material. 3. Wood, paper and plastic pallets, spacers or packaging materials. 4. Polymerization or other molecular rearrangements. Potentially flammable materials, such as quench oil, water-borne

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Definitions

finishes, cooling oil or cooking oils, that present a hazard are ventilated according to Class A standards. FURNACE CLASS B. An oven or furnace that has heat utilization equipment operating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there are no flammable volatiles or combustible materials being heated. FURNACE CLASS C. An oven or furnace that has a potential hazard due to a flammable or other special atmosphere being used for treatment of material in process. This type of furnace can use any type of heating system and includes a special atmosphere supply system. Also included in the Class C classification are integral quench furnaces and molten salt bath furnaces. FURNACE CLASS D. An oven or furnace that operates at temperatures from above ambient to over 2760°C and at pressures normally below atmospheric using any type of heating system. These furnaces can include the use of special processing atmospheres. GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, ventilated, noncombustible enclosure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for exchanging cylinders and accessing pressureregulating controls are allowed to be included. GAS DETECTION SYSTEM, CONTINUOUS. See “Continuous gas detection system.” GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and supplies are stored or used. GAS ROOM, HYDROGEN “Hydrogen fuel gas room.”

FUEL.

opening is not more than 1100 mm above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening. GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 1800 mm from the building, between the building and a point 1800 mm from the building. GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see “Bleachers”). GROUP HOME. A facility for social rehabilitation, substance abuse or mental health problems that contains a group housing arrangement that provides custodial care but does not provide medical care. GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located at or near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to a lower level. GUEST ROOM. A room used or intended to be used by one or more guests for living or sleeping purposes. GYPSUM BOARD. Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheathing, gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum soffit board, pre decorated gypsum board or water resistant gypsum backing board complying with the standards listed in Tables 2506.2 and 2507.2 and Chapter 35 of SBC 201.

See

GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of piping, devices and apparatus designed to generate, store, contain, distribute or transport a nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen containing mixture having not less than 95-percent hydrogen gas by volume and not more than 1-percent oxygen by volume. Gaseous hydrogen systems consist of items such as compressed gas containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pressure regulators, pressure relief devices, manifolds, pumps, compressors and interconnecting piping and tubing and controls. GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces. HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms

of an element from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a point of storage or use. HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances which are physical hazards or health

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Definitions

hazards as defined and classified in this chapter, whether the materials are in usable or waste condition. HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A solid, liquid or gas associated with

semiconductor manufacturing that has a degree-ofhazard rating in health, flammability or instability of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or production processes which have, as their end product, materials that are not hazardous. HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The term “health hazard” includes chemicals that are toxic, highly toxic and corrosive. HEAT DETECTOR. See “Detector, heat.” HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas which are used, or intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport facilities. HELISTOP. The same as “Heliport,” except that fueling, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is not permitted. HI-BOY. A cart used to transport hot roofing materials on a roof. HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage of combustible materials in closely packed

piles or combustible materials on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of storage is greater than 3600 mm in height. Where required by the fire code official, high-piled combustible storage also includes certain high-hazard commodities, such as rubber tires, Group A plastics, flammable liquids, idle pallets and similar commodities, where the top of storage is greater than 1800 mm in height. HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. An area within a building which is designated, intended, proposed or actually used for high-piled combustible storage. HIGH-RISE BUILDING. A building with an occupied floor located more than 23 m above the lowest level of Civil Defense vehicle access. HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE. An

electrical power transmission line operating at or

above 66 kilovolts. HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose or lethal concentration which falls within any of the following categories: 1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. 2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for one hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. While this system is basically simple in application, any hazard evaluation that is required for the precise categorization of this type of material shall be performed by experienced, technically competent persons. HIGHLY VOLATILE LIQUID. A liquefied compressed gas with a boiling point of less than 20°C. HIGHWAY. A public street, public alley or public road. HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or designated as historic under governmental law. HOGGED MATERIALS. Wood waste materials produced from the lumber production process. HOOD. An air-intake device used to capture by entrapment, impingement, adhesion or similar means, grease and similar contaminants before they enter a duct system. Type I. A kitchen hood for collecting and removing

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Definitions

grease vapors and smoke. Type II. A general kitchen hood for collecting and removing steam vapor, heat, odors and products of combustion. HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistancerated floor or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained. HORIZONTAL EXIT. An exit component consisting of fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives intended to compartmentalize portions of a building thereby creating refuge areas that afford safety from fire and smoke from the area of fire origin. HOSPITALS AND PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS.

Facilities that provide care or treatment for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, or surgical treatment of inpatient care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation. HOT WORK. Operations including cutting, welding, Thermit welding, brazing, soldering, grinding, thermal spraying, thawing pipe, installation of torch-applied roof systems or any other similar activity. HOT WORK AREA. The area exposed to sparks, hot slag, radiant heat, or convective heat as a result of the hot work. HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. Electric or gas welding or cutting equipment used for hot work. HOT WORK PERMITS. Permits issued by the responsible person at the facility under the hot work permit program permitting welding or other hot work to be done in locations referred to in Section 3503.3 and pre-permitted by the fire code official. HOT WORK PROGRAM. A permitted program, carried out by approved facilities-designated personnel, allowing them to oversee and issue permits for hot work conducted by their personnel or at their facility. The intent is to have trained, onsite, responsible personnel ensure that required hot work safety measures are taken to prevent fires and fire spread. HPM FACILITY. See “Semiconductor fabrication facility.” HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which is classified as a Group H2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy.

HYDROGEN FUEL GAS ROOM. A room or space that is intended exclusively to house a gaseous hydrogen system. IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of airborne contaminants that poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from such an environment. This contaminant concentration level is established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). Where adequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by the fire code official shall make such determination. IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. The person responsible for the maintenance of a particular fire protection system. INCAPABLE OF SELF-PRESERVATION. Persons who, because of age, physical limitations, mental limitations, chemical dependency or medical treatment, cannot respond as an individual to an emergency situation. INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when mixed, have the potential to react in a manner which generates heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or property. INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other materials only under abnormal conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. Within the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit either physical or health hazard properties as defined (other than acting as a simple asphyxiant) or hazard properties other than those of a compressed gas. Some of the more common inert gases include argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen and xenon. INHABITED BUILDING. A building regularly occupied in whole or in part as a habitation for people, Mosques, schoolhouse, railroad station, store or other structure where people are accustomed to assemble, except any building or structure occupied in connection with the manufacture, transportation, storage or use of explosive materials. INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that

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Definitions

originates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch. INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. The utilization of insecticidal liquids passed through fog-generating units where, by means of pressure and turbulence, with or without the application of heat, such liquids are transformed and discharged in the form of fog or mist blown into an area to be treated. INTERIOR EXIT RAMP. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to the exit discharge or public way. INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to the exit discharge or public way. INTERIOR FINISH. Interior finish includes interior wall and ceiling finish and interior floor finish. INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. Interior floor finish trim used to provide a functional or decorative border at the intersection of walls and floors. INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH.

The

exposed interior surfaces of buildings, including but not limited to: fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room privacy partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, paneling or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation, structural fire resistance or similar purposes, but not including trim.

KEY BOX. A secure device with a lock operable only by a fire department (Civil Defense) master key, and containing building entry keys and other keys that may be required for access in an emergency. LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, approved agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. LEVEL OF EXIT DISCHARGE. See “Exit discharge, level of.” LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which operations for touch-up or spot painting of a surface area of 0.85 m2 or less are conducted. LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). A fluid in the liquid state composed predominantly of methane and which may contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other components normally found in natural gas. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LP-gas). A material which is composed predominantly of the following hydrocarbons or mixtures of them: propane, propylene, butane (normal butane or isobutane) and butylenes. LIQUID. A material having a melting point that is equal to or less than 20°C and a boiling point which is greater than 20°C at 101 kPa. Where not otherwise identified, the term “liquid” includes both flammable and combustible liquids. LIQUID OXYGEN AMBULATORY CONTAINER. A container used for liquid oxygen

IRRITANT. A chemical which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. A chemical is a skin irritant if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the methods of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.41 for an exposure of four or more hours or by other appropriate techniques, it results in an empirical score of 5 or more. A chemical is classified as an eye irritant if so determined under the procedure listed in CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.42 or other approved techniques.

not exceeding 1.5 liters specifically designed for use as a medical device as defined by 21 USC Chapter 9 that is intended for portable therapeutic use and to be filled from its companion base unit, a liquid oxygen home care container.

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code under due legislative authority.

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in a closed

LIQUID OXYGEN HOME CARE CONTAINER. A container used for liquid oxygen not exceeding 60

liters specifically designed for use as a medical device as defined by 21 USC Chapter 9 that is intended to deliver gaseous oxygen for therapeutic use in a home environment.

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Definitions

condition.

used for transporting or storing LP-gases.

LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE. A building classified as a Group H-2 or H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in a closed condition.

MAGAZINE. A building, structure or container, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials.

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the fire code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. LOCKDOWN. An emergency situation, in other than a Group I-3 occupancy, requiring that the occupants be sheltered and secured in place within a building when normal evacuation would put occupants at risk. LODGING HOUSE. A one-family dwelling where one or more occupants are primarily permanent in nature and rent is paid for guest rooms. LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See “Flue space—longitudinal.” LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place. LOW

ENERGY

POWER-OPERATED DOOR.

Swinging door which opens automatically upon an action by a pedestrian such as pressing a push plate or waving a hand in front of a sensor. The door closes automatically, and operates with decreased forces and decreased speeds. See also “Powerassisted door” and “Power-operated door.” LOW-PRESSURE TANK. A storage tank designed to withstand an internal pressure greater than 3.4 kPa but not greater than 103.4 kPa. LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See “Lower flammable limit.” LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum concentration of vapor in air at which

propagation of flame will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes referred to as LEL or lower explosive limit. LP-GAS CONTAINER. Any vessel, including cylinders, tanks, portable tanks and cargo tanks,

Indoor. A portable structure, such as a box, bin or other container, constructed as required for Type 2, 4 or 5 magazines in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55 so as to be fire resistant and theft resistant. Type 1. A permanent structure, such as a building or igloo, that is bullet resistant, fire resistant, theft resistant, weather resistant and ventilated in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55. Type 2. A portable or mobile structure, such as a box, skid-magazine, trailer or semitrailer, constructed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55 that is fire resistant, theft resistant, weather resistant and ventilated. If used outdoors, a Type 2 magazine is also bullet resistant. Type 3. A fire resistant, theft resistant and weather resistant “day box” or portable structure constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55 used for the temporary storage of explosive materials. Type 4. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as a building, igloo, box, semitrailer or other mobile container that is fire resistant, theft resistant and weather resistant and constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55. Type 5. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as a building, igloo, box, bin, tank, semitrailer, bulk trailer, tank trailer, bulk truck, tank truck or other mobile container that is theft resistant, which is constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55. MAGNESIUM. The pure metal and alloys, of which the major part is magnesium. MALL. See “Covered mall building.” MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal. MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods utilizing ladders or other non-mechanical equipment to move stock. MARINA. Any portion of the ocean or inland water, either naturally or artificially protected, for the mooring, servicing or safety of vessels and shall

SBC 801-CR-18

43

Definitions

include artificially protected works, the public or private lands ashore, and structures or facilities provided within the enclosed body of water and ashore for the mooring or servicing of vessels or the servicing of their crews or passengers. MARINE FACILITY.

MOTOR

FUEL-DISPENSING

That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as fuel for watercraft are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, floats or barges into the fuel tanks of watercraft and shall include all other facilities used in connection therewith. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). Information concerning a hazardous material which

is prepared in accordance with the provisions of DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1200. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA. The maximum amount of a

hazardous material allowed to be stored or used within a control area inside a building or an outdoor control area. The maximum allowable quantity per control area is based on the material state (solid, liquid or gas) and the material storage or use conditions. MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge. MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods utilizing motorized vehicles or hydraulic

jacks to move stock. MEDICAL CARE. Care involving medical or surgical procedures, nursing or for psychiatric purposes. MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. An air-inflated, air-supported, cable or frame-covered structure as defined by SBC 201and not otherwise defined as a tent. See Chapter 31 of SBC 201. MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for display of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as non-fixed and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions as indicated in Section 105.2 from which customers browse or shop. METAL HYDRIDE. A generic name for compounds composed of metallic element(s) and hydrogen.

METAL HYDRIDE STORAGE SYSTEM. A closed system consisting of a group of components

assembled as a package to contain metal-hydrogen compounds for which there exists an equilibrium condition where the hydrogen absorbing metal alloy(s), hydrogen gas and the metal-hydrogen compound(s) coexist and where only hydrogen gas is released from the system in normal use. MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Section 505 of SBC 201. MOBILE FUELING. The operation of dispensing liquid fuels from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles. Mobile fueling may also be known by the terms “Mobile fleet fueling,” “Wet fueling” and “Wet hosing.” MORTAR. A tube from which fireworks shells are fired into the air. MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more single-station alarm devices that can be

interconnected such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate. A multiple-station alarm device can consist of one single-station alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire alarm box. MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single-station alarm devices that are capable of

interconnection such that actuation of one causes the appropriate alarm signal to operate in all interconnected alarms. NESTING. A method of securing flat-bottomed compressed gas cylinders upright in a tight mass using a contiguous three point contact system whereby all cylinders within a group have not less than three points of contact with other cylinders, walls or bracing. NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). The weight of explosive material expressed in kg . The net explosive weight is the aggregate amount of explosive material contained within buildings, magazines, structures or portions thereof, used to establish quantity-distance relationships. NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 21°C and a pressure of 1

atmosphere [101 kPa]. NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings at the top of stairway flights. NOTIFICATION notification.”

SBC 801-CR-18

ZONE.

See

“Zone,

44

Definitions

NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be determined. NURSING HOMES. Facilities that provide care, including both intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing facilities, where any of the persons are incapable of self-preservation. OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION. For the purposes of this code, certain occupancies are defined as follows: Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink consumption; or awaiting transportation. Small buildings and tenant spaces. A building or tenant space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons shall be classified as a Group B occupancy. Small assembly spaces. The following rooms and spaces shall not be classified as assembly occupancies: 1. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy. 2. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is less than 70 m2 in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy. Associated with Group E occupancies. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is associated with a Group E occupancy is not considered a separate occupancy. Assembly Group A-1. Group A occupancy includes assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited to: • • •

Motion picture theaters Symphony and concert halls Television and radio studios admitting an audience Theaters Assembly Group A-2. Group A-2 occupancy

includes assembly uses intended for food and/or drink consumption including, but not limited to: • •

Banquet halls Restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities (including associated commercial kitchens) Assembly Group A-3. Group A-3 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or amusem*nt and other assembly uses not classified elsewhere in Group A, including, but not limited to: • • • • • •

Amusem*nt arcades Art galleries Bowling alleys Community halls Courtrooms Dance halls (not including food or drink consumption) • Exhibition halls • Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) • Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) • Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) • Lecture halls • Libraries Museums • Mosques and prayer halls • Pool and billiard parlors • Waiting areas in transportation terminals Assembly Group A-4. Group A-4 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with spectator seating including, but not limited to: • Arenas • Skating rinks • Swimming pools • Tennis courts Assembly Group A-5. Group A-5 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing outdoor activities including, but not limited to: • Amusem*nt park structures • Bleachers • Grandstands • Stadiums Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or

SBC 801-CR-18

45

Definitions

structure, or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transactions, including storage of records and accounts. Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following: • • • • • • • • •

Airport traffic control towers Ambulatory care facilities Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds Banks Barber and beauty shops Car wash Civic administration Clinic-outpatient Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations and self-service • Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade • Electronic data processing • Food processing establishments and commercial kitchens not associated with restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities not more than 232 m2 in area. • Laboratories: testing and research • Motor vehicle showrooms • Post offices • Print shops • Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physicians, engineers, etc.) • Radio and television stations • Telephone exchanges • Training and skill development not in a school or academic program (This shall include, but not be limited to, tutoring centers, martial arts studios, gymnastics and similar uses regardless of the ages served, and where not classified as a Group A occupancy). Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one time for educational purposes through the 12th grade.

Five or fewer children. A facility having five or fewer children receiving such care shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy. Five or fewer children in a dwelling unit. A facility such as the above within a dwelling unit and having five or fewer children receiving such care shall be classified as a Group R-3 occupancy or shall comply with SBC 1101. Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or processing operations that are not classified as a Group H highhazard or Group S storage occupancy. Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-hazard occupancy. Factory industrial uses that are not classified as Factory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following: •

• • • • • •

Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair) Appliances Athletic equipment Automobiles and other motor vehicles Bakeries Bicycles Boats Brooms or brushes Business machines Cameras and photo equipment Canvas or similar fabric Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning) Clothing Construction and agricultural machinery Disinfectants Dry cleaning and dyeing Electric generation plants Electronics Engines (including rebuilding) Food processing and commercial kitchens not associated with restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities more than 230 m2 in area. Furniture Hemp products Jute products Laundries Leather products Machinery

SBC 801-CR-18

46

Group E, day care facilities. This group includes buildings and structures or portions thereof occupied by more than five children older than 21/2 years of age who receive educational, supervision or personal care services for less than 24 hours per day.

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Definitions

• • •

Metals Millwork (sash and door) Motion pictures and television filming (without spectators) • Musical instruments • Optical goods • Paper mills or products • Photographic film • Plastic products • Printing or publishing • Refuse incineration • Shoes • Soaps and detergents • Textiles • Tobacco • Trailers • Upholstering • Wood; distillation • Woodworking (cabinet) Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occupancy. Factory industrial uses involving the fabrication or manufacturing of noncombustible materials that, during finishing, packaging or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard, shall be classified as Group F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Uses other than Group H. The storage, use or handling of hazardous materials as described in one or more of the following items shall not cause the occupancy to be classified as Group H, but it shall be classified as the occupancy that it most nearly resembles:

• Brick and masonry • Ceramic products • Foundries • Glass products • Gypsum • Ice • Metal products (fabrication and assembly) High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those allowed in control areas complying with Section 5003.8.3, based on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control areas set forth in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2). Hazardous occupancies are classified in Groups H-1, H-2, H3, H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accordance with this code and the requirements of Section 415 of SBC 201. Hazardous materials stored or used on top of roofs or canopies shall be classified as outdoor storage or use and shall comply with this code.

5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent having a flash point at or above 93°C.

1. Buildings and structures occupied for the application of flammable finishes, provided that such buildings or areas conform to the requirements of Chapter 24 of this code and Section 416 of SBC 201. 2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies conforming to Chapter 57. 3. Closed piping system containing flammable or combustible liquids or gases utilized for the operation of machinery or equipment. 4. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible liquid solvents having a flash point of 60°C or higher in closed systems employing equipment listed by an approved testing agency, provided that this occupancy is separated from all other areas of the building by 1-hour fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 or 1-hour horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 711, or both.

6. Refrigeration systems. 7. The storage or utilization of materials for agricultural purposes on the premises. 8. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency power, uninterruptible power supply or telecommunication facilities, provided that the batteries are equipped with safety venting caps and ventilation is provided in accordance with SBC 501. 9. Corrosive personal or household products in their original packaging used in retail display. 10. Commonly materials.

used

corrosive

building

11. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol storage shall be classified as Group S-1, provided that such buildings conform to the requirements of Chapter 51.

SBC 801-CR-18

47

Definitions

12. Display and storage of non-flammable solid and non-flammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies complying with Section 5003.8.3.5. 13. The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, M and S, provided such storage conforms to the quantity limits and requirements of this code. High-hazard Group H-1. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following: •

Detonable pyrophoric materials Explosives: Division 1.1 Division 1.2 Division 1.3 Division 1.4 Division 1.5 Division 1.6 • Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable • Oxidizers, Class 4 • Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable, and Class 4 Occupancies containing explosives not classified as H-1. The following occupancies containing explosive materials shall be classified as follows: 1. Division 1.3 explosive materials that are used and maintained in a form where either confinement or configuration will not elevate the hazard from a mass fire hazard to mass explosion hazard shall be allowed in Group H-2 occupancies. High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following: •

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 103.4 kPa Combustible dusts where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a

fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3 of the SBC 201 • • • •

Cryogenic fluids, flammable

Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled cotton, where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3 of the SBC 201

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common)

• • • • •

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing

Flammable gases Organic peroxides, Class I Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 103.4 kPa • Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable • Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable • Water-reactive materials, Class 3 High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures containing materials that readily support combustion or that pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Flammable solids Organic peroxides, Class II and III Oxidizers, Class 2 Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 103 kPa or less • Oxidizing gases • Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2 • Water-reactive materials, Class 2 High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures containing materials that are health hazards shall be classified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following: • Corrosives • Highly toxic materials • Toxic materials High-hazard Group H-5. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and

SBC 801-CR-18

48

Definitions

development areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of those listed in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2) shall be classified as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 415.11 of the SBC 201.

Five or fewer persons receiving custodial care. A facility with five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the SBC 1101 provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or with Section P2904 of the SBC 1101.

Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, in which care or supervision is provided to persons who are or are not capable of self preservation without physical assistance or in which persons are detained for penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group I-1, I-2, I3 or I-4.

Institutional Group I-2. Institutional Group I-2 occupancy shall include buildings and structures used for medical care on a 24-hour basis for more than five persons who are not capable of selfpreservation. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Institutional Group I-1. Institutional Group I-1 occupancy shall include buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who reside on a 24-hour basis in a supervised environment and receive custodial care. Buildings of Group I-1 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated below. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following: • • • • • • •

Alcohol and drug centers Assisted living facilities Congregate care facilities Group homes Halfway houses Residential board and care facilities Residential board and custodial care facilities • Social rehabilitation facilities Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which all persons receiving custodial care who, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation. Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which there are any persons receiving custodial care who require limited verbal or physical assistance while responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation. Six to 16 persons receiving custodial care. A facility housing not fewer than six and not more than 16 persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as Group R-4.

• Foster care facilities • Detoxification facilities • Hospitals • Nursing homes • Psychiatric hospitals Occupancy Conditions. Buildings of Group I-2 shall be classified as one of the following occupancy conditions: Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include facilities that provide nursing and medical care but do not provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics, or in-patient stabilization units for psychiatric or detoxification, including, but not limited to, nursing homes and foster care facilities. Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include facilities that provide nursing and medical care and could provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics, or inpatient stabilization units for psychiatric or detoxification, including, but not limited to, hospitals. Five or fewer persons receiving medical care. A facility with five or fewer persons receiving medical care shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the SBC 1101 provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or with Section P2904 of the SBC 1101. Institutional Group I-3. Institutional Group I-3 occupancy shall include buildings and structures which are inhabited by more than five persons who are under restraint or security. A Group I-3 facility is occupied by persons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to security measures not under the occupants’ control. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following: • •

SBC 801-CR-18

Correctional centers Detention centers

49

Definitions

• Jails • Prerelease centers • Prisons • Reformatories Buildings of Group I-3 shall be classified as one of the following occupancy conditions: Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted to the exterior via means of egress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed as Group R.

• Child day care Classification as Group E. A child day care facility that provides care for more than five but not more than 100 children 2-1/2 years or less of age, where the rooms in which the children are cared for are located on a level of exit discharge serving such rooms and each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall be classified as Group E. Five or fewer occupants receiving care. A facility having five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.

Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits.

Five or fewer occupants receiving care in a dwelling unit. A facility such as the above within a dwelling unit and having five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as a Group R-3 occupancy or shall comply with the SBC 1101.

Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-controlled release of means of egress from such smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.

Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remotecontrolled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

• Department stores • Drug stores • Markets • Motor fuel-dispensing facilities • Retail or wholesale stores • Sales rooms Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the SBC 1101.

Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments. Institutional Group I-4, day care facilities. Institutional Group I-4 shall include buildings and structures occupied by more than five persons of any age who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by persons other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage, or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared for. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following: •

Adult day care

Residential Group R-1. Residential Group R-1 occupancies containing sleeping units where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, including: •

Boarding houses (transient) with more than 10 occupants • Congregate living facilities (transient) with more than 10 occupants • Hotels (transient) • Motels (transient) Residential Group R-2. Residential Group R-2

SBC 801-CR-18

50

Definitions

occupancies containing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, including: • •

Apartment houses Boarding houses (non-transient) with more than 16 occupants • Congregate living facilities (non-transient) with more than 16 occupants • Dormitories • Hotels (non-transient) • Live/work units • Motels (non-transient) • Vacation timeshare properties Residential Group R-3. Residential Group R-3 occupancies where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R1, R-2, R-4 or I, including: •

Boarding houses (non-transient) with 16 or fewer occupants • Boarding houses (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants • Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units • Care facilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer persons receiving care • Congregate living facilities (non-transient) with 16 or fewer occupants • Congregate living facilities (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants • Lodging houses with five or fewer guest rooms Care facilities within a dwelling. Care facilities for five or fewer persons receiving care that are within a single-family dwelling are permitted to comply with the SBC 1101 provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or with SBC 1101. Lodging houses. Owner-occupied lodging houses with five or fewer guest rooms shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with SBC 1101. Residential Group R-4. Residential Group R-4 shall include buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than five but not more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who reside on a 24-hour basis in a supervised residential environment and receive custodial care. Buildings of Group R-4 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated below. This group shall include, but not

be limited to, the following: • Alcohol and drug centers • Assisted living facilities • Congregate care facilities • Group homes • Halfway houses • Residential board and care facilities • Social rehabilitation facilities Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in SBC 201. Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which all persons receiving custodial care, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation. Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which there are any persons receiving custodial care who require limited verbal or physical assistance while responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation. Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occupancy. Accessory storage spaces. A room or space used for storage purposes that is less than 9 m2 in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as part of that occupancy. The aggregate area of such rooms or spaces shall not exceed the allowable area limits of Section 508.2 of SBC 201. Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Storage Group S-1 occupancies are buildings occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, including, but not limited to, storage of the following: • • • • • • • • • •

SBC 801-CR-18

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 Aircraft hangar (storage and repair) Bags: cloth, burlap and paper Bamboos and rattan Baskets Belting: canvas and leather Books and paper in rolls or packs Boots and shoes Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone Cardboard and cardboard boxes

51

Definitions

• • • • • • • • • • •

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel Cordage Dry boat storage (indoor) Furniture Furs Glues, mucilage, pastes and size Grains Horns and combs, other than celluloid Leather Linoleum Lumber Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in Table 5003.1.1(1), (see Section 406.8 of SBC 201) • Photo engravings • Resilient flooring • Silks • Soaps • Sugar • Tires, bulk storage of • Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff • Upholstery and mattresses • Wax candles Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Storage Group S-2 occupancies include, among others, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Storage uses shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following: • • • • • • • • • • •

Asbestos Cement in bags Chalk and crayons Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers Dry cell batteries Electrical coils Electrical motors Empty cans Food products Foods in noncombustible containers Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers

• • •

Frozen foods Glass Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids • Gypsum board • Inert pigments • Ivory • Meats • Metal cabinets • Metal desks with plastic tops and trim • Metal parts • Metals • Mirrors • Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers Parking garages, open or enclosed • Porcelain and pottery • Stoves • Talc and soapstones • Washers and dryers Miscellaneous Group U. Buildings and structures of an accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the following: • •

Agricultural buildings Aircraft hangar, accessory to a oneor twofamily residence (see Section 412.5 of SBC 201) • Barns Carports • Fences more than 1800 mm high • Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy • Greenhouses • Livestock shelters • Private garages • Retaining walls • Sheds • Stables • Tanks • Towers OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed.

SBC 801-CR-18

52

Definitions

OPEN BURNING. The burning of materials wherein products of combustion are emitted directly into the ambient air without passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed chamber. Open burning does not include road flares, smudge pots and similar devices associated with safety or occupational uses typically considered open flames, recreational fires or use of portable outdoor fireplaces. For the purpose of this definition, a chamber shall be regarded as enclosed when, during the time combustion occurs, only apertures, ducts, stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to provide combustion air and permit the escape of exhaust gas are open. OPEN-ENDED CORRIDOR. An interior corridor that is open on each end and connects to an exterior stairway or ramp at each end with no intervening doors or separation from the corridor. OPEN MALL. See “Covered mall building.” OPEN MALL BUILDING. See “Covered mall building.” OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.5.2 of SBC 201 on two or more sides that is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.5 of SBC 201. OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations. OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunction with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another with the use of intraplant or intraline distances. OPERATING LINE. A group of buildings, facilities or workstations so arranged as to permit performance of the steps in the manufacture of an explosive or in the loading, assembly, modification and maintenance of ammunition or devices containing explosive materials. OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a system operates. ORGANIC COATING. A liquid mixture of

binders such as alkyd, nitrocellulose, acrylic or oil, and flammable and combustible solvents such as hydrocarbon, ester, ketone or alcohol, which, when spread in a thin film, convert to a durable protective and decorative finish. ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains the bivalent -O-Ostructure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radical. Organic peroxides can present an explosion hazard (detonation or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can also decompose into various unstable compounds over an extended period of time. Class I. Describes those formulations that are capable of deflagration but not detonation. Class II. Describes those formulations that burn very rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard. Class III. Describes those formulations that burn rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard. Class IV. Describes those formulations that burn in the same manner as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity hazard. Class V. Describes those formulations that burn with less intensity than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion and that pose no reactivity hazard. Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capable of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high-explosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition. OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. An outdoor area that contains hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities Table 5003.1.1(3) or Table 5003.1.1(4). OUTPATIENT CLINIC. See “Clinic, outpatient.” OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when either there are more people in a building, structure or portion thereof than have been authorized or posted by the fire code official, or when the fire code official determines that a threat exists to the safety of the occupants due to persons sitting and/or standing in locations that may obstruct or impede the use of aisles, passages, corridors, stairways, exits or other components of the means of egress. OWNER. Corporation, firm, partnership, association, organization and any other group

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acting as a unit, or a person who has legal title to any structure or premises with or without accompanying actual possession thereof, and shall include the duly authorized agent or attorney, a purchaser, devisee, fiduciary and any person having a vested or contingent interest in the premises in question. OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate combustion of combustible materials and, if heated or contaminated, can result in vigorous self-sustained decomposition. Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical shock and that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes into contact. Additionally, the oxidizer causes a severe increase in the burning rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of combustibles. Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact. Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact. Class 1. An oxidizer that does not moderately increase the burning rate of combustible materials. OXIDIZING CRYOGENIC FLUID. oxidizing gas in the cryogenic state.

An

OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate combustion of other materials more than air does. OZONE-GAS GENERATOR. Equipment which causes the production of ozone. PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporating a device that releases the latch upon the application of a force in the direction of egress travel. See also “Fire exit hardware.” PASS-THROUGH. An enclosure installed in a wall with a door on each side that allows chemicals, HPM, equipment, and parts to be transferred from one side of the wall to the other. PENTHOUSE. An enclosed, unoccupied rooftop structure used for sheltering mechanical and electrical equipment, tanks, elevators and related machinery, and vertical shaft openings. PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). The maximum permitted 8-hour time-weighted-average

concentration of an air-borne contaminant. The exposure limits to be utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. The Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the fire code official that authorizes performance of a specified activity. PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid. PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of persons who do not require medical care. Personal care involves responsibility for the safety of the persons while inside the building. PESTICIDE. A substance or mixture of substances, including fungicides, intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating pests and substances or a mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant or desiccant. PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emitting light that continues for a length of time after excitation by visible or invisible light has been removed. PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evidence that it is a combustible liquid, cryogenic fluid, explosive, flammable (solid, liquid or gas), organic peroxide (solid or liquid), oxidizer (solid or liquid), oxidizing gas, pyrophoric (solid, liquid or gas), unstable (reactive) material (solid, liquid or gas) or water-reactive material (solid or liquid). PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD. A concentration of air-borne contaminants, normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/ m3), that represents the concentration at which persons can sense the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or other quick-acting

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Definitions

physiological responses. When used in conjunction with the permissible exposure limit (PEL), the physiological warning threshold levels are those consistent with the classification system used to establish the PEL. See the definition of “Permissible exposure limit (PEL).” PIER. A structure built over the water, supported by pillars or piles, and used as a landing place, pleasure pavilion or similar purpose. PLENUM. An enclosed portion of the building structure, other than an occupiable space being conditioned, that is designed to allow air movement and thereby serve as part of an air distribution system. PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL. Two or more unmixed, commercially manufactured, prepackaged chemical substances including oxidizers, flammable liquids or solids, or similar substances that are not independently classified as explosives but which, when mixed or combined, form an explosive that is intended for blasting. PLYWOOD AND VENEER MILLS. Facilities where raw wood products are processed into finished wood products, including waferboard, oriented strand board, fiberboard, composite wood panels and plywood. PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE. A portable, outdoor, solid-fuel-burning fireplace that may be

constructed of steel, concrete, clay or other noncombustible material. A portable outdoor fireplace may be open in design, or may be equipped with a small hearth opening and a short chimney or chimney opening in the top. POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A forklift, tractor, platform lift truck or motorized hand truck powered by an electrical motor or internal combustion engine. Powered industrial trucks do not include farm vehicles or automotive vehicles for highway use. POWER-ASSISTED DOOR. Swinging door that opens by reduced pushing or pulling force on the door-operating hardware. The door closes automatically after the pushing or pulling force is released, and functions with decreased forces. See also “Low energy power-operated door” and “Power-operated door.” POWER-OPERATED DOOR. Swinging, sliding, or folding door that opens automatically when approached by a pedestrian or opens automatically upon an action by a pedestrian. The

door closes automatically and includes provisions such as presence sensors to prevent entrapment. See also “Low energy power-operated door” and “Power-assisted door.” PRESSURE VESSEL. A closed vessel designed to operate at pressures above 103 kPa. PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of containment, consisting of the inside portion of that container which comes into immediate contact on its inner surface with the material being contained. PRIVATE GARAGE. A building or portion of a building in which motor vehicles used by the tenants of the building or buildings on the premises are stored or kept, without provisions for repairing or servicing such vehicles for profit. PROCESS TRANSFER. The transfer of flammable or combustible liquids between tank vehicles or tank cars and process operations. Process operations may include containers, tanks, piping and equipment. PROPELLANT. The liquefied or compressed gas in an aerosol container that expels the contents from an aerosol container when the valve is actuated. A propellant is considered flammable if it forms a flammable mixture with air, or if a flame is selfpropagating in a mixture with air. PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. An audience closer to pyrotechnic devices than allowed by NFPA 1123. PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. See “Hospitals.” PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE (PTR). Any public street, road, highway, navigable stream or passenger railroad that is used for through traffic by the general public. PUBLIC-USE AREAS. Interior or exterior rooms or spaces that are made available to the general public. PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and which has a clear width and height of not less than 3000 mm. PYROPHORIC. A chemical with an autoignition temperature in air, at or below a temperature of 54°C. PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE. A pyrotechnic device for use in the entertainment industry, which is not classified as fireworks. PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical

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Definitions

mixture that produces visible light displays or sounds through a self propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is initiated by ignition.

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope).

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. A visible or audible effect for entertainment created through the use of pyrotechnic materials and devices.

RAMP, EXIT ACCESS. See “Exit access ramp.”

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL-EFFECT MATERIAL. A chemical mixture used in the

RAMP, INTERIOR EXIT. See “Interior exit ramp.”

entertainment industry to produce visible or audible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation. Such a chemical mixture predominantly consists of solids capable of producing a controlled, selfsustaining and self-contained exothermic chemical reaction that results in heat, gas sound, light or a combination of these effects. The chemical reaction functions without external oxygen.

RAMP, EXTERIOR EXIT. See “Exterior exit ramp.”

RAW PRODUCT. A mixture of natural materials such as tree, brush trimmings, or waste logs and stumps. READY BOX. A weather-resistant container with a self closing or automatic-closing cover that protects fireworks shells from burning debris. Tarpaulins shall not be considered as ready boxes.

PYROTECHNICS. Controlled exothermic chemical reactions timed to create the effects of heat, hot gas, sound, dispersion of aerosols, emission of visible light or a combination of such effects to achieve the maximum effect from the least volume of pyrotechnic composition.

RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings (“as builts”) that document the location of all devices, appliances, wiring, sequences, wiring methods and connections of the components of a fire alarm system as installed.

QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D). The quantity of explosive material and separation distance relationships providing protection. These relationships are based on levels of risk considered acceptable for the stipulated exposures and are tabulated in the appropriate Q-D tables. The separation distances specified afford less than absolute safety:

RECREATIONAL FIRE. An outdoor fire burning materials other than rubbish where the fuel being burned is not contained in an incinerator, outdoor fireplace, portable outdoor fireplace, barbeque grill or barbeque pit and has a total fuel area of 900 mm or less in diameter and 600 mm or less in height for pleasure, ceremonial, cooking, warmth or similar purposes.

Inhabited building distance (IBD). The minimum separation distance between an operating building or magazine containing explosive materials and an inhabited building or site boundary.

REDUCED FLOW VALVE. A valve equipped with a restricted flow orifice and inserted into a compressed gas cylinder, portable tank or stationary tank that is designed to reduce the maximum flow from the valve under full-flow conditions. The maximum flow rate from the valve is determined with the valve allowed to flow to atmosphere with no other piping or fittings attached.

Intermagazine distance (IMD). The minimum separation distance between magazines. Intraline distance (ILD) or Intraplant distance (IPD). The distance to be maintained between any two operating buildings on an explosives manufacturing site when at least one contains or is designed to contain explosives, or the distance between a magazine and an operating building. Minimum separation distance (Do). The minimum separation distance between adjacent buildings occupied in conjunction with the manufacture, transportation, storage or use of explosive materials where one of the buildings contains explosive materials and the other building does not.

RAILWAY. A steam, electric or other railroad or railway that carriers passengers for hire.

REFINERY. A plant in which flammable or combustible liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline or other hydrocarbon sources. REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigeration system; the refrigerant absorbs heat and transfers it at a higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a change of state. REFRIGERATING (REFRIGERATION) SYSTEM. A combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting heat.

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REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An architect or engineer, registered or licensed to practice professional architecture or engineering, as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws set by the Saudi Council of Engineers. REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE. The combination of an operator-carried signaling

device and a mechanism on the tank vehicle. Activation of the remote emergency shutoff device sends a signal to the tanker mounted mechanism and causes fuel flow to cease. REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. A liquid solvent container enclosed against evaporative losses to the atmosphere during periods when the container is not being utilized, except for a solvent return opening not larger than 0.01 m2. Such return allows pump-cycled used solvent to drain back into the reservoir from a separate solvent sink or work area. REMOTELY ACTIVATED

LOCATED,

MANUALLY

SHUTDOWN CONTROL. A control system that is designed to initiate shutdown of the flow of gases or liquids that is manually activated from a point located some distance from the delivery system. REPAIR GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof used for servicing or repairing motor vehicles. RESIN APPLICATION AREA. An area where reinforced plastics are used to manufacture products by hand lay-up or spray-fabrication methods. RESPONSIBLE PERSON. A person trained in the safety and fire safety considerations concerned with hot work. Responsible for reviewing the sites prior to issuing permits as part of the hot work permit program and following up as the job progresses. RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. The area of a Group M occupancy open for the purpose of viewing or purchasing merchandise offered for sale. Individuals in such establishments are free to circulate among the items offered for sale which are typically displayed on shelves, racks or the floor. ROLL COATING. The process of coating, spreading and impregnating fabrics, paper or other materials as they are passed directly through a tank or trough containing flammable or combustible liquids, or over the surface of a roller revolving partially submerged in a flammable or combustible liquid.

RUBBISH (TRASH). Combustible and noncombustible waste materials, including residue from the burning of coal, wood, co*ke or other combustible material, paper, rags, cartons, tin cans, metals, mineral matter, glass crockery, dust and discarded refrigerators, and heating, cooking or incinerator type appliances. SAFETY CAN. An approved container of not more than 19 L capacity having a spring-closing lid and spout cover so designed that it will relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure. SCISSOR STAIRWAY. Two interlocking stairways providing two separate paths of egress located within one exit enclosure. SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. That level of containment that is external to and separate from primary containment. SEED COTTON. See “Cotton.” SEGREGATED. Storage in the same room or inside area, but physically separated by distance from incompatible materials. SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other opening, means equipped with an approved device that will ensure closing after having been opened. SELF-LUMINOUS. Illuminated by a selfcontained power source, other than batteries, and operated independently of external power sources. SELF-PRESERVATION, INCAPABLE OF. See “Incapable of self-preservation.” SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of motor fuel-dispensing

facility where liquid motor fuels are dispensed from fixed approved dispensing equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles by persons other than a motor fuel-dispensing facility attendant. SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. A building or a portion of a building in which

electrical circuits or devices are created on solid crystalline substances having electrical conductivity greater than insulators but less than conductors. These circuits or devices are commonly known as semiconductors. SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for transporting HPM and purposes other than required means of egress. SHELF STORAGE. Storage on shelves less than 750 mm deep with the distance between shelves not exceeding 900 mm vertically. For other shelving

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Definitions

equipment and the alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.

SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.

SITE. A parcel of land bounded by a lot line or a designated portion of a public right-of-way.

SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. A system, fabricated on site and intended for

SMOKE-DEVELOPED

arrangements, see the requirements for rack storage. SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, the control

acoustical, tackable or aesthetic purposes, that is composed of three elements: 1. A frame constructed of plastic, wood, metal or other material used to hold fabric in place; 2. A core material (infill, with the correct properties for the application); and 3. An outside layer, comprised of a textile, fabric or vinyl, that is stretched taut and held in place by tension or mechanical fasteners via the frame. SKY LANTERN. An unmanned device with a fuel source that incorporates an open flame in order to make the device airborne. SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units. SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. A shotgun, rifle or pistol cartridge and any cartridge for propellantactuated devices. This definition does not include military ammunition containing bursting charges or incendiary, trace, spotting or pyrotechnic projectiles. SMALL ARMS PRIMERS. Small percussionsensitive explosive charges, encased in a cap, used to ignite propellant powder. SMOKE ALARM. A single or multiple-station alarm responsive to smoke. See also “Single-station smoke alarm” and “Multiple-station smoke alarm.” SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and bottom.

INDEX.

A comparative

measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. SMOKE-PROTECTED

ASSEMBLY SEATING.

Seating served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumulation within or under a structure. SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. Solid propellants, commonly referred to as smokeless powders, used in small arms ammunition, cannons, rockets, propellant-actuated devices and similar articles. SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An interior exit stairway designed and constructed so that the movement of the products of combustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building into the enclosure is limited. SOLID. A material that has a melting point and decomposes or sublimes at a temperature greater than 20°C. SOLID BIOFUEL. Densified biomass made in the form of cubiform, polyhedral, polyhydric or cylindrical units, produced by compressing milled biomass. SOLID BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK. The basic materials of which solid biofuel is composed, manufactured or made. SOLID SHELVING. Shelving that is solid, slatted or of other construction located in racks and which obstructs sprinkler discharge down into the racks. SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. An appliance that receives contaminated flammable or combustible liquids and which distills the contents to remove contaminants and recover the solvents. SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. A method for classifying solvents or liquids according

to the following classes: Class I solvents. Liquids having a flash point below 38°C. Class II solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or

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Definitions

above 38°C and below 60°C.

stairway.”

Class IIIA solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 60°C and below 93°C.

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR EXIT. See “Exterior exit stairway.”

Class IIIB solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 93°C.

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR EXIT. See “Interior Exit Stairway.”

Class IV solvents. Liquids classified as nonflammable.

STAIRWAY, SCISSOR. See “Scissor stairway.”

SPECIAL AMUsem*nT BUILDING. A building that is temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction as a form of amusem*nt arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally confounded egress path, or is not readily available because of the mode of conveyance through the building or structure. SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. An explosive power pack containing an explosive

charge in the form of a cartridge or construction device. The term includes but is not limited to explosive rivets, explosive bolts, explosive charges for driving pins or studs, cartridges for explosiveactuated power tools and charges of explosives used in automotive air bag inflators, jet tapping of open hearth furnaces and jet perforation of oil well casings. SPRAY BOOTH. A mechanically ventilated appliance of varying dimensions and construction provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation and to confine and limit the escape of spray vapor and residue and to exhaust it safely. SPRAY ROOM. A room designed to accommodate spraying operations, constructed in accordance with SBC 201 and separated from the remainder of the building by a minimum 1-hour fire barrier. SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which dangerous quantities of flammable vapors or combustible residues, dusts or deposits are present due to the operation of spraying processes. The fire code official is authorized to define the limits of the spraying space in any specific case. STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers. STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another.

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter supporting column. STANDBY POWER SYSTEM. A source of automatic electric power of a required capacity and duration to operate required building, hazardous materials or ventilation systems in the event of a failure of the primary power. Standby power systems are required for electrical loads where interruption of the primary power could create hazards or hamper rescue or fire-fighting operations. STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES Standpipe system classes are as follows:

OF.

Class I system. A system providing 64 mm hose connections to supply water for use by Civil Defense and those trained in handling heavy fire streams. Class II system. A system providing 38 mm hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the building occupants or by the Civil Defense during initial response. Class III system. A system providing 38 mm hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants and 64 mm hose connections to supply a larger volume of water for use by Civil Defense and those trained in handling heavy fire streams. STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows: Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a dry pipe valve, to admit water into the system piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand. Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water supply that is capable of supplying the system demand automatically. Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a permanent water supply attached to the

STAIRWAY, EXIT ACCESS. See “Exit access

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Definitions

system. Manual dry standpipe systems require water from a Civil Defense pumper to be pumped into the system through the Civil Defense connection in order to supply the system demand.

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to monitor performance of guard tours and the operative condition of fixed suppression systems or other systems for the protection of life and property.

Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the system but which does not have a water supply capable of delivering the system demand attached to the system. Manual wet standpipe systems require water from a Civil Defense pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to supply the system demand.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the fire suppression systems or equipment, or the maintenance features of related systems.

Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a remote control device located at a hose connection. A remote control activation device shall be provided at each hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand. STATIC PILES. Piles in which processed wood product or solid biomass feedstock is mounded and is not being turned or moved. STEEL. Hot or cold-rolled as defined by SBC 201. STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials

in closed containers, tanks, cylinders, or similar vessels; or vessels supplying operations through closed connections to the vessel. STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above (see “Basem*nt,” “Building height,” “Grade plane” and “Mezzanine”). A story is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters. STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which the finished surface of the floor next above is: 1. More than 1800 mm above grade plane; or 2. More than 3600 mm above the finished ground level at any point. SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives signals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond to these signals.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An initiating device such as a valve supervisory

switch, water level indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler system whose change of state signals an off-normal condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety system; or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fire suppression systems or equipment, or maintenance features of related systems. SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment consisting of a tank, container or containers, appurtenances, pumps, compressors and connecting piping. TANK. A vessel containing more than 225 L. TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. A storage tank designed to operate at pressures from 101 kPa to 108 kPa measured at the top of the tank. TANK, PORTABLE. A packaging of more than 225 L capacity and designed primarily to be loaded into or on or temporarily attached to a transport vehicle or ship and equipped with skids, mountings or accessories to facilitate handling of the tank by mechanical means. It does not include any cylinder having less than a 450 kg water capacity, cargo tank, tank car tank or trailers carrying cylinders of more than 450 kg water capacity. TANK, PRIMARY. A listed atmospheric tank used to store liquid. See “Primary containment.” TANK, PROTECTED ABOVE GROUND. A tank listed in accordance with UL 2085 consisting of a primary tank provided with protection from physical damage and fire-resistive protection from a high-intensity liquid pool fire exposure. The tank may provide protection elements as a unit or may be an assembly of components, or a combination thereof. TANK, STATIONARY. Packaging designed primarily for stationary installations not intended for loading, unloading or attachment to a transport vehicle as part of its normal operation in the process of use. It does not include cylinders having less than

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Definitions

per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours

a 450 kg water capacity. TANK VEHICLE. A vehicle other than a railroad tank car or boat, with a cargo tank mounted thereon or built as an integral part thereof, used for the transportation of flammable or combustible liquids, LP-gas or hazardous chemicals. Tank vehicles include self-propelled vehicles and full trailers and semitrailers, with or without motive power, and carrying part or all of the load. TEMPORARY STAGE CANOPY. A temporary ground supported membrane-covered frame structure used to cover stage areas and support equipment in the production of outdoor entertainment events. TENT. A structure, enclosure or shelter, with or without sidewalls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material supported by any manner except by air or the contents that it protects. THEFT RESISTANT. Construction designed to deter illegal entry into facilities for the storage of explosive materials. TIMBER AND LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. Facilities where raw wood products

are processed into finished wood products. TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the area available for storage exceeds 566 m3. TOOL. A device, storage container, workstation or process machine used in a fabrication area. TORCH-APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. Bituminous roofing systems using membranes that are adhered by heating with a torch and melting asphalt back coating instead of mopping hot asphalt for adhesion. TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on not less than two sides. TOXIC. A chemical falling within any of the following categories: 1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. 2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 1,000 milligrams

3. (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 4. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than 200 parts per million but not more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICES. Traffic calming devices are design elements of fire apparatus access roads such as street alignment, installation of barriers, and other physical measures intended to reduce traffic and cut-through volumes, and slow vehicle speeds. TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit for not more than 30 days. TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another location and that is at the transient location for not more than 90 days. TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. See “Flue space—Transverse.” TRASH. See “Rubbish.” TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or component. TUBE TRAILER. A semitrailer on which a number of tubular gas cylinders have been mounted. A manifold is typically provided that connects the cylinder valves enabling gas to be discharged from one or more tubes or cylinders through a piping and control system. TWENTY-FOUR HOUR BASIS. See “24-hour basis” before the “A” entries. UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE. A release or emission of materials in a manner which does not conform to the provisions of this code or applicable public health and safety regulations. UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense or become self-

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reactive and undergo other violent chemical changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows: Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This class includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or localized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures. Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but which require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement before initiation. This class includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechanical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures. Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unstable and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not detonate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemical change with rapid release of energy at normal temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures. Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressure. UNWANTED FIRE. A fire not used for cooking, heating or recreational purposes or one not incidental to the normal operations of the property. USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, including solids, liquids and gases. VAPOR PRESSURE. The pressure exerted by a volatile fluid as determined in accordance with ASTM D 323. VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space. VESSEL. A motorized watercraft, other than a seaplane on the water, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation. Nontransportation vessels, such as houseboats and boathouses, are included in this definition. VISIBLE APPLIANCE.

ALARM NOTIFICATION A notification appliance that alerts

by the sense of sight. WATER MIST SYSTEM, AUTOMATIC. See “Automatic water mist system.”

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that explodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows: Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water without requiring heat or confinement. Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have the ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases, or evolve enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture. Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release of energy, but not violently. WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A solution of water and potassium-carbonate-based

chemical, potassium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, forming an extinguishing agent. WET FUELING. See “Mobile fueling.” WET HOSING. See “Mobile fueling.” WHARF. A structure or bulkhead constructed of wood, stone, concrete or similar material built at the shore of a harbor, lake or river for vessels to lie alongside of, and to anchor piers or floats. WILDFIRE RISK AREA. Land that is covered with grass, grain, brush or forest, whether privately or publicly owned, which is so situated or is of such inaccessible location that a fire originating upon it would present an abnormally difficult job of suppression or would result in great or unusual damage through fire or such areas designated by the fire code official. WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges. WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid of wire. WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent principal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serving a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and

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other processing and scientific equipment. YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by SBC 201, on the lot on which a building is situated. ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of control can be executed. ZONE, NOTIFICATION. An area within a building or facility covered by notification appliances which are activated simultaneously.

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Bibliography The following resource materials were used in the preparation of the commentary for this chapter of the code: 1. 2009 International Code Interpretations. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2009. 2. Babrauskas, V., “Heat Release Rates,” Chapter 3-1, SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 4th Edition. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 2008. 3. Bulletin 19A, Suggested Relative Hazard Classification of Organic Peroxides. Washington, DC: Society of the Plastics Industry, 1975. 4. Code Changes Resource Collection International Building Code/2012. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2011. 5. Code Changes Resource Collection International Fire Code/2012. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2011. 6. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials, 13th Edition. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 2001. 7. Gottuk, D., and White D., “Liquid Fuel Fires,” Chapter 2-15, SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, 4th Edition. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 2008.

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Part II—General Safety Provisions

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GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

SECTION 301 GENERAL 301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the occupancy and maintenance of all structures and premises for precautions against fire and the spread of fire and general requirements of fire safety. 301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6 for the activities or uses regulated by Sections 306, 307, 308 and 315.

SECTION 302 DEFINITIONS 302.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2: • • • • • • • •

BONFIRE. HI-BOY. HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE. OPEN BURNING. PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE. POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. RECREATIONAL FIRE. SKY LANTERN.

303.4 Attendant. An operating kettle shall be attended by not less than one employee knowledgeable of the operations and hazards. The employee shall be within 30 m of the kettle and have the kettle within sight. Ladders or similar obstacles shall not form a part of the route between the attendant and the kettle. 303.5 Fire extinguishers. There shall be a portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 40B:C rating within 7.5 m of each asphalt (tar) kettle during the period such kettle is being utilized. Additionally, there shall be one portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 3-A:40-B:C rating on the roof being covered. 303.6 Lids. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall be equipped with tight fitting lids. 303.7 Hi-boys. Hi-boys shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Hi-boys shall be limited to a capacity of 208 L. Fuel sources or heating elements shall not be allowed as part of a hi-boy. 303.8 Roofing kettles. Roofing kettles shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. 303.9 Fuel containers under air pressure. Fuel containers that operate under air pressure shall not exceed 75 L in capacity and shall be approved.

SECTION 303 ASPHALT KETTLES 303.1 Transporting. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be transported over any highway, road or street when the heat source for the kettle is operating. Exception: Asphalt (tar) kettles in the process of patching road surfaces. 303.2 Location. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be located within 6 m of any combustible material, combustible building surface or any building opening and within a controlled area identified by the use of traffic cones, barriers or other approved means. Asphalt (tar) kettles and pots shall not be utilized inside or on the roof of a building or structure. Roofing kettles and operating asphalt (tar) kettles shall not block means of egress, gates, roadways or entrances. 303.3 Location of fuel containers. Fuel containers shall be located not less than 3000 mm from the burner. Exception: Containers properly insulated from heat or flame are allowed to be within 600 mm of the burner.

SECTION 304 COMBUSTIBLE WASTE MATERIAL 304.1 Waste accumulation prohibited. Combustible waste material creating a fire hazard shall not be allowed to accumulate in buildings or structures or upon premises. 304.1.1 Waste mater ial. Accumulations of wastepaper, wood, hay, straw, weeds, litter or combustible or flammable waste or rubbish of any type shall not be permitted to remain on a roof or in any court, yard, vacant lot, alley, parking lot, open space, or beneath a grandstand, bleacher, pier, wharf, manufactured home, recreational vehicle or other similar structure. 304.1.2 Vegetation. Weeds, grass, vines or other growth that is capable of being ignited and endangering property, shall be cut down and removed by the owner or occupant of the premises.

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304.1.3 Space under neath seats. Spaces underneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall be kept free from combustible and flammable materials. Except where enclosed in not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction in accordance with the SBC 201, spaces underneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall not be occupied or utilized for purposes other than means of egress.

Exceptions: 1. Dumpsters in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 2. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, located not less than 3000 mm from other buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or container storage.

304.2 Storage. Storage of combustible rubbish shall not produce conditions that will create a nuisance or a hazard to the public health, safety or welfare. 304.3 Containers. Combustible rubbish, and waste material kept within or near a structure shall be stored in accordance with Sections 304.3.1 through 304.3.4. 304.3.1 Spontaneous ignition. Materials susceptible to spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a listed disposal container. Contents of such containers shall be removed and disposed of daily. 304.3.2 Capacity exceeding 0.15 m3. Containers with a capacity exceeding 0.15 m3 shall be provided with lids. Containers and lids shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/ m2 where tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation. Exception: Wastebaskets complying with Section 808. 304.3.3 Capacity exceeding 1.15 m3. Dumpsters and containers with an individual capacity of 1.15 m3 or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 1500 mm of combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines. Exceptions: 1. Dumpsters or containers in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 2. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, located not less than 3000 mm from other buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or container storage. 304.3.4 Capacity of 0.75 m3 or mor e. Dumpsters with an individual capacity of 0.76 m3 or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 1500 mm of combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines unless the dumpsters are constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 where tested in accordance with ASTM E1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation.

SECTION 305 IGNITION SOURCES 305.1 Clearance from ignition sources. Clearance between ignition sources, such as luminaires, heaters, flame-producing devices and combustible materials, shall be maintained in an approved manner. 305.2 Hot ashes and spontaneous ignition sources. Hot ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or greasy or oily materials subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a combustible receptacle, within 3000 mm of other combustible material including combustible walls and partitions or within 600 mm of openings to buildings. Exception: The minimum required separation distance to other combustible materials shall be 600 mm where the material is deposited in a covered, noncombustible receptacle placed on a noncombustible floor, ground surface or stand. 305.3 Open-flame warning devices. Open-flame warning devices shall not be used along an excavation, road, or any place where the dislodgment of such device might permit the device to roll, fall or slide on to any area or land containing combustible material. 305.4 Deliberate or negligent burning. It shall be unlawful to deliberately or through negligence set fire to or cause the burning of combustible material in such a manner as to endanger the safety of persons or property. 305.5 Unwanted fire ignitions. Acts or processes that have caused repeated ignition of unwanted fires shall be modified to prevent future ignition.

SECTION 306 MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS AND FILM 306.1 Motion picture projection rooms. Electric arc, xenon or other light source projection equipment that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation and the projection of ribbon type cellulose nitrate film, regardless of the light source used in projection, shall be

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operated within a motion picture projection room complying with Section 409 of SBC 201. 306.2 Cellulose nitrate film storage. Storage of cellulose nitrate film shall be in accordance with NFPA 40.

SECTION 307 OPEN BURNING, RECREATIONAL FIRES AND PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACES 307.1 General. A person shall not kindle or maintain or authorize to be kindled or maintained any open burning unless conducted and approved in accordance with Sections 307.1.1 through 307.5. 307.1.1 Pr ohibited open bur ning. Open burning shall be prohibited when atmospheric conditions or local circ*mstances make such fires hazardous. Exception: Prescribed burning for the purpose of reducing the impact of wildland fire when authorized by the fire code official. 307.2 Permit required. A permit shall be obtained from the fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to kindling a fire for recognized silvicultural or range or wildlife management practices, prevention or control of disease or pests, or a bonfire. Application for such approval shall only be presented by and permits issued to the owner of the land upon which the fire is to be kindled. 307.2.1 Authorization. Where required by government regulations, open burning shall only be permitted with prior approval from the government air and water quality management authority, provided that all conditions specified in the authorization are followed. 307.3 Extinguishment authority. Where open burning creates or adds to a hazardous situation, or a required permit for open burning has not been obtained, the fire code official is authorized to order the extinguishment of the open burning operation. 307.4 Location. The location for open burning shall be not less than 15 m from any structure, and provisions shall be made to prevent the fire from spreading to within 15 m of any structure. Exceptions: 1. Fires in approved containers that are not less than 4.5 m from a structure. 2. The minimum required distance from a structure shall be 7.5 m where the pile size is 900 mm or less in diameter and 600 mm or less in height. 307.4.1 Bonfires. A bonfire shall not be conducted within 15 m of a structure or combustible material unless the fire is contained in a barbecue pit. Conditions that could cause a fire to spread within 15 m of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition.

307.4.2 Recreational fires. Recreational fires shall not be conducted within 7.5 m of a structure or combustible material. Conditions that could cause a fire to spread within 7.5 m of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition. 307.4.3 Por table outdoor fireplaces. Portable outdoor fireplaces shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and shall not be operated within 4.5 m of a structure or combustible material. Exception: Portable outdoor fireplaces used at one and two-family dwellings. 307.5 Attendance. Open burning, bonfires, recreational fires and use of portable outdoor fireplaces shall be constantly attended until the fire is extinguished. A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 with a minimum 4-A rating or other approved on-site fireextinguishing equipment, such as dirt, sand, water barrel, garden hose or water truck, shall be available for immediate utilization.

SECTION 308

OPEN FLAMES

308.1 General. Open flame, fire and burning on all premises shall be in accordance with Sections 308.1.1 through 308.4.1 and with other applicable sections of this code. 308.1.1 Where pr ohibited. A person shall not take or utilize an open flame or light in a structure, vessel, boat or other place where highly flammable, combustible or explosive material is utilized or stored. Lighting appliances shall be well-secured in a glass globe and wire mesh cage or a similar approved device. 308.1.2 Thr owing or placing sources of ignition. A person shall not throw or place, or cause to be thrown or placed, a lighted match, cigar, cigarette, matches, or other flaming or glowing substance or object on any surface or article where it can cause an unwanted fire. 308.1.3 Torches for removing paint. A person utilizing a torch or other flame-producing device for removing paint from a structure shall provide not less than one portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 4-A rating, two portable fire extinguishers, each with a minimum 2-A rating, or a water hose connected to the water supply on the premises where such burning is done. The person doing the burning shall remain on the premises 1 hour after the torch or flame-producing device is utilized. 308.1.4 Open-flame cooking devices. Charcoal burners and other open-flame cooking devices shall not be operated on combustible balconies or within 3000 mm of combustible construction. Exceptions:

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2. Where buildings, balconies and decks are protected by an automatic sprinkler system. 3. LP-gas cooking devices having LP-gas container with a water capacity not greater than 1.14 kg. 308.1.5 Location near combustibles. Open flames such as from candles, lanterns, kerosene heaters and gas-fired heaters shall not be located on or near decorative material or similar combustible materials. 308.1.6 Open-flame devices. Torches and other devices, machines or processes liable to start or cause fire shall not be operated or used in or upon wildfire risk areas, except by a permit in accordance with Section 105.6 secured from the fire code official. Exception: Use within inhabited premises or designated campsites that are not less than 9 m from grass-, grain-, brush or forest-covered areas. 308.1.6.1 Signals and markers. Flameemploying devices, such as lanterns or kerosene road flares, shall not be operated or used as a signal or marker in or upon wildfire risk areas. Exception: The proper use of fusees at the scenes of emergencies or as required by standard railroad operating procedures. 308.1.6.2 Portable fueled open-flame devices. Portable open-flame devices fueled by flammable or combustible gases or liquids shall be enclosed or installed in such a manner as to prevent the flame from contacting combustible material. Exceptions: 1. LP-gas-fueled devices used for sweating pipe joints or removing paint in accordance with Chapter 61.

308.1.8 Flaming food and bever age prepar ation. The preparation of flaming foods or beverages in places of assembly and drinking or dining establishments shall be in accordance with Sections 308.1.8.1 through 308.1.8.5. 308.1.8.1 Dispensing. Flammable or combustible liquids used in the preparation of flaming foods or beverages shall be dispensed from one of the following: 1. A 30 ml container. 2. A container not exceeding 900 ml capacity with a controlled pouring device that will limit the flow to a 30 ml serving. 308.1.8.2 Containers not in use. Containers shall be secured to prevent spillage when not in use. 308.1.8.3 Serving of flaming food. The serving of flaming foods or beverages shall be done in a safe manner and shall not create high flames. The pouring, ladling or spooning of liquids is restricted to a maximum height of 200 mm above the receiving receptacle. 308.1.8.4 Location. Flaming foods or beverages shall be prepared only in the immediate vicinity of the table being serviced. They shall not be transported or carried while burning. 308.1.8.5 Fire protection. The person preparing the flaming foods or beverages shall have a wet cloth towel immediately available for use in smothering the flames in the event of an emergency. 308.2 Permits required. Permits shall be obtained from the fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to engaging in the following activities involving open flame, fire and burning: 1. Use of a torch or flame-producing device to remove paint from a structure.

2. Cutting and welding operations in accordance with Chapter 35. in

2. Use of open flame, fire or burning in connection with Group A or E occupancies.

4. Candles and open-flame decorative devices in accordance with Section 308.3.

3. Use or operation of torches and other devices, machines or processes liable to start or cause fire in or upon wildfire risk areas.

3. Torches or flame-producing accordance with Section 308.4.

devices

308.1.6.3 Sky lanterns. A person shall not release or cause to be released an untethered sky lantern. 308.1.7 Social ceremonies. When, in the opinion of the fire code official, adequate safeguards have been taken, participants in social ceremonies are allowed to carry hand-held candles. Hand-held candles shall not be passed from one person to another while lighted.

308.3 Group A occupancies. Open-flame devices shall not be used in a Group A occupancy. Exceptions:

308.1.7.1 Aisles and exits. Candles shall be prohibited in areas where occupants stand, or in an aisle or exit.

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1. Open-flame devices are allowed to be used in the following situations, provided approved precautions are taken to prevent ignition of a combustible material or injury to occupants: 1.1. Where necessary for ceremonial purposes in accordance with Section 308.1.7.

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1.2. On stages and platforms as a necessary part of a performance in accordance with Section 308.3.2. 1.3. Where candles on tables are securely supported on substantial noncombustible bases and the candle flames are protected. 2. Heat-producing equipment Chapter 6 and the SBC 501.

complying

with

3. Gas lights are allowed to be used provided adequate precautions satisfactory to the fire code official are taken to prevent ignition of combustible materials. 308.3.1 Open-flame decor ative devices. Open-flame decorative devices shall comply with all of the following restrictions:

10. Candelabras with flame-lighted candles shall be securely fastened in place to prevent overturning, and shall be located away from occupants using the area and away from possible contact with drapes, curtains or other combustibles. 308.3.2 Theatr ical per for mances. Where approved, open-flame devices used in conjunction with theatrical performances are allowed to be used when adequate safety precautions have been taken in accordance with NFPA 160. 308.4 Group R occupancies. Open flame, fire and burning in Group R occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 308.1 through 308.1.6.3 and Section 308.4.1.

1. Class I and Class II liquids and LP-gas shall not be used.

308.4.1 Gr oup R-2 dor mitories. Candles, incense and similar open-flame-producing items shall not be allowed in sleeping units in Group R-2 dormitory occupancies.

2. Liquid or solid-fueled lighting devices containing more than 235 ml of fuel must self-extinguish and not leak fuel at a rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.25 ml per minute if tipped over.

SECTION 309 POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS AND EQUIPMENT

3. The device or holder shall be constructed to prevent the spillage of liquid fuel or wax at the rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.25 ml per minute) when the device or holder is not in an upright position. 4. The device or holder shall be designed so that it will return to the upright position after being tilted to an angle of 45 degrees from vertical. Exception: Devices that self-extinguish if tipped over and do not spill fuel or wax at the rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.25 ml per minute) if tipped over. 5. The flame shall be enclosed except where openings on the side are not more than 9.5 mm diameter or where openings are on the top and the distance to the top is such that a piece of tissue paper placed on the top will not ignite in 10 seconds. 6. Chimneys shall be made of noncombustible materials and securely attached to the open-flame device. Exception: A chimney is not required to be attached to any open-flame device that will self extinguish if the device is tipped over. 7. Fuel canisters shall be safely sealed for storage. 8. Storage and handling of combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 57. 9. Shades, where used, shall be made of noncombustible materials and securely attached to the open-flame device holder or chimney.

309.1 General. Powered industrial trucks and similar equipment including, but not limited to, floor scrubbers and floor buffers, shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Section 309.2 through 309.6. 309.2 Battery chargers. Battery chargers shall be of an approved type. Combustible storage shall be kept not less than 900 mm from battery chargers. Battery charging shall not be conducted in areas accessible to the public. 309.3 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in an approved manner in battery-charging areas to prevent a dangerous accumulation of flammable gases. 309.4 Fire extinguishers. Battery-charging areas shall be provided with a fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 having a minimum 4-A:20-B:C rating within 6 m of the battery charger. 309.5 Refueling. Powered industrial trucks using liquid fuel, LP-gas or hydrogen shall be refueled outside of buildings or in areas specifically approved for that purpose. Fixed fuel dispensing equipment and associated fueling operations shall be in accordance with Chapter 23. Other fuel-dispensing equipment and operations, including cylinder exchange for LP-gasfueled vehicles, shall be in accordance with Chapter 57 for flammable and combustible liquids or Chapter 61 for LP-gas. 309.6 Repairs. Repairs to fuel systems, electrical systems and repairs utilizing open flame or welding

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shall be done in approved locations outside of buildings or in areas specifically approved for that purpose.

SECTION 310 SMOKING 310.1 General. The smoking or carrying of a lighted pipe, cigar, cigarette or any other type of smoking paraphernalia or material is prohibited in the areas indicated in Sections 310.2 through 310.8. 310.2 Prohibited areas. Smoking shall be prohibited where conditions are such as to make smoking a hazard, and in spaces where flammable or combustible materials are stored or handled. 310.3 “No Smoking” signs. The fire code official is authorized to order the posting of “No Smoking” signs in a conspicuous location in each structure or location in which smoking is prohibited. The content, lettering, size, color and location of required “No Smoking” signs shall be approved. Exception: In Group I-2 occupancies where smoking is prohibited, “No Smoking” signs are not required in interior locations of the facility where signs are displayed at all major entrances into the facility. 310.4 Removal of signs prohibited. A posted “No Smoking” sign shall not be obscured, removed, defaced, mutilated or destroyed. 310.5 Compliance with “No Smoking” signs. Smoking shall not be permitted nor shall a person smoke, throw or deposit any lighted or smoldering substance in any place where “No Smoking” signs are posted.

tenant spaces, shall be safeguarded and maintained in accordance with Sections 311.1.1 through 311.6. 311.1.1 Abandoned premises. Buildings, structures and premises for which an owner cannot be identified or located, which persistently or repeatedly become unprotected or unsecured, which have been occupied by unauthorized persons or for illegal purposes, or which present a danger of structural collapse or fire spread to adjacent properties shall be considered abandoned, declared unsafe and abated by demolition or rehabilitation in accordance with the SBC 201. 311.1.2 Tenant spaces. Storage and lease plans required by this code shall be revised and updated to reflect temporary or partial vacancies. 311.2 Safeguarding vacant premises. Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, premises or portions thereof shall be secured and protected in accordance with Sections 311.2.1 through 311.2.3. 311.2.1 Security. Exterior and interior openings accessible to other tenants or unauthorized persons shall be boarded, locked, blocked or otherwise protected to prevent entry by unauthorized individuals. The fire code official is authorized to placard, post signs, erect barrier tape or take similar measures as necessary to secure public safety. 311.2.2 Fire pr otection. Fire alarm, sprinkler and stand-pipe systems shall be maintained in an operable condition at all times. Exceptions: 1. Where the premises have been cleared of all combustible materials and debris and, in the opinion of the fire code official, the type of construction, fire separation distance and security of the premises do not create a fire hazard.

310.6 Ash trays. Where smoking is permitted, suitable noncombustible ash trays or match receivers shall be provided on each table and at other appropriate locations.

2. Where approved by the fire chief, buildings that will not be heated and where fire protection systems will be exposed to freezing temperatures, fire alarm and sprinkler systems are permitted to be placed out of service and standpipes are permitted to be maintained as dry systems (without an automatic water supply), provided the building has no contents or storage, and windows, doors and other openings are secured to prohibit entry by unauthorized persons.

310.7 Burning objects. Lighted matches, cigarettes, cigars or other burning object shall not be discarded in such a manner that could cause ignition of other combustible material. 310.8 Hazardous environmental conditions. Where the fire code official determines that hazardous environmental conditions necessitate controlled use of smoking materials, the ignition or use of such materials in mountainous, brush-covered or forest-covered areas or other designated areas is prohibited except in approved designated smoking areas.

SECTION 311 VACANT PREMISES 311.1 General. Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, premises or portions thereof, including

311.2.3 Fire separ ation. Fire-resistance-rated partitions, fire barriers and fire walls separating vacant tenant spaces from the remainder of the building shall be maintained. Openings, joints and penetrations in fireresistance-rated assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Chapter 7.

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311.3 Removal of combustibles. Persons owning, or in charge or control of, a vacant building or portion thereof, shall remove therefrom all accumulations of combustible materials, flammable or combustible waste or rubbish and shall securely lock or otherwise secure doors, windows and other openings to prevent entry by unauthorized persons. The premises shall be maintained clear of waste or hazardous materials.

4. Vacant marker hazard identification symbols: The following symbols shall be used to designate known hazards on the vacant building marker. They shall be placed directly above the symbol. 4.1. R/O—Roof open 4.2. S/M—Stairs, steps and landing missing 4.3. F/E—Avoid fire escapes

Exceptions:

4.4. H/F—Holes in floor

1. Buildings or portions of buildings undergoing additions, alterations, repairs or change of occupancy in accordance with the SBC 201, where waste is controlled and removed as required by Section 304. 2. Seasonally occupied buildings.

311.5.5 Infor mational use. The use of these symbols shall be informational only and shall not in any way limit the discretion of the on-scene incident commander. 311.6 Unoccupied tenant spaces in mall buildings. Unoccupied tenant spaces in covered and open mall buildings shall be:

311.4 Removal of hazardous materials. Persons owning or having charge or control of a vacant building containing hazardous materials regulated by Chapter 50 shall comply with the facility closure requirements of Section 5001.6.

1. Kept free from the storage of any materials. 2. Separated from the remainder of the building by partitions of not less than 13 mm thick gypsum board or an approved equivalent to the underside of the ceiling of the adjoining tenant spaces.

311.5 Placards. Any vacant or abandoned buildings or structures determined to be unsafe pursuant to Section 110 of this code relating to structural or interior hazards shall be marked as required by Sections 311.5.1 through 311.5.5.

3. Without doors or other access openings other than one door that shall be kept key locked in the closed position except during that time when opened for inspection. 4. Kept free from combustible waste and be broomswept clean.

311.5.1 Placar d location. Placards shall be applied on the front of the structure and be visible from the street. Additional placards shall be applied to the side of each entrance to the structure and on penthouses. 311.5.2 Placar d size and color. Placards shall be 600 mm by 600 mm minimum in size with a red background, white reflective stripes and a white reflective border. The stripes and border shall have a 50 mm minimum stroke. 311.5.3 Placar d date. Placards shall bear the date of their application to the building and the date of the most recent inspection.

SECTION 312 VEHICLE IMPACT PROTECTION 312.1 General. Vehicle impact protection required by this code shall be provided by posts that comply with Section 312.2 or by other approved physical barriers that comply with Section 312.3.

312.2 Posts. Guard posts shall comply with all of the following requirements:

311.5.4 Placar d symbols. The design of the placards shall use the following symbols:

1. Constructed of steel not less than 100 mm in diameter and concrete filled.

1. This symbol (BLANKED-SQUARE SHAPE) shall mean that the structure had normal structural conditions at the time of marking.

2. Spaced not more than 1200 mm between posts on center. 3. Set not less than 900 mm deep in a concrete footing of not less than a 375 mm diameter.

2. This symbol (DIAGNOLED-SQUARE SHAPE) shall mean that structural or interior hazards exist and interior fire-fighting or rescue operations should be conducted with extreme caution. 3. This symbol (CROSSED-SQUARE SHAPE) shall mean that structural or interior hazards exist to a degree that consideration should be given to limit fire fighting to exterior operations only, with entry only occurring for known life hazards.

4. Set with the top of the posts not less than 900 mm above ground. 5. Located not less than 900 mm from the protected object. 312.3 Other barriers. Barriers, other than posts specified in Section 312.2, that are designed to resist, deflect or visually deter vehicular impact commensurate

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with an anticipated impact scenario shall be permitted where approved.

1. Batteries are disconnected.

SECTION 313 FUELED EQUIPMENT

3. Fuel tanks and fill openings are closed and sealed to prevent tampering.

313.1 General. Fueled equipment including, but not limited to, motorcycles, mopeds, lawn-care equipment, portable generators and portable cooking equipment, shall not be stored, operated or repaired within a building. Exceptions: 1. Buildings or rooms constructed for such use in accordance with the SBC 201. 2. Where allowed by Section 314. 3. Storage of equipment utilized for maintenance purposes is allowed in approved locations where the aggregate fuel capacity of the stored equipment does not exceed 38 L and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

2. Fuel in fuel tanks does not exceed one-quarter tank or 19 L (whichever is least).

4. Vehicles, boats or other motorcraft equipment are not fueled or defueled within the building.

SECTION 315 GENERAL STORAGE General. Storage shall be in accordance with Sections 315.2 through 315.5. 315.1

315.2 Permit required. A permit for miscellaneous combustible storage shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6. 315.3 Storage in buildings. Storage of materials in buildings shall be orderly and stacks shall be stable. Storage of combustible materials shall be separated from heaters or heating devices by distance or shielding so that ignition cannot occur.

313.1.1 Removal. The fire code official is authorized to require removal of fueled equipment from locations where the presence of such equipment is determined by the fire code official to be hazardous.

315.3.1 Ceiling clearance. Storage shall be maintained 600 mm or more below the ceiling in non-sprinklered areas of buildings or not less than 450 mm below sprinkler head deflectors in sprinklered areas of buildings.

313.2 Group R occupancies. Vehicles powered by flammable liquids, Class II combustible liquids or compressed flammable gases shall not be stored within the living space of Group R buildings.

315.3.2 Means of egress. Combustible materials shall not be stored in exits or enclosures for stairways and ramps.

SECTION 314 INDOOR DISPLAYS 314.1 General. Indoor displays constructed within any occupancy shall comply with Sections 314.2 through 314.4. 314.2 Fixtures and displays. Fixtures and displays of goods for sale to the public shall be arranged so as to maintain free, immediate and unobstructed access to exits as required by Chapter 10. 314.3 Highly combustible goods. The display of highly combustible goods, including but not limited to fireworks, flammable or combustible liquids, liquefied flammable gases, oxidizing materials, pyroxylin plastics and agricultural goods, in main exit access aisles, corridors, covered and open malls, or within 1500 mm of entrances to exits and exterior exit doors is prohibited where a fire involving such goods would rapidly prevent or obstruct egress. 314.4 Vehicles. Liquid or gas-fueled vehicles, boats or other motorcraft shall not be located indoors except as follows:

315.3.3 Equipment rooms. Combustible material shall not be stored in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms, electrical equipment rooms or in fire command centers as specified in Section 508.1.5. 315.3.4 Attic, under -floor and concealed spaces. Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 45 mm in thickness. Storage shall not be placed on exposed joists. Exceptions: 1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems. 2. Group R-3 and Group U occupancies. 315.4 Outside storage. Outside storage of combustible materials shall not be located within 3000 mm of a lot line. Exceptions:

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1. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced to 900 mm for storage not exceeding 1800 mm in height.

Exception: Marking shall not be required on shaftway openings that are readily discernible as openings onto a shaftway by the construction or arrangement.

2. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced where the fire code official determines that no hazard to the adjoining property exists.

316.3 Pitfalls. The intentional design or alteration of buildings to disable, injure, maim or kill intruders is prohibited. A person shall not install and use firearms, sharp or pointed objects, razor wire, explosives, flammable or combustible liquid containers, or dispensers containing highly toxic, toxic, irritant or other hazardous materials in a manner that could passively or actively disable, injure, maim or kill a fire fighter who forcibly enters a building for the purpose of controlling or extinguishing a fire, rescuing trapped occupants or rendering other emergency assistance.

315.4.1 Stor age beneath overhead pr ojections from buildings. Where buildings are protected by automatic sprinklers, the outdoor storage, display and handling of combustible materials under eaves, canopies or other projections or overhangs are prohibited except where automatic sprinklers are installed under such eaves, canopies or other projections or overhangs. 315.4.2 Height. Storage in the open shall not exceed 6000 mm in height. 315.5 Storage underneath high-voltage transmission lines. Storage located underneath highvoltage transmission lines shall be in accordance with Section 316.6.2.

316.4 Obstructions on roofs. Wires, cables, ropes, antennas, or other suspended obstructions installed on the roof of a building having a roof slope of less than 30 degrees shall not create an obstruction that is less than 2100 mm high above the surface of the roof. Exceptions:

315.6 Storage in plenums. Storage shall not be permitted in plenums. Abandoned material in plenums shall be deemed to be storage and shall be removed. Where located in plenums, the accessible portion of abandoned cables that are not identified for future use with a tag shall be deemed storage and shall be removed.

1. Such obstruction shall be permitted where the wire, cable, rope, antenna or suspended obstruction is encased in a white, 50 mm minimum diameter plastic pipe or an approved equivalent. 2. Such obstruction shall be permitted where there is a solid obstruction below such that accidentally walking into the wire, cable, rope, antenna or suspended obstruction is not possible.

SECTION 316 HAZARDS TO FIRE FIGHTERS 316.1 Trapdoors to be closed. Trapdoors and scuttle covers, other than those that are within a dwelling unit or automatically operated, shall be kept closed at all times except when in use.

316.5 Security device. Any security device or system that emits any medium that could obscure a means of egress in any building, structure or premise shall be prohibited.

316.2 Shaftway markings. Vertical shafts shall be identified as required by this section.

316.6 Structures and outdoor storage underneath high voltage transmission lines. Structures and outdoor storage underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall comply with Sections 316.6.1 and 316.6.2, respectively.

316.2.1 Exterior access to shaftways. Outside openings accessible to the fire department (Civil Defense) and that open directly on a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or more floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY in red letters not less than 150 mm high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible from the outside of the building. 316.2.2 Inter ior access to shaftways. Door or window openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY in red letters not less than 150 mm high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible.

316.6.1 Str uctur es. Structures shall not be constructed within the utility easem*nt beneath high-voltage transmission lines. Exception: Restrooms and unoccupied telecommunication structures of noncombustible construction less than 4500 mm in height. 316.6.2 Outdoor stor age. Outdoor storage within the utility easem*nt underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall be limited to noncombustible material. Storage of hazardous materials including, but not limited to, flammable and combustible liquids is prohibited. Exception: Combustible storage, including vehicles and fuel storage for backup power equipment serving

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public utility equipment, is allowed, provided that a plan indicating the storage configuration is submitted and approved.

SECTION 317 ROOFTOP GARDENS AND LANDSCAPED ROOFS

m3 or more, used in laundries within Group B, E, F-1, I, M and R-1 occupancies, shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or materials having a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 at a flux of 50 kW/m2 where tested in a horizontal orientation in accordance with ASTM E1354. Exceptions:

317.1 General. Rooftop gardens and landscaped roofs shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Sections 317.2 through 317.5 and Sections 1505 and

1. Laundry carts in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

1507.16 of the SBC 201.

317.2 Rooftop garden or landscaped roof size. Rooftop garden or landscaped roof areas shall not exceed 1450 m2 in size for any single area with a maximum dimension of 39 m in length or width. A minimum 1.8 m wide clearance consisting of a Class Arated roof system complying with ASTM E 108 or UL 790 shall be provided between adjacent rooftop gardens or landscaped roof areas. 317.3 Rooftop structure and equipment clearance. For all vegetated roofing systems abutting combustible vertical surfaces, a Class A-rated roof system complying with ASTM E108 or UL 790 shall be achieved for a minimum 1800 mm wide continuous border placed around rooftop structures and all rooftop equipment including, but not limited to, mechanical and machine rooms, penthouses, skylights, roof vents, solar panels, antenna supports and building service equipment. 317.4 Vegetation. Vegetation shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 317.4.1 and 317.4.2. 317.4.1 Ir r igation. Supplemental irrigation shall be provided to maintain levels of hydration necessary to keep green roof plants alive and to keep dry foliage to a minimum. 317.4.2 Dead foliage. Excess biomass, such as overgrown vegetation, leaves and other dead and decaying material, shall be removed at regular intervals not less than two times per year.

2. Laundry carts in coin-operated laundries.

SECTION 319 MOBILE FOOD PREPARATION VEHICLES 319.1

General. Mobile food preparation vehicles that are equipped with appliances that produce smoke or grease-laden vapors shall comply with this section.

319.2

Permit required. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

319.3

Exhaust hood. Cooking equipment that produces grease-laden vapors shall be provided with a kitchen exhaust hood in accordance with Section 607.

319.4

Fire protection. Fire protection shall be provided in accordance with Sections 319.4.1 and 319.4.2.

319.4.1 Fire protection for cooking equipment. Cooking equipment shall be protected by automatic fire extinguishing systems in accordance with Section 904.12. 319.4.2 Fire extinguisher. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906.4. 319.5

Appliance connection to fuel supply piping. Gas cooking appliances shall be secured in place and connected to fuel-supply piping with an appliance connector complying with ANSI Z21.69/CSA 6.16. The connector installation shall be configured in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Movement of appliances shall be limited by restraining devices installed in accordance with the connector and appliance manufacturers’ instructions.

319.6

Cooking oil storage containers. Cooking oil storage containers within mobile food preparation vehicles shall have a maximum aggregate volume not more than 454 L, and

317.4.3 Maintenance plan. The fire code official is authorized to require a maintenance plan for vegetation placed on roofs due to the size of a roof garden, materials used or where a fire hazard exists to the building or exposures due to the lack of maintenance. 317.5 Maintenance equipment. Fueled equipment stored on roofs and used for the care and maintenance of vegetation on roofs shall be stored in accordance with Section 313.

SECTION 318 LAUNDRY CARTS 318.1 Laundry carts with a capacity of 0.75 m3 or more. Laundry carts with an individual capacity of 0.75 SBC 801-CR-18

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shall be stored in such a way as to not be toppled or damaged during transport. 319.7

Cooking oil storage tanks. Cooking oil storage tanks within mobile food preparation vehicles shall comply with Sections 319.7.1 through 319.7.5.2.

319.7.1 Metallic storage tanks. Metallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be listed in accordance with UL 80 or UL 142, and shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer’s instructions. 319.7.2 Nonmetallic storage tanks. Nonmetallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer’s instructions and shall comply with both of the following:

319.8.1 Maximum aggregate volume. The maximum aggregate capacity of LP-gas containers transported on the vehicle and used to fuel cooking appliances only shall not exceed 91 kg propane capacity. 319.8.2 Protection of container. LP-gas containers installed on the vehicle shall be securely mounted and restrained to prevent movement. 319.8.3 LP-gas container construction. LP-gas containers shall be manufactured in compliance with the requirements of NFPA 58. 319.8.4 Protection of system piping. LP-gas system piping, including valves and fittings, shall be adequately protected to prevent tampering, impact damage, and damage from vibration.

1. Tanks shall be listed for use with cooking oil, including maximum temperature to which the tank will be exposed during use.

319.8.5 LP-gas alarms. A listed LP-gas alarm shall be installed within the vehicle in the vicinity of LP-gas system components, in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

2. Tank capacity shall not exceed 757 L per tank.

319.9

319.7.3 Cooking oil storage system components. Metallic and nonmetallic cooking oil storage system components shall include, but are not limited to, piping, connections, fittings, valves, tubing, hose, pumps, vents and other related components used for the transfer of cooking oil. 319.7.4 Design criteria. The design, fabrication and assembly of system components shall be suitable for the working pressures, temperatures and structural stresses to be encountered by the components. 319.7.5 Tank venting. Normal and emergency venting shall be provided for cooking oil storage tanks. 319.7.5.1 Normal vents. Normal vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall have a minimum effective area not smaller than the largest filling or withdrawal connection. Normal vents are not required to vent to the exterior. 319.7.5.2 Emergency vents. Emergency relief vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall be in the form of a device or devices that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by an exposure fire. For nonmetallic tanks, the emergency relief vent shall be allowed to be in the form of construction. Emergency vents are not required to discharge to the exterior. 319.8

LP-gas systems. Where LP-gas systems provide fuel for cooking appliances, such systems shall comply with Chapter 61 and Sections 319.8.1 through 319.8.5.

CNG systems. Where CNG systems provide fuel for cooking appliances, such systems shall comply with Sections 319.9.1 through 319.9.4.

319.9.1 CNG containers supplying only cooking fuel. CNG containers installed solely to provide fuel for cooking purposes shall be in accordance with Sections 319.9.1.1 through 319.9.1.3. 319.9.1.1 Maximum aggregate volume. The maximum aggregate capacity of CNG containers transported on the vehicle shall not exceed 590 kg water capacity. 319.9.1.2 Protection of container. CNG containers shall be securely mounted and restrained to prevent movement. Containers shall not be installed in locations subject to a direct vehicle impact. 319.9.1.3 CNG container construction. CNG containers shall be an NGV-2 cylinder. 319.9.2 CNG containers supplying transportation and cooking fuel. Where CNG containers and systems are used to supply fuel for cooking purposes in addition to being used for transportation fuel, the installation shall be in accordance with NFPA 52. 319.9.3 Protection of system piping. CNG system piping, including valves and fittings, shall be adequately protected to prevent tampering, impact damage and damage from vibration. 319.9.4 Methane alarms. A listed methane gas alarm shall be installed within the vehicle in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

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319.10 Maintenance. Maintenance of systems on mobile food preparation vehicles shall be in accordance with Sections 319.10.1 through 319.10.3. 319.10.1 Exhaust system. The exhaust system, including hood, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances, shall be inspected and cleaned in accordance with Section 607.3. 319.10.2 Fire protection systems and devices. Fire protection systems and devices shall be maintained in accordance with Section 901.6. 319.10.3 Fuel gas systems. LP-gas containers installed on the vehicle and fuel-gas piping

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systems shall be inspected annually by an approved inspection agency to requalify LP-gas cylinders, to ensure that system components are free from damage, suitable for the intended service and not subject to leaking. CNG containers shall be inspected every 3 years in a qualified service facility. CNG containers shall not be used past their expiration date as listed on the manufacturer’s container label. Upon satisfactory inspection, the approved inspection agency shall affix a tag on the fuel gas system or within the vehicle indicating the name of the inspection agency and the date of satisfactory inspection.

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Bibliography The following resource materials were used in the preparation of the commentary for this chapter of the code: 1. Code Changes Resource Collection—2015 International Fire Code. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2014. 2. FACE-99-F47, Six Career Fire Fighters Killed in Cold-storage and Warehouse Building Fire— Massachusetts. Washington, DC: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, September 2000. 3. NFPA 550-12, Fire Safety Concepts Tree. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 2012. 4. Property Loss Prevention Data Sheet 1-35, Green Roof Systems. Johnston, RI: FM Global, 2011.

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EMERENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS

SECTION 401 GENERAL 401.1 Scope. Reporting of emergencies, coordination with emergency response forces, emergency plans and procedures for managing or responding to emergencies shall comply with the provisions of this section. Exception: Firms that have approved on-premises fire-fighting organizations and that are in compliance with approved procedures for fire reporting. 401.2 Approval. Where required by this code, fire safety plans, emergency procedures and employee training programs shall be approved by the fire code official. 401.3 Emergency responder notification. Notification of emergency responders shall be in accordance with Sections 401.3.1 through 401.3.3. 401.3.1 Fire events. In the event an unwanted fire occurs on a property, the owner or occupant shall immediately report such condition to the fire department. 401.3.2 Alar m activations. Upon activation of a fire alarm signal, employees or staff shall immediately notify the fire department. 401.3.3 Delayed notification. A person shall not, by verbal or written directive, require any delay in the reporting of a fire to the fire department. 401.4 Required plan implementation. In the event an unwanted fire is detected in a building or a fire alarm activates, the emergency plan shall be implemented. 401.5 Making false report. A person shall not give, signal or transmit a false alarm. 401.6 Emergency evacuation drills. The sounding of a fire alarm signal and the carrying out of an emergency evacuation drill in accordance with the provisions of Section 405 shall be allowed. 401.7 Unplanned evacuation. Evacuations made necessary by the unplanned activation of a fire alarm system or by any other emergency shall not be substituted for a required evacuation drill.

401.8 Interference with fire department (Civil Defense) operations. It shall be unlawful to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, conspire to interfere with, obstruct or restrict the mobility of or block the path of travel of a fire department (Civil Defense) emergency vehicle in any way, or to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, conspire to interfere with, obstruct or hamper any fire department (Civil Defense) operation.

SECTION 402 DEFINITIONS 402.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2: • • •

EMERGENCY. EVACUATION DRILL. LOCKDOWN.

SECTION 403 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS REQUIREMENTS 403.1 General. In addition to the requirements of Section 401, occupancies, uses and outdoor locations shall comply with the emergency preparedness requirements set forth in Sections 403.2 through 403.12.3.3. Where a fire safety and evacuation plan is required by Sections 403.2 through 403.11.4, evacuation drills shall be in accordance with Section 405 and employee training shall be in accordance with Section 406. 403.2 Group A occupancies. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group A occupancies, other than those occupancies used exclusively for purposes of religious worship with an occupant load less than 2,000, and for buildings containing both a Group A occupancy and an atrium. Group A occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.2.1 through 403.2.4. 403.2.1 Seating plan. In addition to the requirements of Section 404.2, the fire safety and evacuation plans for assembly occupancies shall include a detailed seating plan, occupant load and occupant load limit. Deviations from the approved plans shall be allowed provided the occupant load

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limit for the occupancy is not exceeded and the aisles and exit accessways remain unobstructed. 403.2.2 Announcements. In theaters, motion picture theaters, auditoriums and similar assembly occupancies in Group A used for noncontinuous programs, an audible announcement shall be made not more than 10 minutes prior to the start of each program to notify the occupants of the location of the exits to be used in the event of a fire or other emergency. Exception: In motion picture theaters, the announcement is allowed to be projected upon the screen in a manner approved by the fire code official. 403.2.3 Fire watch personnel. Fire watch personnel shall be provided where required by Section 403.12.1. 403.2.4 Cr owd managers. Crowd managers shall be provided where required by Section 403.12.3. 403.3 Ambulatory care facilities. Ambulatory care facilities shall comply with the requirements of Sections 403.3.1 through 403.3.3 as well as 401 and 404 through 406. 403.3.1 Fire evacuation plan. The fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include a description of special staff actions. This shall include procedures for stabilizing patients in a defend-in-place response, staged evacuation, or full evacuation in conjunction with the entire building if part of a multitenant facility. 403.3.2 Fire safety plan. A copy of the plan shall be maintained at the facility at all times. The plan shall include all of the following in addition to the requirements of Section 404: 1. Locations of patients who are rendered incapable of self-preservation. 2. Maximum number of patients rendered incapable of self-preservation. 3. Area and extent of each ambulatory care facility. 4. Location of adjacent smoke compartments or refuge areas, where required. 5. Path of travel compartments.

to

adjacent

smoke

6. Location of any special locking, delayed egress or access control arrangements. 403.3.3 Staff tr aining. Employees shall be periodically instructed and kept informed of their

duties and responsibilities under the plan. Records of instruction shall be maintained. Such instruction shall be reviewed by the staff not less than every two months. A copy of the plan shall be readily available at all times within the facility. 403.3.4 Emer gency evacuation dr ills. Emergency evacuation drills shall comply with Section 405. Emergency evacuation drills shall be conducted not less than four times per year. Exceptions: The movement of patients to safe areas or to the exterior of the building is not required. 403.4 Group B occupancies. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for buildings containing a Group B occupancy where the Group B occupancy has an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge and for buildings having an ambulatory care facility. 403.5 Group E occupancies. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group E occupancies and for buildings containing both a Group E occupancy and an atrium. Group E occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 through 403.5.3. 403.5.1 First emer gency evacuation drill. The first emergency evacuation drill of each school year shall be conducted within 10 days of the beginning of classes. 403.5.2 Time of day. Emergency evacuation drills shall be conducted at different hours of the day or evening, during the changing of classes, when the school is at assembly, during the recess or gymnastic periods, or during other times to avoid distinction between drills and actual fires. 403.5.3 Assembly points. Outdoor assembly areas shall be designated and shall be located a safe distance from the building being evacuated so as to avoid interference with fire department (Civil Defense) operations. The assembly areas shall be arranged to keep each class separate to provide accountability of all individuals. 403.6 Group F occupancies. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for buildings containing a Group F occupancy where the Group F occupancy has an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

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403.7 Group H occupancies. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group H occupancies. 403.7.1 Gr oup H-5 occupancies. Group H-5 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.7.1.1 through 403.7.1.4. 403.7.1.1 Plans and diagrams. In addition to the requirements of Section 404 and Section 407.6, plans and diagrams shall be maintained in approved locations indicating the approximate plan for each area, the amount and type of HPM stored, handled and used, locations of shutoff valves for HPM supply piping, emergency telephone locations and locations of exits. 403.7.1.2 Plan updating. The plans and diagrams required by Sections 404, 403.7.1.1 and 407.6 shall be maintained up to date and the fire code official and fire department (Civil Defense) shall be informed of major changes. 403.7.1.3 Emergency response team. Responsible persons shall be designated as an onsite emergency response team and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. These persons shall aid the fire department (Civil Defense) in preplanning emergency responses, identifying locations where HPM is stored, handled and used, and be familiar with the chemical nature of such material. An adequate number of personnel for each work shift shall be designated. 403.7.1.4 Emergency drills. Emergency drills of the on-site emergency response team shall be conducted on a regular basis but not less than once every three months. Records of drills conducted shall be maintained. 403.8 Group I occupancies. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group I occupancies. Group I occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.8.1 through 403.8.3.4. 403.8.1 Gr oup I-1 occupancies. Group I-1 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.8.1.1 through 403.8.1.7. 403.8.1.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include special employee actions, including fire protection procedures necessary for residents, and shall be amended or revised upon admission of any resident with unusual needs.

403.8.1.1.1 Fire evacuation plan. The fire evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include a description of special staff actions. In addition to the requirements of Section 404, plans in Group I-1 Condition 2 occupancies shall include procedures for evacuation through a refuge area in an adjacent smoke compartment and then to an exterior assembly point. 403.8.1.1.2 Fire safety plans. A copy of the fire safety plan shall be maintained at the facility at all times. Plans shall include the following in addition to the requirements of Section 404: 1. Location and number of resident sleeping rooms. 2. Location of special locking or egress control arrangements. 403.8.1.2 Employee training. Employees shall be periodically instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibilities under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed by employees at intervals not exceeding two months. A copy of the plan shall be readily available at all times within the facility. 403.8.1.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions to take in the event of a fire. In Group I-1 Condition 2 occupancies, training shall include evacuation through an adjacent smoke compartment and then to an exterior assembly point. The training shall include actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, methods of fire prevention and actions to take in the event of a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them to do so without additional personal risk. 403.8.1.4 Drill frequency. In addition to the evacuation drills required in Section 405.2, employees shall participate in drills an additional two times a year on each shift. Twelve drills with all occupants shall be conducted in the first year of operation. Drills are not required to comply with the time requirements of Section 405.4. 403.8.1.5 Drill times. Drill times are not required to comply with Section 405.4. 403.8.1.6 Resident participation in drills. Emergency evacuation drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a selected assembly point

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and shall provide residents with experience in exiting through all required exits. All required exits shall be used during emergency evacuation drills. 403.8.1.7 Emergency evacuation drill deferral. In severe climates, the fire code official shall have the authority to modify the emergency evacuation drill frequency specified in Section 405.2. 403.8.2 Gr oup I-2 occupancies. Group I-2 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.8.2.1 through 403.8.2.3 as well as 401 and 404 through 406. 403.8.2.1 Fire evacuation plans. The fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404 shall include a description of special staff actions. Plans shall include all of the following in addition to the requirements of Section 404. 1. Procedures for evacuation for patients with needs for containment or restraint and postevacuation containment, where present. 2. A written plan for maintenance of the means of egress. 3. Procedure for a defend-in-place strategy. 4. Procedures for a full-floor or building evacuation, where necessary. 403.8.2.2 Fire safety plans. A copy of the plan shall be maintained at the facility at all times. Plans shall include all of the following in addition to the requirements of Section 404: 1. Location and number of patient sleeping rooms and operating rooms. 2. Location of adjacent smoke compartments or refuge areas. 3. Path of travel compartments.

to

adjacent

smoke

4. Location of special locking, delayed egress or access control arrangements. 5. Location of elevators utilized for patient movement in accordance with the fire safety plan, where provided. 403.8.2.3 Emergency evacuation drills. Emergency evacuation drills shall comply with Section 405. Exceptions: 1. The movement of patients to safe areas or to the exterior of the building is not required.

2. Where emergency evacuation drills are conducted after visiting hours or where patients or residents are expected to be asleep, a coded announcement shall be an acceptable alternative to audible alarms. 403.8.3 Gr oup I-3 occupancies. Group I-3 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.8.3.1 through 403.8.3.4. 403.8.3.1 Employee training. Employees shall be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers and other manual fire suppression equipment. Training of new employees shall be provided promptly upon entrance to duty. Refresher training shall be provided not less than annually. 403.8.3.2 Employee staffing. Group I-3 occupancies shall be provided with 24-hour staffing. An employee shall be within three floors or 90 m horizontal distance of the access door of each resident housing area. In Group I-3 Conditions 3, 4 and 5, as defined in Chapter 2, the arrangement shall be such that the employee involved can start release of locks necessary for emergency evacuation or rescue and initiate other necessary emergency actions within 2 minutes of an alarm. Exception: An employee shall not be required to be within three floors or 90 m horizontal distance of the access door of each resident housing area in areas in which all locks are unlocked remotely and automatically in accordance with Section 408.4 of the SBC 201. 403.8.3.3 Notification. Provisions shall be made for residents in Group I-3 Conditions 3, 4 and 5, as defined in Chapter 2, to readily notify an employee of an emergency. 403.8.3.4 Keys. Keys necessary for unlocking doors installed in a means of egress shall be individually identifiable by both touch and sight. 403.9 Group M occupancies. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for buildings containing a Group M occupancy where the Group M occupancy has an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge and for buildings containing both a Group M occupancy and an atrium. 403.10 Group R occupancies. Group R occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.10.1 through 403.10.3.6.

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403.10.1 Gr oup R-1 occupancies. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group R-1 occupancies. Group R-1 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.10.1.1 through 403.10.1.3. 403.10.1.1 Evacuation diagrams. A diagram depicting two evacuation routes shall be posted on or immediately adjacent to every required egress door from each hotel or motel sleeping unit. 403.10.1.2 Emergency duties. Upon discovery of a fire or suspected fire, hotel and motel employees shall perform the following duties: 1. Activate the fire alarm system, where provided. 2. Notify the public fire department. 3. Take other action as previously instructed. 403.10.1.3 Fire safety and evacuation instructions. Information shall be provided in the fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 to allow guests to decide whether to evacuate to the outside, evacuate to an area of refuge, remain in place, or any combination of the three. 403.10.2 Gr oup R-2 occupancies. Group R-2 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.10.2.1 through 403.10.2.3. 403.10.2.1 College and university buildings. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group R-2 college and university buildings. Group R-2 college and university buildings shall comply with Sections 403.10.2.1.1 and 403.10.2.1.2. 403.10.2.1.1 First emergency evacuation drill. The first emergency evacuation drill of each school year shall be conducted within 10 days of the beginning of classes. 403.10.2.1.2 Time of day. Emergency evacuation drills shall be conducted at different hours of the day or evening, during the changing of classes, when school is at assembly, during recess or gymnastic periods or during other times to avoid distinction between drills and actual fires. One required drill shall be held during hours after sunset or before sunrise. 403.10.2.2 Emergency guide. Fire emergency guides shall be provided for Group R-2 occupancies. Guide contents, maintenance and

distribution shall comply with 403.10.2.2.1 through 403.10.2.2.3.

Sections

403.10.2.2.1 Guide contents. A fire emergency guide shall describe the location, function and use of fire protection equipment and appliances accessible to residents, including fire alarm systems, smoke alarms and portable fire extinguishers. Guides shall include an emergency evacuation plan for each dwelling unit. 403.10.2.2.2 Emergency guide maintenance. Emergency guides shall be reviewed and approved by the fire code official. 403.10.2.3 Evacuation diagrams for dormitories. A diagram depicting two evacuation routes shall be posted on or immediately adjacent to every required egress door from each dormitory sleeping unit. Evacuation diagrams shall be reviewed and updated as needed to maintain accuracy. 403.10.3 Gr oup R-4 occupancies. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group R-4 occupancies. Group R-4 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.10.3.1 through 403.10.3.6. 403.10.3.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include special employee actions, including fire protection procedures necessary for residents, and shall be amended or revised upon admission of a resident with unusual needs. 403.10.3.1.1 Fire safety plans. A copy of the plan shall be maintained at the facility at all times. Plans shall include the following in addition to the requirements of Section 404: 1. Location and number of resident sleeping rooms. 2. Location of special locking or egress control arrangements. 403.10.3.2 Employee training. Employees shall be periodically instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibilities under the plan. Records of instruction shall be maintained. Such instruction shall be reviewed by employees at intervals not exceeding two months. A copy of the plan shall be readily available at all times within the facility. 403.10.3.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions to take in the event of a

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fire. The training shall include actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, methods of fire prevention and actions to take in the event of a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them to do so without additional personal risk.

3. Fire protection features, including the following: 3.1. Fire department connections. 3.2. Fire command center. 3.3. Smoke management system controls. 3.4. Elevators, elevator machine rooms and controls.

403.10.3.4 Drill frequency. In addition to the evacuation drills required in Section 405.2, employees shall participate in drills an additional two times a year on each shift. Twelve drills with all occupants shall be conducted in the first year of operation.

3.5. Hose valve outlets.

403.10.3.5 Drill times. Drill times are not required to comply with Section 405.4.

3.8. Automatic fire detector zones.

403.10.3.6 Resident participation in drills. Emergency evacuation drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a selected assembly point and shall provide residents with experience in exiting through all required exits. All required exits shall be used during emergency evacuation drills. Exception: Actual exiting from emergency escape and rescue windows shall not be required. Opening the emergency escape and rescue window and signaling for help shall be an acceptable alternative. 403.11 Special uses. Special uses shall be in accordance with Sections 403.11.1 through 403.11.4. 403.11.1 Covered and open mall buildings. Covered and open mall buildings shall comply with the requirements of Sections 403.11.1.1 through 403.11.1.6. 403.11.1.1 Malls and mall buildings exceeding 4650 m2. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for covered malls exceeding 4650 m2 in aggregate floor area and for open mall buildings exceeding 4650 m2 in aggregate area within the perimeter line. 403.11.1.2 Lease plan. In addition to the requirements of Section 404.2.2, a lease plan that includes the following information shall be prepared for each covered and open mall building: 1. Each occupancy, including identification of tenant. 2. Exits from each tenant space.

3.6. Sprinkler and valves.

standpipe control

3.7. Automatic fire-extinguishing system areas. 3.9. Fire barriers. 403.11.1.3 Lease plan approval. The lease plan shall be submitted to the fire code official for approval, and shall be maintained on site for immediate reference by responding fire service personnel. 403.11.1.4 Lease plan revisions. The lease plans shall be revised annually or as often as necessary to keep them current. Modifications or changes in tenants or occupancies shall not be made without prior approval of the fire code official and building official. 403.11.1.5 Tenant identification. Tenant identification shall be provided for secondary exits from occupied tenant spaces that lead to an exit corridor or directly to the exterior of the building. Tenant identification shall be posted on the exterior side of the exit or exit access door and shall identify the business name and address using plainly legible letters and numbers that contrast with their background. Exception: Tenant identification is not required for anchor stores. 403.11.1.6 Unoccupied tenant spaces. The fire safety and evacuation plan shall provide for compliance with the requirements for unoccupied tenant spaces in Section 311. 403.11.2 High-r ise buildings. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for high-rise buildings. 403.11.3 Under gr ound buildings. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in

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accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for underground buildings. 403.11.4 Buildings using occupant evacuation elevators. In buildings using occupant evacuation elevators in accordance with Section 3008 of the SBC 201, the fire safety and evacuation plan and the training required by Sections 404 and 406, respectively, shall incorporate specific procedures for the occupants using such elevators. 403.12 Special requirements for public safety. Special requirements for public safety shall be in accordance with Sections 403.12.1 through 403.12.3.3. 403.12.1 Fire watch personnel. Where, in the opinion of the fire code official, it is essential for public safety in a place of assembly or any other place where people congregate, because of the number of persons, or the nature of the performance, exhibition, display, contest or activity, the owner, agent or lessee shall provide one or more fire watch personnel, as required and approved. Fire watch personnel shall comply with Sections 403.12.1.1 and 403.12.1.2. 403.12.1.1 Duty times. Fire watch personnel shall remain on duty while places requiring a fire watch are open to the public, or when an activity requiring a fire watch is being conducted. 403.12.1.2 Duties. On-duty fire watch personnel shall have the following responsibilities: 1. Keep diligent watch for fires, obstructions to means of egress and other hazards. 2. Take prompt measures for remediation of hazards and extinguishment of fires that occur. 3. Take prompt measures to assist in the evacuation of the public from the structures. 403.12.2 Public safety plan for gather ings. Where the fire code official determines that an indoor or outdoor gathering of persons has an adverse impact on public safety through diminished access to buildings, structures, fire hydrants and fire apparatus access roads or where such gatherings adversely affect public safety services of any kind, the fire code official shall have the authority to order the development of or prescribe a public safety plan that provides an approved level of public safety and addresses the following items: 1. Emergency vehicle ingress and egress.

3. Emergency egress or escape routes. 4. Emergency medical services. 5. Public assembly areas. 6. The directing of both attendees and vehicles, including the parking of vehicles. 7. Vendor and food concession distribution. 8. The need for the presence of law enforcement. 9. The need for fire and emergency medical services personnel.

403.12.3 Cr owd managers for gatherings exceeding 1,000 people. Where facilities or events involve a gathering of more than 1,000 people, crowd managers shall be provided in accordance with Sections 403.12.3.1 through 403.12.3.3. 403.12.3.1 Number of crowd managers. The minimum number of crowd managers shall be established at a ratio of one crowd manager for every 250 persons. Exception: Where approved by the fire code official, the number of crowd managers shall be permitted to be reduced where the facility is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system or based upon the nature of the event. 403.12.3.2 Training. Training for crowd managers shall be approved. 403.12.3.3 Duties. The duties of crowd managers shall include, but not be limited to: 1. Conduct an inspection of the area of responsibility and identify and address any egress barriers. 2. Conduct an inspection of the area of responsibility to identify and mitigate any fire hazards. 3. Verify compliance with all permit conditions, including those governing pyrotechnics and other special effects. 4. Direct and assist the event attendees in evacuation during an emergency. 5. Assist emergency response personnel where requested. 6. Other duties required by the fire code official. 7. Other duties as specified in the fire safety plan.

2. Fire protection.

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1. The procedure for reporting a fire or other emergency.

SECTION 404 FIRE SAFETY, EVACUATION AND LOCKDOWN PLANS 404.1 General. Where required by Section 403, fire safety, evacuation and lockdown plans shall comply with Sections 404.2 through 404.4.1.

2. The life safety strategy including the following: 2.1. Procedures for notifying occupants, including areas with a private mode alarm system.

404.2 Contents. Fire safety and evacuation plan contents shall be in accordance with Sections 404.2.1 and 404.2.2.

2.2. Procedures for occupants under a defend-in-place response.

404.2.1 Fire evacuation plans. Fire evacuation plans shall include the following: 1. Emergency egress or escape routes and whether evacuation of the building is to be complete by selected floors or areas only or with a defend-in-place response.

2.3. Procedures for evacuating occupants, including those who need evacuation assistance. 3. Site plans indicating the following: 3.1. The occupancy assembly point.

2. Procedures for employees who must remain to operate critical equipment before evacuating.

3.2. The locations of fire hydrants.

3. Procedures for the use of elevators to evacuate the building where occupant evacuation elevators complying with Section 3008 of the SBC 201 are provided.

4. Floor plans identifying the locations of the following:

3.3. The normal routes of fire department (Civil Defense) vehicle access.

4.1. Exits. 4.2. Primary evacuation routes.

4. Procedures for assisted rescue for persons unable to use the general means of egress unassisted.

4.3. Secondary evacuation routes. 4.4. Accessible egress routes.

5. Procedures for accounting for employees and occupants after evacuation has been completed.

4.4.1

4.4.2 Exterior areas for assisted rescue.

6. Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for rescue or emergency medical aid.

4.5. Refuge areas associated with smoke barriers and horizontal exits.

7. The preferred and any alternative means of notifying occupants of a fire or emergency.

4.6. Manual fire alarm boxes. 4.7. Portable fire extinguishers.

8. The preferred and any alternative means of reporting fires and other emergencies to the fire department (Civil Defense) or designated emergency response organization. 9. Identification and assignment of personnel who can be contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan. 10. A description of the emergency voice/alarm communication system alert tone and preprogrammed voice messages, where provided. 404.2.2 Fire safety plans. Fire safety plans shall include the following:

Areas of refuge.

4.8. Occupant-use hose stations. 4.9. Fire alarm annunciators and controls. 5. A list of major fire hazards associated with the normal use and occupancy of the premises, including maintenance and housekeeping procedures. 6. Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for maintenance of systems and equipment installed to prevent or control fires. 7. Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for maintenance, housekeeping and controlling fuel hazard sources.

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404.2.3 Lockdown plans. Where facilities develop a lockdown plan, it shall be in accordance with Sections 404.2.3.1 through 404.2.3.3. 404.2.3.1 Lockdown plan contents. Lockdown plans shall be approved by the fire code official and shall include the following: 1. Initiation. The plan shall include instructions for reporting an emergency that requires a lockdown. 2. Accountability. The plan shall include accountability procedures for staff to report the presence or absence of occupants. 3. Recall. The plan shall include a prearranged signal for returning to normal activity. 4. Communication and coordination. The plan shall include an approved means of two-way communication between a central location and each secured area. 404.2.3.2 Training frequency. The training frequency shall be included in the lockdown plan. The lockdown drills shall not substitute for any of the fire and evacuation drills required in Section 405.2. 404.2.3.3 Lockdown notification. The method of notifying building occupants of a lockdown shall be included in the plan. The method of notification shall be separate and distinct from the fire alarm signal.

SECTION 405 EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILLS 405.1 General. Emergency evacuation drills complying with Sections 405.2 through 405.9 shall be conducted not less than annually where fire safety and evacuation plans are required by Section 403 or where required by the fire code official. Drills shall be designed in cooperation with the local authorities. 405.2 Frequency. Required emergency evacuation drills shall be held at the intervals specified in Table 405.2 or more frequently where necessary to familiarize all occupants with the drill procedure. 405.3 Leadership. Responsibility for the planning and conduct of drills shall be assigned to competent persons designated to exercise leadership. 405.4 Time. Drills shall be held at unexpected times and under varying conditions to simulate the unusual conditions that occur in case of fire. 405.5 Record keeping. Records shall be maintained of required emergency evacuation drills and include the following information: 1. Identity of the person conducting the drill. 2. Date and time of the drill. 3. Notification method used.

404.3 Maintenance. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be reviewed or updated annually or as necessitated by changes in staff assignments, occupancy or the physical arrangement of the building.

4. Employees on duty and participating.

404.4 Availability. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be available in the workplace for reference and review by employees, and copies shall be furnished to the fire code official for review upon request.

8. Weather conditions when occupants were evacuated.

404.4.1 Distribution. The fire safety and evacuation plans shall be distributed to the tenants and building service employees by the owner or owner’s agent. Tenants shall distribute to their employees applicable parts of the fire safety plan affecting the employees’ actions in the event of a fire or other emergency.

5. Number of occupants evacuated. 6. Special conditions simulated. 7. Problems encountered.

9. Time required to accomplish complete evacuation. 405.6 Notification. Where required by the fire code official, prior notification of emergency evacuation drills shall be given to the fire code official. 405.7 Initiation. Where a fire alarm system is provided, emergency evacuation drills shall be initiated by activating the fire alarm system. 405.8 Accountability. As building occupants arrive at the assembly point, efforts shall be made to determine if all occupants have been successfully evacuated or have been accounted for.

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405.9 Recall and reentry. An electrically or mechanically operated signal used to recall occupants after an evacuation shall be separate and distinct from the signal used to initiate the evacuation. The recall signal initiation means shall be manually operated and under the control of the person in charge of the premises or the official in charge of the incident. Persons shall not reenter the premises until authorized to do so by the official in charge.

SECTION 406 EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND RESPONSE PROCEDURES 406.1 General. Where fire safety and evacuation plans are required by Section 403, employees shall be trained in fire emergency procedures based on plans prepared in accordance with Section 404. 406.2 Frequency. Employees shall receive training in the contents of fire safety and evacuation plans and their duties as part of new employee orientation and not less than annually thereafter. Records of training shall be maintained. 406.3 Employee training program. Employees shall be trained in fire prevention, evacuation and fire safety in accordance with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.4. 406.3.1 Fire prevention tr aining. Employees shall be apprised of the fire hazards of the materials and processes to which they are exposed. Each employee shall be instructed in the proper procedures for preventing fires in the conduct of their assigned duties. 406.3.2 Evacuation tr aining. Employees shall be familiarized with the fire alarm and evacuation signals, their assigned duties in the event of an alarm or emergency, evacuation routes, areas of refuge, exterior assembly areas and procedures for evacuation. 406.3.3 Fire safety tr aining. Employees assigned fire-fighting duties shall be trained to know the locations and proper use of portable fire extinguishers or other manual fire-fighting equipment and the protective clothing or equipment required for its safe and proper use. 406.4 Emergency lockdown training. Where a facility has a lockdown plan, employees shall be trained on their assigned duties and procedures in the event of an emergency lockdown.

SECTION 407 HAZARD COMMUNICATION 407.1 General. The provisions of Sections 407.2 through 407.7 shall be applicable where hazardous materials subject to permits under Section 5001.5 are located on the premises or where required by the fire code official. 407.2 Material Safety Data Sheets. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for all hazardous materials shall be either readily available on the premises as a paper copy, or where approved, shall be permitted to be readily retrievable by electronic access. 407.3 Identification. Individual containers of hazardous materials, cartons or packages shall be marked or labeled in accordance with applicable government regulations. Buildings, rooms and spaces containing hazardous materials shall be identified by hazard warning signs in accordance with Section 5003.5. 407.4 Training. Persons responsible for the operation of areas in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of a fire, leak or spill. Responsible persons shall be designated and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. These persons shall aid the fire department (Civil Defense) in preplanning emergency responses and identification of where hazardous materials are located, and shall have access to Material Safety Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site emergency response procedures. 407.5 Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement. Where required by the fire code official, each application for a permit shall include a Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) in accordance with Section 5001.5.2. 407.6 Hazardous Materials Management Plan. Where required by the fire code official, each application for a permit shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) in accordance with Section 5001.5.1. The fire code official is authorized to accept a similar plan required by other regulations. 407.7 Facility closure plans. The permit holder or applicant shall submit to the fire code official a facility closure plan in accordance with Section 5001.6.3 to terminate storage, dispensing, handling or use of hazardous materials.

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Bibliography The following resource materials were used in the preparation of the commentary for this chapter of the code: 1. Evacuation Planning Guide for Stadiums. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2008. 2. SFPE Engineering Guide: Fire Safety for Very Tall Buildings (ICC and SFPE 2013) 3. Egress Design Solutions (Tubbs and Meacham 2005).

Emerency Planning and Preparedness

Tables and Figures TABLE 405.2: FIRE AND EVACUATION DRILL FREQUENCY AND PARTICIPATION GROUP OR OCCUPANCY

FREQUENCY

PARTICIPATION

Group A

Quarterly

Employees

b

Group B

Annually

All occupants

Group Bb, c (Ambulatory care facilities)

Annually

Employees

Group Bb (Clinic, outpatient)

Annually

Employees

Group E

Monthlya

All occupants

Group F

Annually

Employees

Group I-1

Semiannually on each shift

All occupants

Group I-2

Quarterly on each shifta

Employees

Group I-3

Quarterly on each shift

a

Employees

Group I-4

Monthly on each shift

a

Group R-1

Quarterly on each shift

Employees

Four annually

All occupants

Semiannually on each shifta

All occupants

Group R-2

d

Group R-4

All occupants

a. In severe climates, the fire code official shall have the authority to modify the emergency evacuation drill frequency. b. Emergency evacuation drills are required in Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. c. Emergency evacuation drills are required in ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 403.3. d. Emergency evacuation drills in Group R-2 college and university buildings shall be in accordance with Section 403.10.2.1. Other Group R-2 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 403.10.2.2.

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Part III—Building and Equipment Design Features

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FIRE SERVICE FEATURES

SECTION 501 GENERAL

SECTION 503 FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS

501.1 Scope. Fire service features for buildings, structures and premises shall comply with this chapter.

503.1 Where required. Fire apparatus access roads shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Sections 503.1.1 through 503.1.3.

501.2 Permits. A permit shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

503.1.1 Buildings and facilities. Approved fire apparatus access roads shall be provided for every facility, building or portion of a building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction. The fire apparatus access road shall comply with the requirements of this section and shall extend to within 45 m of all portions of the facility and all portions of the exterior walls of the first story of the building as measured by an approved route around the exterior of the building or facility.

501.3 Construction documents. Construction documents for proposed fire apparatus access, location of fire lanes, security gates across fire apparatus access roads and construction documents and hydraulic calculations for fire hydrant systems shall be submitted to the fire department (Civil Defense) for review and approval prior to construction. 501.4 Timing of installation. Where fire apparatus access roads or a water supply for fire protection are required to be installed, such protection shall be installed and made serviceable prior to and during the time of construction except when approved alternative methods of protection are provided. Temporary street signs shall be installed at each street intersection where construction of new roadways allows passage by vehicles in accordance with Section 505.2.

Exceptions: 1. The fire code official is authorized to increase the dimension of 45 m where any of the following conditions occur: 1.1. The building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 1.2. Fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed because of location on property, topography, waterways, nonnegotiable grades or other similar conditions, and an approved alternative means of fire protection is provided.

SECTION 502 DEFINITIONS 502.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2: • • • • •

AGENCY. FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. FIRE COMMAND CENTER. FIRE DEPARTMENT (CIVIL DEFENSE) MASTER KEY. FIRE LANE. KEY BOX. TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICES.

1.3. There are not more than two Group R-3 or Group U occupancies. 2. Where approved by the fire code official, fire apparatus access roads shall be permitted to be exempted or modified for solar photovoltaic power generation facilities. 503.1.2 Additional access. The fire code official is authorized to require more than one fire apparatus access road based on the potential for impairment of a single road by vehicle congestion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions or other factors that could limit access. 503.1.3 High-piled stor age. Fire department (Civil Defense) vehicle access to buildings used for high-

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piled combustible storage shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 32.

by the fire code official based on the fire department’s apparatus.

503.2 Specifications. Fire apparatus access roads shall be installed and arranged in accordance with Sections 503.2.1 through 503.2.8.

503.3 Marking. Where required by the fire code official, approved signs or other approved notices or markings that include the words NO PARKING—FIRE LANE shall be provided for fire apparatus access roads to identify such roads or prohibit the obstruction thereof. The means by which fire lanes are designated shall be maintained in a clean and legible condition at all times and be replaced or repaired when necessary to provide adequate visibility.

503.2.1 Dimensions. Fire apparatus access roads shall have an unobstructed width of not less than 6 m, exclusive of shoulders, except for approved security gates in accordance with Section 503.6, and an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 4 m. 503.2.2 Authority. The fire code official shall have the authority to require or permit modifications to the required access widths where they are inadequate for fire or rescue operations or where necessary to meet the public safety objectives of the jurisdiction. 503.2.3 Sur face. Fire apparatus access roads shall be designed and maintained to support the imposed loads of fire apparatus and shall be surfaced so as to provide all-weather driving capabilities. 503.2.4 Tur ning radius. The required turning radius of a fire apparatus access road shall be determined by the fire code official. 503.2.5 Dead ends. Dead-end fire apparatus access roads in excess of 45 m in length shall be provided with an approved area for turning around fire apparatus. 503.2.6 Bridges and elevated surfaces. Where a bridge or an elevated surface is part of a fire apparatus access road, the bridge shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with AASHTO HB-17. Bridges and elevated surfaces shall be designed for a live load sufficient to carry the imposed loads of fire apparatus. Vehicle load limits shall be posted at both entrances to bridges where required by the fire code official. Where elevated surfaces designed for emergency vehicle use are adjacent to surfaces that are not designed for such use, approved barriers, approved signs or both shall be installed and maintained where required by the fire code official. 503.2.7 Gr ade. The grade of the fire apparatus access road shall be within the limits established by the fire code official based on the fire department’s apparatus. 503.2.8 Angles of appr oach and depar tur e. The angles of approach and departure for fire apparatus access roads shall be within the limits established

503.4 Obstruction of fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access roads shall not be obstructed in any manner, including the parking of vehicles. The minimum widths and clearances established in Sections 503.2.1 and 503.2.2 shall be maintained at all times. 503.4.1 Tr affic calming devices. Traffic calming devices shall be prohibited unless approved by the fire code official. 503.5 Required gates or barricades. The fire code official is authorized to require the installation and maintenance of gates or other approved barricades across fire apparatus access roads, trails or other access ways, not including public streets, alleys or highways. Electric gate operators, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325. Gates intended for automatic operation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F2200. 503.5.1 Secured gates and bar ricades. Where required, gates and barricades shall be secured in an approved manner. Roads, trails and other access ways that have been closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by Section 503.5 shall not be trespassed on or used unless authorized by the owner and the fire code official. Exception: The restriction on use shall not apply to public officers acting within the scope of duty. 503.6 Security gates. The installation of security gates across a fire apparatus access road shall be approved by the fire chief. Where security gates are installed, they shall have an approved means of emergency operation. The security gates and the emergency operation shall be maintained operational at all times. Electric gate operators, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325. Gates intended for automatic operation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F2200.

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SECTION 504 ACCESS TO BUILDING OPENINGS AND ROOFS 504.1 Required access. Exterior doors and openings required by this code or the SBC 201 shall be maintained readily accessible for emergency access by the fire department. An approved access walkway leading from fire apparatus access roads to exterior openings shall be provided when required by the fire code official. 504.2 Maintenance of exterior doors and openings. Exterior doors and their function shall not be eliminated without prior approval. Exterior doors that have been rendered nonfunctional and that retain a functional door exterior appearance shall have a sign affixed to the exterior side of the door with the words THIS DOOR BLOCKED. The sign shall consist of letters having a principal stroke of not less than 20 mm wide and not less than 150 mm high on a contrasting background. Required fire department (Civil Defense) access doors shall not be obstructed or eliminated. Exit and exit access doors shall comply with Chapter 10. Access doors for high-piled combustible storage shall comply with Section 3206.6.1. 504.3 Stairway access to roof. New buildings four or more stories above grade plane, except those with a roof slope greater than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3 percent slope), shall be provided with a stairway to the roof. Stairway access to the roof shall be in accordance with Section 1011.12. Such stairway shall be marked at street and floor levels with a sign indicating that the stairway continues to the roof. Where roofs are used for roof gardens or for other purposes, stairways shall be provided as required for such occupancy classification.

SECTION 505 PREMISES IDENTIFICATION 505.1 Address identification. New and existing buildings shall be provided with approved address identification. The address identification shall be legible and placed in a position that is visible from the street or road fronting the property. Address identification characters shall contrast with their background. Address numbers shall be Arabic numbers or alphabetical letters. Numbers shall not be spelled out. Each character shall be not less than 100 mm high with a minimum stroke width of 13

mm. Where required by the fire code official, address identification shall be provided in additional approved locations to facilitate emergency response. Where access is by means of a private road and the building cannot be viewed from the public way, a monument, pole or other sign or means shall be used to identify the structure. Address identification shall be maintained. 505.2 Street or road signs. Streets and roads shall be identified with approved signs. Temporary signs shall be installed at each street intersection when construction of new roadways allows passage by vehicles. Signs shall be of an approved size, weather resistant and be maintained until replaced by permanent signs.

SECTION 506 KEY BOXES 506.1 Where required. Where access to or within a structure or an area is restricted because of secured openings or where immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting purposes, the fire code official is authorized to require a key box to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall be of an approved type listed in accordance with UL 1037, and shall contain keys to gain necessary access as required by the fire code official. 506.1.1 Locks. An approved lock shall be installed on gates or similar barriers where required by the fire code official. 506.1.2 Key boxes for nonstandar dized fire service elevator keys. Key boxes provided for nonstandardized fire service elevator keys shall comply with Section 506.1 and all of the following: 1. The key box shall be compatible with an existing rapid entry key box system in use in the jurisdiction and approved by the fire code official. 2. The front cover shall be permanently labeled with the words “Fire department (Civil Defense) Use Only—Elevator Keys.” 3. The key box shall be mounted at each elevator bank at the lobby nearest to the lowest level of fire department (Civil Defense) access. 4. The key box shall be mounted 1700 mm above the finished floor to the right side of the elevator bank. 5. Contents of the key box are limited to fire service elevator keys. Additional elevator

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access tools, keys and information pertinent to emergency planning or elevator access shall be permitted where authorized by the fire code official. 6. In buildings with two or more elevator banks, a single key box shall be permitted to be used where such elevator banks are separated by not more than 9 m. Additional key boxes shall be provided for each individual elevator or elevator bank separated by more than 9 m. Exception: A single key box shall be permitted to be located adjacent to a fire command center or the non-standard fire service elevator key shall be permitted to be secured in a key box used for other purposes and located in accordance with Section 506.1. 506.2 Key box maintenance. The operator of the building shall immediately notify the fire code official and provide the new key where a lock is changed or rekeyed. The key to such lock shall be secured in the key box.

SECTION 507 FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES 507.1 Required water supply. An approved water supply capable of supplying the required fire flow for fire protection shall be provided to premises upon which facilities, buildings or portions of buildings are hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction. 507.2 Type of water supply. A water supply shall consist of reservoirs, pressure tanks, elevated tanks, water mains or other fixed systems capable of providing the required fire flow. 507.2.1 Pr ivate fire service mains. Private fire service mains and appurtenances shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 24.

507.5 Fire hydrant systems. Fire hydrant systems shall comply with Sections 507.5.1 through 507.5.6. 507.5.1 Where required. Where a portion of the facility or building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction is more than 120 m from a hydrant on a fire apparatus access road, as measured by an approved route around the exterior of the facility or building, on-site fire hydrants and mains shall be provided where required by the fire code official. Exceptions: 1. For Group R-3 and Group U occupancies, the distance requirement shall be 180 m. 2. For buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the distance requirement shall be 180 m. 507.5.1.1 Hydrant for standpipe systems. Buildings equipped with a standpipe system installed in accordance with Section 905 shall have a fire hydrant within 30 m of the fire department (Civil Defense) connections. Exception: The distance shall be permitted to exceed 30 m where approved by the fire code official. 507.5.2 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire hydrant systems shall be subject to periodic tests as required by the fire code official. Fire hydrant systems shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times and shall be repaired where defective. Additions, repairs, alterations and servicing shall comply with approved standards. Records of tests and required maintenance shall be maintained.

507.2.2 Water tanks. Water tanks for private fire protection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 22.

507.5.3 Pr ivate fire service mains and water tanks. Private fire service mains and water tanks shall be periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25 at the following intervals:

507.3 Fire flow. Fire flow requirements for buildings or portions of buildings and facilities shall be determined by an approved method.

1. Private fire hydrants of all types: Inspection annually and after each operation; flow test and maintenance annually.

507.4 Water supply test. The fire code official shall be notified prior to the water supply test. Water supply tests shall be witnessed by the fire code official or approved documentation of the test shall be provided to the fire code official prior to final approval of the water supply system.

2. Fire service main piping: Inspection of exposed, annually; flow test every 5 years. 3. Fire service main piping strainers: Inspection and maintenance after each use. Records of inspections, testing and maintenance

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shall be maintained. 507.5.4 Obstr uction. Unobstructed access to fire hydrants shall be maintained at all times. The fire department (Civil Defense) shall not be deterred or hindered from gaining immediate access to fire protection equipment or fire hydrants. 507.5.5 Clear space ar ound hydr ants. A 900 mm clear space shall be maintained around the circumference of fire hydrants, except as otherwise required or approved. 507.5.6 Physical protection. Where fire hydrants are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, guard posts or other approved means shall comply with Section 312.

4. Annunciator unit visually indicating the location of the elevators and whether they are operational. 5. Status indicators and controls for air distribution systems. 6. The fire fighter’s control panel required by Section 7. 909.16 for smoke control systems installed in the building. 8. Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously. 9. Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display panels.

SECTION 508 FIRE COMMAND CENTER

10. Emergency and standby power status indicators.

508.1 General. Where required by other sections of this code and in all buildings classified as highrise buildings by the SBC 201, a fire command center for fire department (Civil Defense) operations shall be provided and shall comply with Sections 508.1.1 through 508.1.6.

11. A telephone for fire department (Civil Defense) use with controlled access to the public telephone system.

508.1.1 Location and access. The location and accessibility of the fire command center shall be approved by the fire chief. 508.1.2 Separ ation. The fire command center shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than a 1hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the SBC 201 or horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the SBC 201, or both. 508.1.3 Size. The fire command center shall be not less than 20 m2 in area with a minimum dimension of 3000 mm.

12. Fire pump status indicators. 13. Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan and detailing the building core, means of egress, fire protection systems, fire-fighter air-replenishment systems, fire-fighting equipment and fire department (Civil Defense) access, and the location of fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions. 14. An approved Building Information Card that includes, but is not limited to, all of the following information:

508.1.4 Layout appr oval. A layout of the fire command center and all features required by this section to be contained therein shall be submitted for approval prior to installation. 508.1.5 Stor age. Storage unrelated to operation of the fire command center shall be prohibited. 508.1.6 Required features. The fire command center shall comply with NFPA 72 and shall contain the following features:

14.1. General building information that includes: property name, address, the number of floors in the building above and below grade, use and occupancy classification (for mixed uses, identify the different types of occupancies on each floor) and the estimated building population during the day, night and weekend;

Defense)

14.2. Building emergency contact information that includes: a list of the building’s emergency contacts including but not limited to building manager, building engineer and their respective work phone number, cell phone number and e-mail address;

3. Fire detection and alarm system annunciator.

14.3. Building construction information that includes: the type of building

1. The emergency voice/alarm communication system control unit. 2. The fire department (Civil communications system.

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construction including but not limited to floors, walls, columns and roof assembly; 14.4. Exit access stairway and exit stairway information that includes: number of exit access stairways and exit stairways in building; each exit access stairway and exit stairway designation and floors served; location where each exit access stairway and exit stairway discharges, interior exit stairways that are pressurized; exit stairways provided with emergency lighting; each exit stairway that allows reentry; exit stairways providing roof access; elevator information that includes: number of elevator banks, elevator bank designation, elevator car numbers and respective floors that they serve; location of elevator machine rooms, control rooms and control spaces; location of sky lobby; and location of freight elevator banks; 14.5. Building services and system information that includes: location of mechanical rooms, location of building management system, location and capacity of all fuel oil tanks, location of emergency generator and location of natural gas service; 14.6. Fire protection system information that includes: location of standpipes, location of fire pump room, location of Civil Defense connections, floors protected by automatic sprinklers and location of different types of automatic sprinkler systems installed including but not limited to dry, wet and pre-action; 14.7. Hazardous material information that includes: location and quantity of hazardous material. 15. Work table.

SECTION 509 FIRE PROTECTION AND UTILITY EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION AND ACCESS 509.1 Identification. Fire protection equipment shall be identified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls for air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for the use of the fire department. Approved signs required to identify fire protection equipment and equipment location shall be constructed of durable materials, permanently installed and readily visible. 509.1.1 Utility identification. Where required by the fire code official, gas shutoff valves, electric meters, service switches and other utility equipment shall be clearly and legibly marked to identify the unit or space that it serves. Identification shall be made in an approved manner, readily visible and shall be maintained. 509.2 Equipment access. Approved access shall be provided and maintained for all fire protection equipment to permit immediate safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. Storage, trash and other materials or objects shall not be placed or kept in such a manner that would prevent such equipment from being readily accessible.

SECTION 510 EMERGENCY RESPONDER RADIO COVERAGE 510.1 Emergency responder radio coverage in new buildings. All new buildings shall have approved radio coverage for emergency responders within the building based upon the existing coverage levels of the public safety communication systems of the jurisdiction at the exterior of the building. This section shall not require improvement of the existing public safety communication systems. Exceptions:

16. Generator supervision devices, manual start and transfer features. 17. Public address system, where specifically required by other sections of this code. 18. Elevator fire recall switch in accordance with ASME A17.1. 19. Elevator emergency or standby power selector switch(es), where emergency or standby power is provided.

1. Where approved by the building official and the fire code official, a wired communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 shall be permitted to be installed or maintained instead of an approved radio coverage system. 2. Where it is determined by the fire code official that the radio coverage system is not needed.

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3. In facilities where emergency responder radio coverage is required and such systems, components or equipment required could have a negative impact on the normal operations of that facility, the fire code official shall have the authority to accept an automatically activated emergency responder radio coverage system. 510.2 Emergency responder radio coverage in existing buildings. Existing buildings shall be provided with approved radio coverage for emergency responders as required in Chapter 11. 510.3 Permit required. A construction permit for the installation of or modification to emergency responder radio coverage systems and related equipment is required as specified in Section 105.7.5. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered a modification and does not require a permit. 510.4 Technical requirements. Systems, components and equipment required to provide the emergency responder radio coverage system shall comply with Sections 510.4.1 through 510.4.2.5. 510.4.1 Radio signal strength. The building shall be considered to have acceptable emergency responder radio coverage when signal strength measurements in 95 percent of all areas on each floor of the building meet the signal strength requirements in Sections 510.4.1.1 and 510.4.1.2. 510.4.1.1 Minimum signal strength into the building. A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be receivable within the building. 510.4.1.2 Minimum signal strength out of the building. A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be received by the agency’s radio system when transmitted from within the building. 510.4.2 System design. The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be designed in accordance with Sections 510.4.2.1 through 510.4.2.5. 510.4.2.1 Amplification systems allowed. Buildings and structures that cannot support the required level of radio coverage shall be equipped with a radiating cable system, a distributed antenna system with government Communications Commission-certified signal boosters, or other system approved by the fire code official in order to achieve the required adequate radio coverage. 510.4.2.2 Technical criteria. The fire code official shall maintain a document providing the

specific technical information and requirements for the emergency responder radio coverage system. This document shall contain, but not be limited to, the various frequencies required, the location of radio sites, effective radiated power of radio sites, and other supporting technical information. 510.4.2.3 Standby power. Emergency responder radio coverage systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 604. The standby power supply shall be capable of operating the emergency responder radio coverage system for a duration of not less than 24 hours. 510.4.2.4 Signal booster requirements. If used, signal boosters shall meet the following requirements: 1. All signal booster components shall be contained in a National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) 4-type waterproof cabinet. 2. Battery systems used for the emergency power source shall be contained in a NEMA 4-type waterproof cabinet. 3. The signal booster system and battery system shall be electrically supervised and monitored by a supervisory service, or when approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location. 510.4.2.5 Additional frequencies and change of frequencies. The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be capable of modification or expansion in the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or additional frequencies are made available by the FCC. 510.5 Installation requirements. The installation of the public safety radio coverage system shall be in accordance with Sections 510.5.1 through 510.5.4. 510.5.1 Appr oval prior to installation. Amplification systems capable of operating on frequencies licensed to any public safety agency by the FCC shall not be installed without prior coordination and approval of the fire code official. 510.5.2 Minimum qualifications of personnel. The minimum qualifications of the system designer and lead installation personnel shall include both of the following: 1. A valid FCC-issued general radio operator’s license.

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2. Certification of in-building system training issued by a nationally recognized organization, school or a certificate issued by the manufacturer of the equipment being installed. These qualifications shall not be required where demonstration of adequate skills and experience satisfactory to the fire code official is provided. 510.5.3 Acceptance test pr ocedure. Where an emergency responder radio coverage system is required, and upon completion of installation, the building owner shall have the radio system tested to verify that two-way coverage on each floor of the building is not less than 90 percent. The test procedure shall be conducted as follows: 1. Each floor of the building shall be divided into a grid of 20 approximately equal test areas. 2. The test shall be conducted using a calibrated portable radio of the latest brand and model used by the agency talking through the agency’s radio communications system. 3. Failure of not more than two nonadjacent test areas shall not result in failure of the test. 4. In the event that three of the test areas fail the test, in order to be more statistically accurate, the floor shall be permitted to be divided into 40 equal test areas. Failure of not more than four nonadjacent test areas shall not result in failure of the test. If the system fails the 40area test, the system shall be altered to meet the 90-percent coverage requirement. 5. A test location approximately in the center of each test area shall be selected for the test, with the radio enabled to verify two-way communications to and from the outside of the building through the public agency’s radio communications system. Once the test location has been selected, that location shall represent the entire test area. Failure in the selected test location shall be considered failure of that test area. Additional test locations shall not be permitted. 6. The gain values of all amplifiers shall be measured and the test measurement results shall be kept on file with the building owner so that the measurements can be verified during annual tests. In the event that the measurement results become lost, the building owner shall be required to rerun the acceptance test to reestablish the gain values.

7. As part of the installation a spectrum analyzer or other suitable test equipment shall be utilized to ensure spurious oscillations are not being generated by the subject signal booster. This test shall be conducted at the time of installation and subsequent annual inspections. 510.5.4 FCC compliance. The emergency responder radio coverage system installation and components shall also comply with all applicable regulations including, but not limited to, FCC 47 CFR Part 90.219. 510.6 Maintenance. The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be maintained operational at all times in accordance with Sections 510.6.1 through 510.6.3. 510.6.1 Testing and proof of compliance. The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be inspected and tested annually or where structural changes occur including additions or remodels that could materially change the original field performance tests. Testing shall consist of the following: 1. In-building coverage test as described in Section 510.5.3. 2. Signal boosters shall be tested to verify that the gain is the same as it was upon initial installation and acceptance. 3. Backup batteries and power supplies shall be tested under load of a period of 1 hour to verify that they will properly operate during an actual power outage. If within the 1-hour test period the battery exhibits symptoms of failure, the test shall be extended for additional 1-hour periods until the integrity of the battery can be determined. 4. Other active components shall be checked to verify operation within the manufacturer’s specifications. 5. At the conclusion of the testing, a report, which shall verify compliance with Section 510.5.3, shall be submitted to the fire code official. 510.6.2 Additional frequencies. The building owner shall modify or expand the emergency responder radio coverage system at his or her expense in the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or additional frequencies are made available by the FCC. Prior approval of a public

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safety radio coverage system on previous frequencies does not exempt this section. 510.6.3 Field testing. Agency personnel shall have the right to enter onto the property at any reasonable time to conduct field testing to verify the required level of radio coverage.

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Bibliography The following resource materials were used in the preparation of the commentary for this chapter of the code: 1. 2012 International Code Interpretations. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2011. 2. Bunte, Leslie W., Traffic Calming Programs and Emergency Response: A Competition of Two Public Goods, unpublished thesis (M.P.A.), University of Texas at Austin, 2000. 3. Code Changes Resource Collection—2015 International Fire Code. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2014. 4. Final Report of the National Construction Safety Team on the Collapses of the World Trade Center Towers. Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards & Technology, United States Government Printing Office, 2005.

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Tables and Figures

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BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS

SECTION 601 GENERAL 601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appliances and heating systems, emergency and standby power systems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical refrigeration systems, elevator recall, stationary storage battery systems and commercial kitchen equipment. 601.2 Permits. Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration systems, battery systems and solar photovoltaic power systems as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

SECTION 602 DEFINITIONS 602.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2: • • • • •

• •

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD-ACID. BATTERY TYPES. COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. CRITICAL CIRCUIT. EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM. HOOD. Type I. Type II. REFRIGERANT. REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. STANDBY POWER SYSTEM.

SECTION 603 FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES 603.1 Installation. The installation of nonportable fuel gas appliances and systems shall be carried out by an approved method. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances, other than internal combustion engines, oil lamps and portable devices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed burners, shall comply with this section and the SBC 501. 603.1.1 Manufactur er’s instr uctions. The installation shall be made in accordance with the

manufacturer’s instructions and applicable government regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify or alter a manufacturer’s instructions in any way, written approval shall first be obtained from the manufacturer. 603.1.2 Appr oval. The design, construction and installation of fuel-fired appliances shall be in accordance with the SBC 1201 and the SBC 501. 603.1.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment used in connection with oil-burning equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 605 and NFPA 70. 603.1.4 Fuel oil. The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline shall not be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an acceptable fuel in Group F, M and S occupancies where utilized in equipment listed for use with waste oil and where such equipment is installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the terms of its listing. 603.1.5 Access. The installation shall be readily accessible for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regulators and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning and lubricating parts. 603.1.6 Testing, diagr ams and instr uctions. After installation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combustion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that the burner is in proper operating condition and that all accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function properly. 603.1.6.1 Diagrams. Contractors installing industrial oil burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burning equipment and another at an approved location that will be accessible in case of emergency. 603.1.6.2 Instructions. After completing the installation, the installer shall instruct the owner or

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operator in the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall furnish the owner or operator with the name and telephone number of persons to contact for technical information or assistance and routine or emergency services. 603.1.7 Clear ances. Working clearances between oil-fired appliances and electrical panel boards and equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 70. Clearances between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in accordance with NFPA 31. 603.2 Chimneys. Masonry chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the SBC 201/SBC 305. Factory built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with the SBC 501. Metal chimneys shall be constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 211. 603.3 Fuel oil storage systems. Fuel oil storage systems shall be installed in accordance with these code requirements. Fuel-oil piping systems shall be installed in accordance with the SBC 501. 603.3.1 Fuel oil stor age in outside, above-gr ound tanks. Where connected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above ground without additional protection shall be 2500 L. The storage of fuel oil above ground in quantities exceeding 2500 L shall comply with NFPA 31. 603.3.2 Fuel oil stor age inside buildings. Fuel oil storage inside buildings shall comply with Sections 603.3.2.1 through 603.3.2.5 or Chapter 57. 603.3.2.1 Quantity limits. One or more fuel oil storage tanks containing Class II or III combustible liquid shall be permitted in a building. The aggregate capacity of all such tanks shall not exceed 2500 L. Exception: The aggregate capacity limit shall be permitted to be increased to 11,350 L of Class II or III liquid for storage in protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 5704.2.9.7, where all of the following conditions are met: 1. The entire 11,350 L quantity shall be stored in protected above-ground tanks. 2. The 11,350 L capacity shall be permitted to be stored in a single tank or multiple smaller tanks. 3. The tanks shall be located in a room protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1.

603.3.2.2 Restricted use and connection. Tanks installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2 shall be used only to supply fuel oil to fuel-burning or generator equipment installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2.4. Connections between tanks and equipment supplied by such tanks shall be made using closed piping systems. 603.3.2.3 Applicability of maximum allowable quantity and control area requirements. The quantity of combustible liquid stored in tanks complying with Section 603.3.2 shall not be counted towards the maximum allowable quantity set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1), and such tanks shall not be required to be located in a control area. 603.3.2.4 Installation. Tanks and piping systems shall be installed and separated from other uses in accordance with Section 915 and Chapter 13, both of the SBC 501, as applicable. Exception: Protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 5704.2.9.7 shall not be required to be separated from surrounding areas. 603.3.2.5 Tanks in basem*nts. Tanks in basem*nts shall be located not more than two stories below grade plane. 603.3.3 Under gr ound stor age of fuel oil. The storage of fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with NFPA 31. 603.4 Portable unvented heaters. Portable unvented fuel fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies in Groups A, E, I, R-1, R2, R-3 and R-4. Exceptions: 1. Listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters, including portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances, in one-and two-family dwellings. 2. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be allowed in accordance with Section 603.4.2. 603.4.1 Pr ohibited locations. Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping rooms, bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets. 603.4.2 Por table outdoor gas-fired heating appliances. Portable gas-fired heating appliances located outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1 through 603.4.2.3.4.

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603.4.2.1 Location. Portable outdoor gasfired heating appliances shall be located in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1.1 through 603.4.2.1.4. 603.4.2.1.1 Prohibited locations. The storage or use of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances is prohibited in any of the following locations: 1. Inside of any occupancy where connected to the fuel gas container. 2. Inside of tents, canopies and membrane structures. 3. On exterior balconies. Exception: As allowed in Section 6.20 of NFPA 58. 603.4.2.1.2 Clearance to buildings. Portable outdoor gas fired heating appliances shall be located not less than 1500 mm from buildings. 603.4.2.1.3 Clearance to combustible materials. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located beneath, or closer than 1500 mm to combustible decorations and combustible overhangs, awnings, sunshades or similar combustible attachments to buildings. 603.4.2.1.4 Proximity to exits. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located within 1500 mm of exits or exit discharges. 603.4.2.2 Installation and operation. Portable outdoor gas fired heating appliances shall be installed and operated in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.2.1 through 603.4.2.2.4. 603.4.2.2.1 Listing and approval. Only listed and approved portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances utilizing a fuel gas container that is integral to the appliance shall be used. 603.4.2.2.2 Installation and maintenance. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. 603.4.2.2.3 Tip-over switch. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be equipped with a tilt or tip-over switch that automatically shuts off the flow of gas if the appliance is tilted more than 0.26 rad (15 degrees) from the vertical. 603.4.2.2.4 Guard against contact. The heating element or combustion chamber of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be

permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material. 603.4.2.3 Gas containers. Fuel gas containers for portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall comply with Sections 603.4.2.3.1 through 603.4.2.3.4. 603.4.2.3.1 Approved containers. Only approved DOT or ASME gas containers shall be used. 603.4.2.3.2 Container replacement. Replacement of fuel gas containers in portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be conducted while the public is present. 603.4.2.3.3 Container capacity. The maximum individual capacity of gas containers used in connection with portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not exceed 9 kg. 603.4.2.3.4 Indoor storage prohibited. Gas containers shall not be stored inside of buildings except in accordance with Section 6109.9. 603.5 Heating appliances. Heating appliances shall be listed and shall comply with Sections 603.5.1 and 603.5.2. 603.5.1 Guar d against contact. The heating element or combustion chamber shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material. 603.5.2 Heating appliance installation and maintenance. Heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, SBC 201, SBC 501, SBC 1201 and NFPA 70. 603.6 Chimneys and appliances. Chimneys, incinerators, smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boilers to which such devices are connected, shall be maintained so as not to create a fire hazard. 603.6.1 Masonr y chimneys. Masonry chimneys that, upon inspection, are found to be without a flue liner and that have open mortar joints which will permit smoke or gases to be discharged into the building, or which are cracked as to be dangerous, shall be repaired or relined with a listed chimney liner system installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions or a flue lining system installed in accordance with the requirements of the SBC 201/ SBC 305 requirements and appropriate for the intended class of chimney service.

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603.6.2 Metal chimneys. Metal chimneys which are corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced. 603.6.3 Decorative shrouds. Decorative shrouds installed at the termination of factory-built chimneys shall be removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and are installed in accordance with the chimney manufacturer’s instructions. 603.6.4 Factor y-built chimneys. Existing factorybuilt chimneys that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced. 603.6.5 Connectors. Existing chimney and vent connectors that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced. 603.7 Discontinuing operation of unsafe heating appliances. The fire code official is authorized to order that measures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heatproducing device or appliance found to be defective or in violation of code requirements for existing appliances after giving notice to this effect to any person, owner, firm or agent or operator in charge of the same. The fire code official is authorized to take measures to prevent the operation of any device or appliance without notice when inspection shows the existence of an immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The defective device shall remain withdrawn from service until all necessary repairs or alterations have been made. 603.7.1 Unauthorized oper ation. It shall be a violation of this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue the utilization of any device or appliance (the operation of which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in accordance with Section 603.7) unless written authority to resume operation is given by the fire code official. Removing or breaking the means by which operation of the device is prevented shall be a violation of this code. 603.8 Incinerators. Commercial, industrial and residential type incinerators and chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the SBC 201, SBC 501 and the SBC 1201. 603.8.1 Residential inciner ator s. Residential incinerators shall be of an approved type. 603.8.2 Spar k ar r estor. Incinerators shall be equipped with an effective means for arresting sparks.

603.8.3 Restr ictions. Where the fire code official determines that burning in incinerators located within 150 m of mountainous, brush or grasscovered areas will create an undue fire hazard because of atmospheric conditions, such burning shall be prohibited. 603.8.4 Time of bur ning. Burning shall take place only during approved hours. 603.8.5 Discontinuance. The fire code official is authorized to require incinerator use to be discontinued immediately if the fire code official determines that smoke emissions are offensive to occupants of surrounding property or if the use of incinerators is determined by the fire code official to constitute a hazardous condition. 603.8.6 Flue-fed inciner ators in Gr oup I-2. In Group I-2 occupancies, the continued use of existing flue-fed incinerators is prohibited. 603.8.7 Inciner ator inspections in Gr oup I-2. Incinerators in Group I-2 occupancies shall be inspected not less than annually in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Inspection records shall be maintained on the premises and made available to the fire code official upon request 603.9 Gas meters. Above-ground gas meters, regulators and piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier complying with Section 312 or otherwise protected in an approved manner.

SECTION 604 EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS 604.1 General. Emergency power systems and standby power systems required by this code or the other Saudi Building Code shall comply with Sections 604.1.1 through 604.1.8. 604.1.1 Stationar y gener ator s. Stationary emergency and standby power generators required by this code shall be listed in accordance with UL 2200. 604.1.2 Installation. Emergency power systems and standby power systems shall be installed in accordance with the SBC 201, NFPA 70, NFPA 110 and NFPA 111. 604.1.3 Load tr ansfer. Emergency power systems shall automatically provide secondary power within 10 seconds after primary power is lost, unless specified otherwise in this code. Standby power systems shall automatically provide secondary

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power within 60 seconds after primary power is lost unless specified otherwise in this code. 604.1.4 Load dur ation. Emergency power systems and standby power systems shall be designed to provide the required power for a minimum duration of 2 hours without being refueled or recharged, unless specified otherwise in this code. 604.1.5 Uninter r uptable power source. An uninterrupted source of power shall be provided for equipment where required by the manufacturer’s instructions, the listing, this code or applicable referenced standards. 604.1.6 Inter changeability. Emergency power systems shall be an acceptable alternative for installations that require standby power systems. 604.1.7 Gr oup I-2 occupancies. In Group I-2 occupancies, where an essential electrical system is located in flood hazard areas established in the Saudi Building Code and where new or replacement essential electrical system generators are installed, the system shall be located and installed in accordance with ASCE 24. 604.1.8 Maintenance. Existing installations shall be maintained in accordance with the original approval and Section 604.4. 604.2 Where required. Emergency and standby power systems shall be provided where required by Sections 604.2.1 through 604.2.16. 604.2.1 Elevators and platfor m lifts. Standby power shall be provided for elevators and platform lifts as required in Sections 607.2, 1009.4, and 1009.5. 604.2.2 Emer gency alar m systems. Emergency power shall be provided for emergency alarm systems as required by Section 414 of the SBC 201. 604.2.3 Emer gency responder radio coverage systems. Standby power shall be provided for emergency responder radio coverage systems as required in Section 510.4.2.3. The standby power supply shall be capable of operating the emergency responder radio coverage system for a duration of not less than 24 hours. 604.2.4 Emer gency voice/alar m communication systems. Emergency power shall be provided for emergency voice/ alarm communication systems as required in Section 907.5.2.2.5. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 24 hours, as required in NFPA 72.

604.2.5 Exit signs. Emergency power shall be provided for exit signs as required in Section 1013.6.3. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 90 minutes. 604.2.6 Gr oup I-2 occupancies. Essential electrical systems for Group I-2 occupancies shall be in accordance with SBC 201. 604.2.7 Gr oup I-3 occupancies. Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group I3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door. Emergency power shall be provided for the doors and locks in accordance with Section 604. Exceptions: 1. Emergency power is not required in facilities where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required as set forth in the SBC 201. 2. Emergency power is not required where remote mechanical operating releases are provided. 604.2.8 Hazar dous materials. Emergency and standby power shall be provided in occupancies with hazardous materials as required in the following sections: 1. Sections 5004.7 and 5005.1.5 for hazardous materials. 2. Sections 6004.2.2.8 and 6004.3.4.2 for highly toxic and toxic gases. 3. Section 6204.1.11 for organic peroxides. 604.2.9 High-r ise buildings. Standby power and emergency power shall be provided for high-rise buildings as required in Section 407 of the SBC 201, and shall be in accordance with Section 604. 604.2.10 Hor izontal sliding doors. Standby power shall be provided for horizontal sliding doors as required in Section 1010.1.4.3. The standby power supply shall have a capacity to operate not fewer than 50 closing cycles of the door. 604.2.11 Hydr ogen fuel gas rooms. Standby power shall be provided for hydrogen fuel gas rooms as required by Section 5808.7. 604.2.12 Means of egress illumination. Emergency power shall be provided for means of egress illumination in accordance with Sections 1008.3 and 1104.5.1.

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604.2.13 Membr ane str uctur es. Standby power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation systems in permanent membrane structures in accordance with Section 2702 of the SBC 201. Auxiliary inflation systems shall be provided in temporary air-supported and air-inflated membrane structures in accordance with Section 3103.10.4. 604.2.14 Semiconductor fabr ication facilities. Emergency power shall be provided for semiconductor fabrication facilities as required in Section 2703.15. 604.2.15 Smoke contr ol systems. Standby power shall be provided for smoke control systems as required in Section 909.11. 604.2.16 Under gr ound buildings. Emergency and standby power shall be provided in underground buildings as required in Section 405 of the SBC 201 and shall be in accordance with Section 604. 604.3 Critical circuits. Cables used for survivability of required critical circuits shall be listed in accordance with UL 2196. Electrical circuit protective systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements. 604.4 Maintenance. Emergency and standby power systems shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111 such that the system is capable of supplying service within the time specified for the type and duration required. 604.4.1 Schedule. Inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall be in accordance with an approved schedule established upon completion and approval of the system installation. 604.4.2 Recor ds. Records of the inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall include the date of service, name of the servicing technician, a summary of conditions noted and a detailed description of any conditions requiring correction and what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be maintained. 604.4.3 Switch maintenance. Emergency and standby power system transfer switches shall be included in the inspection, testing and maintenance schedule required by Section 604.4.1. Transfer switches shall be maintained free from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include examination of the transfer switch contacts for evidence of deterioration. When evidence of contact deterioration is detected, the contacts shall

be replaced in accordance with the transfer switch manufacturer’s instructions. 604.5 Operational inspection and testing. Emergency power systems, including all appurtenant components, shall be inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111. Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for scheduled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate records are maintained. 604.5.1 Tr ansfer switch test. The test of the transfer switch shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch from the normal position to the alternate position and then return to the normal position. 604.6 Emergency lighting equipment. Emergency lighting shall be inspected and tested in accordance with Sections 604.6.1 through 604.6.2.1. 604.6.1 Activation test. An activation test of the emergency lighting equipment shall be completed monthly. The activation test shall ensure the emergency lighting activates automatically upon normal electrical disconnect and stays sufficiently illuminated for not less than 30 seconds. 604.6.1.1 Activation test record. Records of tests shall be maintained. The record shall include the location of the emergency lighting tested, whether the unit passed or failed, the date of the test and the person completing the test. 604.6.2 Power test. For battery-powered emergency lighting, a power test of the emergency lighting equipment shall be completed annually. The power test shall operate the emergency lighting for not less than 90 minutes and shall remain sufficiently illuminated for the duration of the test. 604.6.2.1 Power test record. Records of tests shall be maintained. The record shall include the location of the emergency lighting tested, whether the unit passed or failed, the date of the test and the person completing the test. 604.7 Supervision of maintenance and testing. Routine maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be overseen by a properly instructed individual.

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SECTION 605 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, WIRING AND HAZARDS

under doors or floor coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical damage.

605.1 Abatement of electrical hazards. Identified electrical hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical conditions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of the responsible code official. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and other equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes an electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be used.

605.5 Extension cords. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor coverings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with portable appliances.

605.2 Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for service equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical panelboards.

605.5.1 Power supply. Extension cords shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension cords, shall serve only one portable appliance.

605.3 Working space and clearance. A working space of not less than 750 mm in width, 900 mm in depth and 1980 mm in height shall be provided in front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical service equipment is wider than 750 mm, the working space shall be not less than the width of the equipment. Storage of materials shall not be located within the designated working space. Exceptions: 1. Where other dimensions are required or allowed by NFPA 70. 2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas which provide a minimum clear opening of 550 mm by 750 mm. 605.3.1 Labeling. Doors into electrical control panel rooms shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stating ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless such purpose is clearly evident. 605.4 Multiplug adapters. Multiplug adapters, such as cube adapters, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying with NFPA 70 shall be prohibited. 605.4.1 Power tap design. Relocatable power taps shall be of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with overcurrent protection, and shall be listed in accordance with UL 1363. 605.4.2 Power supply. Relocatable power taps shall be directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle. 605.4.3 Installation. Relocatable power tap cords shall not extend through walls, ceilings, floors,

605.5.2 Ampacity. The ampacity of the extension cords shall be not less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied by the cord. 605.5.3 Maintenance. Extension cords shall be maintained in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage. 605.5.4 Gr ounding. Extension cords shall be grounded where serving grounded portable appliances. 605.6 Unapproved conditions. Open junction boxes and open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes. 605.7 Appliances. Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be tested and listed in published reports of inspected electrical equipment by an approved agency and installed and maintained in accordance with all instructions included as part of such listing. 605.8 Electrical motors. Electrical motors shall be maintained free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and debris. 605.9 Temporary wiring. Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the applicable provisions of NFPA 70. Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed during periods of construction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or similar activities.

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605.9.1 Attachment to str uctur es. Temporary wiring attached to a structure shall be attached in an approved manner.

building construction in locations where the access point does not conflict with overhead obstructions such as tree limbs, wires or signs.

605.10 Portable, electric space heaters. Where not prohibited by other sections of this code, portable, electric space heaters shall be permitted to be used in all occupancies other than Group I-2 and in accordance with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.4.

605.11.1.2 Solar photovoltaic systems for Group R-3 buildings. Solar photovoltaic systems for Group R-3 buildings shall comply with Sections 605.11.1.2.1 through 605.11.1.2.5.

Exception: The use of portable, electric space heaters in which the heating element cannot exceed a temperature of 100°C shall be permitted in nonsleeping staff and employee areas in Group I-2 occupancies. 605.10.1 Listed and labeled. Only listed and labeled portable, electric space heaters shall be used. 605.10.2 Power supply. Portable, electric space heaters shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle. 605.10.3 Extension cords. Portable, electric space heaters shall not be plugged into extension cords. 605.10.4 Pr ohibited ar eas. Portable, electric space heaters shall not be operated within 900 mm of any combustible materials. Portable, electric space heaters shall be operated only in locations for which they are listed. 605.11 Solar photovoltaic power systems. Solar photovoltaic power systems shall be installed in accordance with Sections 605.11.1 through 605.11.2, SBC 201 or SBC 1101 and NFPA 70. 605.11.1 Access and pathways. Roof access, pathways, and spacing requirements shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.11.1.1 through 605.11.1.3.3. Exceptions: 1. Detached, nonhabitable Group U structures including, but not limited to, parking shade structures, carports, solar trellises and similar structures. 2. Roof access, pathways and spacing requirements need not be provided where the fire chief has determined that rooftop operations will not be employed. 605.11.1.1 Roof access points. Roof access points shall be located in areas that do not require the placement of ground ladders over openings such as windows or doors, and located at strong points of

Exception: These requirements shall not apply to structures designed and constructed in accordance with the SBC 1101.

605.11.1.2.1 Size of solar photovoltaic array. Each photovoltaic array shall be limited to 45 m by 45 m. Multiple arrays shall be separated by a 900 mm clear access pathway. 605.11.1.2.2 Hip roof layouts. Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings with hip roof layouts shall be located in a manner that provides a 900 mm clear access pathway from the eave to the ridge on each roof slope where panels and modules are located. The access pathway shall be at a location on the building capable of supporting the fire fighters accessing the roof. Exception: These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less. 605.11.1.2.3 Single-ridge roofs. Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings with a single ridge shall be located in a manner that provides two, 900 mm wide access pathways from the eave to the ridge on each roof slope where panels and modules are located. Exception: This requirement shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less. 605.11.1.2.4 Roofs with hips and valleys. Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings with roof hips and valleys shall not be located closer than 450 mm to a hip or a valley where panels/modules are to be placed on both sides of a hip or valley. Where panels are to be located on only one side of a hip or valley that is of equal length, the panels shall be permitted to be placed directly adjacent to the hip or valley. Exception: These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less. 605.11.1.2.5 Allowance for smoke ventilation operations. Panels and modules installed on Group

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R-3 buildings shall be located not less than 900 mm from the ridge in order to allow for Civil Defense smoke ventilation operations.

605.11.1.3.3 Smoke ventilation. The solar installation shall be designed to meet the following requirements:

Exception: Panels and modules shall be permitted to be located up to the roof ridge where an alternative ventilation method approved by the fire chief has been provided or where the fire chief has determined vertical ventilation techniques will not be employed.

1. Arrays shall be not greater than 45 m by 45 m in distance in either axis in order to create opportunities for Civil Defense smoke ventilation operations. 2. Smoke ventilation options between array sections shall be one of the following:

605.11.1.3 Other than Group R-3 buildings. Access to systems for buildings, other than those containing Group R-3 occupancies, shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.11.1.3.1 through 605.11.1.3.3.

2.1. A pathway 2400 mm or greater in width. 2.2. A 1200 mm or greater in width pathway and bordering roof skylights or gravity operated dropout smoke and heat vents on not less than one side.

Exception: Where it is determined by the fire code official that the roof configuration is similar to that of a Group R-3 occupancy, the residential access and ventilation requirements in Sections 605.11.1.2.1 through 605.11.1.2.5 shall be permitted to be used.

2.3. A 1200 mm or greater in width pathway and bordering all sides of nongravity-operated dropout smoke and heat vents. 2.4. A 1200 mm or greater in width pathway and bordering 1200 mm by 2400 mm “venting cutouts” every 6000 mm on alternating sides of the pathway.

605.11.1.3.1 Access. There shall be a minimum 1800 mm clear perimeter around the edges of the roof. Exception: Where either axis of the building is 76 m or less, the clear perimeter around the edges of the roof shall be permitted to be reduced to a minimum 1200 mm. 605.11.1.3.2 Pathways. The solar installation shall be designed to provide designated pathways. The pathways shall meet the following requirements: 1. The pathway shall be over areas capable of supporting fire fighters accessing the roof. 2. The centerline axis pathways shall be provided in both axes of the roof. Centerline axis pathways shall run where the roof structure is capable of supporting fire fighters accessing the roof. 3. Pathways shall be a straight line not less than 1200 mm clear to roof standpipes or ventilation hatches. 4. Pathways shall provide not less than 1200 mm clear around roof access hatch with not less than one singular pathway not less than 1200 mm clear to a parapet or roof edge.

605.11.2 Gr ound-mounted photovoltaic ar r ays. Ground mounted photovoltaic arrays shall comply with Section 605.11 and this section. Setback requirements shall not apply to groundmounted, free-standing photovoltaic arrays. A clear, brush-free area of 3000 mm shall be required for ground-mounted photovoltaic arrays. 605.12 Abandoned wiring in plenums. Accessible portions of abandoned cables in airhandling plenums shall be removed. Cables that are unused and have not been tagged for future use shall be considered abandoned.

SECTION 606 MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION 606.1 Scope. Refrigeration systems shall be installed in accordance with the SBC 501. 606.2 Refrigerants. The use and purity of new, recovered and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the SBC 501. 606.3 Refrigerant classification. Refrigerants shall be classified in accordance with the SBC 501. 606.4 Change in refrigerant type. A change in the type of refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance with the SBC 501.

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606.5 Access. Refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 100 kg of Group A1 or 14 kg of any other group refrigerant shall be accessible to the fire department at all times as required by the fire code official. 606.6 Testing of equipment. Refrigeration equipment and systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 100 kg of Group A1 or 14 kg of any other group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accordance with Section 606.6.1. Records of tests shall be maintained. Tests of emergency devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems. 606.6.1 Periodic testing. The following emergency devices or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and as required by the fire code official. 1. Treatment and flaring systems. 2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation of emergency refrigeration control boxes. 3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate emergency ventilation systems. 4. Detection and alarm systems. 606.7 Emergency signs. Refrigeration units or systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 100 kg of Group A1 or 14 kg of any other group refrigerant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be in accordance with the SBC 501 for the classification of refrigerants listed therein. 606.8 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall contain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concentrate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the SBC 501 for the refrigerant classification. Detectors and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. The detector shall transmit a signal to an approved location. 606.9 Remote controls. Where flammable refrigerants are used and compliance with Section 1106 of the SBC 501 is required, remote control of the mechanical equipment and appliances located in the machinery room as required by Sections 606.9.1 and 606.9.2 shall be provided at an approved

location immediately outside the machinery room and adjacent to its principal entrance. 606.9.1 Refriger ation system emer gency shutoff. A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide off-only control of refrigerant compressors, refrigerant pumps and normally closed automatic refrigerant valves located in the machinery room. Additionally, this equipment shall be automatically shut off when the refrigerant vapor concentration in the machinery room exceeds the vapor detector’s upper detection limit or 25 percent of the LEL, whichever is lower. 606.9.2 Ventilation system. A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide on-only control of the machinery room ventilation fans. 606.10 Emergency pressure control system. Permanently installed refrigeration systems containing more than 3 kg of flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with Sections 606.10.1 and 606.10.2. 606.10.1 Automatic crossover valves. Each highand intermediate-pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a single automatic valve providing a crossover connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic crossover valves shall comply with Sections 606.10.1.1 through 606.10.1.3. 606.10.1.1 Overpressure limit set point. Automatic crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone if the pressure in a highor intermediate-pressure zone rises to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices. 606.10.1.2 Manual operation. Where required by the fire code official, automatic crossover valves shall be capable of manual operation. 606.10.1.3 System design pressure. Refrigeration system zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone by an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to safely contain the maximum pressure that can be achieved by interconnection of the two zones. 606.10.2 Automatic emer gency stop. An automatic emergency stop feature shall be provided

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in accordance with Sections 606.10.2.1 and 606.10.2.2. 606.10.2.1 Operation of an automatic crossover valve. Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices located immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall be permitted as a means for determining operation of a valve. To ensure that the automatic crossover valve system provides a redundant means of stopping compressors in an overpressure condition, high pressure cutout sensors associated with compressors shall not be used as a basis for determining operation of a crossover valve. 606.10.2.2 Overpressure in low-pressure zone. The lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise in system pressure to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices. Activation of the overpressure sensing device shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop. 606.11 Storage, use and handling. Flammable and combustible materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 100 kg of Group A1 or 14 kg of any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 50, 53, 55 and 57. Exception: This provision shall not apply to spare parts, tools and incidental materials necessary for the safe and proper operation and maintenance of the system. 606.12 Discharge and termination of pressure relief and purge systems. Pressure relief devices, fusible plugs and purge systems discharging to the atmosphere from refrigeration systems containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants or ammonia shall comply with Sections 606.12.3 through 606.12.5. 606.12.1 Standar ds. Refrigeration systems and the buildings in which such systems are installed shall be in accordance with ASHRAE 15. Ammonia refrigeration. 606.12.1.1 Refrigeration systems using ammonia refrigerant and the buildings in which such systems are installed shall comply with IIAR-2 for system design and installation and IIAR-7 for operating procedures.

606.12.2 Fusible plugs and ruptur e member s. Discharge piping and devices connected to the discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event the fusible plug or rupture member functions. 606.12.3 Flammable refriger ants. Systems containing more than 3 kg of flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7. Systems containing more than 3 kg of flammable refrigerants having a density less than the density of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmosphere provided that the point of discharge is located outside of the structure at not less than 4500 mm above the adjoining grade level and not less than 6000 mm from any window, ventilation opening or exit. 606.12.4 Toxic and highly toxic refriger ants. Systems containing more than 3 kg of toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7. 606.12.5 Ammonia refriger ant. Systems containing more than 3 kg of ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere in accordance with one of the following methods: 1. Directly to atmosphere where the fire code official determines, on review of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environmental hazard would not result from atmospheric discharge of ammonia. 2. Through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6. 3. Through a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7. 4. Through an approved ammonia diffusion system in accordance with Section 606.12.8. 5. By other approved means. Exception: Ammonia/water absorption systems containing less than 10 kg of ammonia and for which the ammonia circuit is located entirely outdoors.

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606.12.6 Treatment systems. Treatment systems shall be designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accordance with Chapter 60. 606.12.7 Flar ing systems. Flaring systems for incineration of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be designed to prevent blowback and shall not expose structures or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP-gas, and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for one and one-half the required time for complete incineration of refrigerant in the system. Standby electrical power, where required to complete the incineration process, shall be in accordance with Section 604. 606.12.8 Ammonia diffusion systems. Ammonia diffusion systems shall include a tank containing 8.3 L of water for each 1 kg of ammonia that will be released in 1 hour from the largest relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the bottom of the tank, but not lower than 10 m below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the volume of water and ammonia without overflowing. 606.13 Discharge location for refrigeration machinery room ventilation. Exhaust from mechanical ventilation systems serving refrigeration machinery rooms containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants, other than ammonia, capable of exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH shall be equipped with approved treatment systems to reduce the discharge concentrations to those values or lower. 606.14 Notification of refrigerant discharges. The fire code official shall be notified immediately when a discharge becomes reportable under national regulations in accordance with Section 5003.3.1. 606.15 Records. A record of refrigerant quantities brought into and removed from the premises shall be maintained. 606.16 Electrical equipment. Where refrigerants of Groups A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the SBC 501, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall

conform to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70. Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3 of the SBC 501.

SECTION 607 ELEVATOR OPERATION, MAINTENANCE AND FIRE SERVICE KEYS 607.1 Emergency operation. Existing elevators with a travel distance of 7500 mm or more shall comply with the requirements in Chapter 11. New elevators shall be provided with Phase I emergency recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation in accordance with ASME A17.1. 607.2 Standby power. In buildings and structures where standby power is required or furnished to operate an elevator, standby power shall be provided in accordance with Section 604. Operation of the system shall be in accordance with Sections 607.2.1 through 607.2.4. 607.2.1 Manual tr ansfer. Standby power shall be manually transferable to all elevators in each bank. 607.2.2 One elevator. Where only one elevator is installed, the elevator shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power. 607.2.3 Two or mor e elevators. Where two or more elevators are controlled by a common operating system, all elevators shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power where the standby power source is of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time. Where the standby power source is not of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time, all elevators shall transfer to standby power in sequence, return to the designated landing and disconnect from the standby power source. After all elevators have been returned to the designated level, not less than one elevator shall remain operable from the standby power source. 607.2.4 Machine room ventilation. Where standby power is connected to elevators, the machine room ventilation or air conditioning shall be connected to the standby power source. 607.3 Emergency signs. An approved pictorial sign of a standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit stairways and

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not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVATOR. USE EXIT STAIRS.

2. Fire service elevator keys shall be of a patentprotected design to prevent unauthorized duplication.

Exceptions:

3. Fire service elevator keys shall be factory restricted by the manufacturer to prevent the unauthorized distribution of key blanks. Uncut key blanks shall not be permitted to leave the factory.

1. The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are part of an accessible means of egress complying with Section 1009.4. 2. The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are used for occupant selfevacuation in accordance with Section 3008 of the SBC 201. 607.4 Fire service access elevator lobbies. Where fire service access elevators are required by Section 3007 of the SBC 201, fire service access elevator lobbies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture. 607.5 Occupant evacuation elevator lobbies. Where occupant evacuation elevators are provided in accordance with Section 3008 of the SBC 201, occupant evacuation elevator lobbies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture. 607.6 Water protection of hoistway enclosures. Methods to prevent water from infiltrating into a hoistway enclosure required by Section 3007.4 and Section 3008.4 of the SBC 201 shall be maintained. 607.7 Elevator key location. Keys for the elevator car doors and fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location for immediate use by the Civil Defense. 607.8 Standardized fire service elevator keys. Buildings with elevators equipped with Phase I emergency recall, Phase II emergency in-car operation, or a fire service access elevator shall be equipped to operate with a standardized fire service elevator key approved by the fire code official. Exception: The owner shall be permitted to place the building’s non-standardized fire service elevator keys in a key box installed in accordance with Section 506.1.2. 607.8.1 Requirements for standar dized fire service elevator keys. Standardized fire service elevator keys shall comply with all of the following: 1. All fire service elevator keys within the jurisdiction shall be uniform and specific for the jurisdiction.Keys shall be cut to a uniform key code.

4. Fire service elevator keys subject to these rules shall be engraved with the words “DO NOT DUPLICATE.” 607.8.2 Access to standar dized fire service keys. Access to standardized fire service elevator keys shall be restricted to the following: 1. Elevator owners or their authorized agents. 2. Elevator contractors. 3. Elevator inspectors of the jurisdiction. 4. Fire code officials of the jurisdiction. 5. The fire department (Civil Defense) and other emergency response agencies designated by the fire code official. 607.8.3 Duplication or distr ibution of keys. A person shall not duplicate a standardized fire service elevator key or issue, give, or sell a duplicated key unless in accordance with this code. 607.8.4 Responsibility to provide keys. The building owner shall provide up to three standardized fire service elevator keys where required by the fire code official, upon installation of a standardized fire service key switch or switches in the building.

SECTION 608 STATIONARY STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEMS 608.1 Scope. Stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 190 L for flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA), or more than 450 kg for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer, used for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterruptible power supplies shall comply with this section and Table 608.1. 608.2 Safety caps. Safety caps for stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.2.1 and 608.2.2. 608.2.1 Nonr ecombinant batter ies. Vented leadacid, nickel-cadmium or other types of nonrecombinant batteries shall be provided with safety venting caps.

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608.2.2 Recombinant batter ies. VRLA batteries shall be equipped with self-resealing flamearresting safety vents. 608.3 Thermal runaway. VRLA and lithium metal polymer battery systems shall be provided with a listed device or other approved method to preclude, detect and control thermal runaway. 608.4 Room design and construction. Enclosure of stationary battery systems shall comply with the SBC 201. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same room with the equipment they support. 608.4.1 Separ ate rooms. Where stationary batteries are installed in a separate equipment room accessible only to authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be installed on an open rack for ease of maintenance. 608.4.2 Occupied work center s. Where a system of VRLA, lithium-ion, or other type of sealed, nonventing batteries is situated in an occupied work center, it shall be allowed to be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to prevent access by unauthorized personnel. 608.4.3 Cabinets. Where stationary batteries are contained in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures shall be located within 3000 mm of the equipment that they support. 608.5 Spill control and neutralization. An approved method and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing lead acid, nickelcadmium or other types of batteries with free flowing liquid electrolyte. For purposes of this paragraph, a “spill” is defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte. Exception: VRLA, lithium-ion, lithium metal polymer or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electrolyte shall not require spill control. 608.5.1 Nonr ecombinant batter y neutr alization. For battery systems containing lead acid, nickel cadmium or other types of batteries with freeflowing electrolyte, the method and materials shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of the total capacity from the largest cell or block to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0. 608.5.2 Recombinant batter y neutr alization. For VRLA or other types of batteries with immobilized electrolyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of 3.0 percent of the

capacity of the largest cell or block in the room to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0. Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer batteries shall not require neutralization. 608.6 Ventilation. Ventilation of stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2. 608.6.1 Room ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the SBC 501 and the following: 1. For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cd and VRLA batteries, the ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1.0 percent of the total volume of the room; or 2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 0.305 cubic meters per minute per square meters of floor area of the room. Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer batteries shall not require additional ventilation beyond that which would normally be required for human occupancy of the space in accordance with the SBC 501. 608.6.2 Cabinet ventilation. Where VRLA batteries are installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be approved for use in occupied spaces and shall be mechanically or naturally vented by one of the following methods: 1. The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total volume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of simultaneous “boost” charging of all the batteries in the cabinet. 2. Where calculations are not available to substantiate the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 0.305 cubic meters per minute per square meters of floor area covered by the cabinet. The room in which the cabinet is installed shall be ventilated as required in Section 608.6.1. 608.6.3 Super vision. Mechanical ventilation systems where required by Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2 shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.

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608.7 Signage. Signs shall comply with Sections 608.7.1 and 608.7.2. 608.7.1 Equipment room and building signage. Doors into electrical equipment rooms or buildings containing stationary battery systems shall be provided with approved signs. The signs shall state that: 1. The room contains energized battery systems. 2. The room contains energized electrical circuits. 3. The battery electrolyte solutions, where present, are corrosive liquids. 608.7.2 Cabinet signage. Cabinets shall have exterior labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the contained battery system. There shall be signs within the cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical, chemical and fire hazards. 608.8 Seismic protection. The battery systems shall be seismically braced in accordance with the SBC 201. 608.9 Smoke detection. An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2 in rooms containing stationary battery systems.

SECTION 609 COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOODS 609.1 General. Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall comply with the requirements of the SBC 501. 609.2 Where required. A Type I hood shall be installed at or above all commercial cooking appliances and domestic cooking appliances used for commercial purposes that produce grease vapors. Exception: A Type I hood shall not be required for an electric cooking appliance where an approved testing agency provides documentation that the appliance effluent contains 5 mg/m3 or less of grease when tested at an exhaust flow rate of 0.236 m3/s in accordance with UL 710B. 609.3 Operations and maintenance. Commercial cooking systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Sections 609.3.1 through 609.3.4.

609.3.1 Ventilation system. The ventilation system in connection with hoods shall be operated at the required rate of air movement, and classified grease filters shall be in place when equipment under a kitchen grease hood is used.

609.3.2 Gr ease extractor s. Where grease extractors are installed, they shall be operated when the commercial-type cooking equipment is used. 609.3.3 Cleaning. Hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be cleaned at intervals as required by Sections 609.3.3.1 through 609.3.3.3. 609.3.3.1 Inspection. Hoods, greaseremoval devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be inspected at intervals specified in Table 609.3.3.1 or as approved by the fire code official. Inspections shall be completed by qualified individuals. 609.3.3.2 Grease accumulation. If during the inspection it is found that hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts or other appurtenances have an accumulation of grease, such components shall be cleaned in accordance with ANSI/IKECA C 10. 609.3.3.3 Records. Records for inspections shall state the individual and company performing the inspection, a description of the inspection and when the inspection took place. Records for cleanings shall state the individual and company performing the cleaning and when the cleaning took place. Such records shall be completed after each inspection or cleaning and maintained. 609.3.3.3.1 Tags. When a commercial kitchen hood or duct system is inspected, a tag containing the service provider name, address, telephone number and date of service shall be provided in a conspicuous location. Prior tags shall be covered or removed. 609.3.4 Extinguishing system service. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be serviced as required in Section 904.12.6. 609.4 Appliance connection to building piping. Gas-fired commercial cooking appliances installed on casters and appliances that are moved for cleaning and sanitation purposes shall be connected to the piping system with an appliance connector listed as complying with ANSI Z21.69. The commercial cooking appliance connector installation shall be configured in accordance with

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the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Movement of appliances with casters shall be limited by a restraining device installed in accordance with the connector and appliance manufacturer's instructions.

SECTION 610 COMMERCIAL KITCHEN COOKING OIL STORAGE 610.1 General. Storage of cooking oil (grease) in commercial cooking operations utilizing aboveground tanks with a capacity greater than 225 L installed within a building shall comply with Sections 610.2 through 610.7 and NFPA 30. For purposes of this section, cooking oil shall be classified as a Class IIIB liquid unless otherwise determined by testing. 610.2 Metallic storage tanks. Metallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be listed in accordance with UL 142 or UL 80, and shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer’s instructions. 610.3 Nonmetallic storage tanks. Nonmetallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer’s instructions and shall also comply with all of the following:

610.5.1 Normal vents. Normal vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall have a minimum effective area not smaller than the largest filling or withdrawal connection. Normal vents shall be permitted to vent inside the building. 610.5.2 Emer gency vents. Emergency relief vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall be in the form of a device or devices that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by an exposure fire. For nonmetallic tanks, the emergency relief vent shall be allowed to be in the form of construction. Emergency vents shall be permitted to vent inside the building. 610.6 Heating of cooking oil. Electrical equipment used for heating cooking oil in cooking oil storage systems shall be listed to UL 499 and shall comply with NFPA 70. Use of electrical immersion heaters shall be prohibited in nonmetallic tanks. 610.7 Electrical equipment. Electrical equipment used for the operation of cooking oil storage systems shall comply with NFPA 70.

SECTION 611 HYPERBARIC FACILITIES

1. Tanks shall be listed for use with cooking oil, including maximum temperature to which the tank will be exposed during use.

611.1 General. Hyperbaric facilities shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 99.

2. Tank capacity shall not exceed 750 L per tank.

611.2 Records. Records shall be maintained of all testing and repair conducted on the hyperbaric chamber and associated devices and equipment. Records shall be available to the fire code official.

610.4 Cooking oil storage system components. Cooking oil storage system components shall include but are not limited to piping, connections, fittings, valves, tubing, hose, pumps, vents and other related components used for the transfer of cooking oil, and are permitted to be of either metallic or nonmetallic construction. 610.4.1 Design standar ds. The design, fabrication and assembly of system components shall be suitable for the working pressures, temperatures and structural stresses to be encountered by the components. 610.4.2 Components in contact with heated oil. System components that come in contact with heated cooking oil shall be rated for the maximum operating temperatures expected in the system. 610.5 Tank venting. Normal and emergency venting shall be provided for cooking oil storage tanks.

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Bibliography The following resource materials were used in the preparation of the commentary for this chapter of the code: 1. CGA V-1, Standard Compressed Gas Cylinder Valve Outlet and Inlet Connections. Chantilly, VA: Compressed Gas Association, 2005. 2. Code Changes Resource Collection—2015 International Fire Code. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2014. 3. Commercial Cooking Operations–Application Guide. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2010. 4. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Charleston, South Carolina Sofa Superstore Fire Report, June 18, 2007, NIST-SP 1118 Volume I, 5. March 2011. 6. Solar Thermal, Table 2.1 Annual Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors 1998-2007, Independent Statistics and Analysis, EIA. Washington, DC: U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2010.

Building Services and Systems

Tables and Figures TABLE 608.1: BATTERY REQUIREMENTS NONRECOMBINANT BATTERIES Vented (Flooded) Lead Acid Batteries

Vented (Flooded) Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) Batteries

Safety caps

Venting caps (608.2.1)

Venting caps (608.2.1)

Thermal runaway management

Not required

Spill control Neutralization

REQUIREMENT

RECOMBINANT BATTERIES Valve Regulated LeadAcid (VRLA) Cells

OTHER BATTERIES

Lithium-Ion Cells

Lithium Metal Cells

Self-resealing flamearresting caps (608.2.2)

No caps

No caps

Not required

Required (608.3)

Not required

Required (608.3)

Required (608.5)

Required (608.5)

Not required

Not required

Not required

Required (608.5.1)

Required (608.5.1)

Required (608.5.2)

Not required

Not required

Required (608.6.1; 608.6.2)

Required (608.6.1; 608.6.2)

Required (608.6.1; 608.6.2)

Not required

Not required

Signage

Required (608.7)

Required (608.7)

Required (608.7)

Required (608.7)

Required (608.7)

Seismic protection

Required (608.8)

Required (608.8)

Required (608.8)

Required (608.8)

Required (608.8)

Smoke detection

Required (608.9)

Required (608.9)

Required (608.9)

Required (608.9)

Required (608.9)

Ventilation

TABLE 609.3.3.1 COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM INSPECTION FREQUENCY TYPE OF COOKING OPERATIONS

FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION

High-volume cooking operations such as 24hour cooking, charbroiling or wok cooking

3 months

Low-volume cooking operations such as seasonal businesses and senior centers

12 months

Cooking operations utilizing solid fuelburning cooking appliances

1 month

All other cooking operations

6 months

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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES

approved construction meeting the fire protection requirements for the assembly.

SECTION 701 GENERAL 701.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall govern maintenance of the materials, systems and assemblies used for structural fire resistance and fire-resistance-rated construction separation of adjacent spaces to safeguard against the spread of fire and smoke within a building and the spread of fire to or from buildings. New buildings shall comply with the SBC 201.

SECTION 702 DEFINITIONS 702.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2: • • • •

DAMPER DRAFTSTOP. FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. FIREBLOCKING.

SECTION 703 FIRE-RESISTANCERATED CONSTRUCTION 703.1 Maintenance. The required fire-resistance rating of fire-resistance-rated construction, including, but not limited to, walls, firestops, shaft enclosures, partitions, smoke barriers, floors, fireresistive coatings and sprayed fire-resistant materials applied to structural members and fireresistant joint systems, shall be maintained. Such elements shall be visually inspected by the owner annually and properly repaired, restored or replaced where damaged, altered, breached or penetrated. Records of inspections and repairs shall be maintained. Where concealed, such elements shall not be required to be visually inspected by the owner unless the concealed space is accessible by the removal or movement of a panel, access door, ceiling tile or similar movable entry to the space. Openings made therein for the passage of pipes, electrical conduit, wires, ducts, air transfer openings and holes made for any reason shall be protected with approved methods capable of resisting the passage of smoke and fire. Openings through fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall be protected by self or automatic-closing doors of

703.1.1 Fire blocking and dr aftstopping. Required fire-blocking and draftstopping in combustible concealed spaces shall be maintained to provide continuity and integrity of the construction. 703.1.2 Smoke bar riers and smoke par titions. Required smoke barriers and smoke partitions shall be maintained to prevent the passage of smoke. Openings protected with approved smoke barrier doors or smoke dampers shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 105. 703.1.3 Fire walls, fire bar r iers and fire par titions. Required fire walls, fire barriers and fire partitions shall be maintained to prevent the passage of fire. Openings protected with approved doors or fire dampers shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 80. 703.2 Opening protectives. Opening protectives shall be maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 80. Where allowed by the fire code official, the application of field-applied labels associated with the maintenance of opening protectives shall follow the requirements of the approved third-party certification organization accredited for listing the opening protective. Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be blocked or obstructed, or otherwise made inoperable. Fusible links shall be replaced promptly whenever fused or damaged. Fire door assemblies shall not be modified. 703.2.1 Signs. Where required by the fire code official, a sign shall be permanently displayed on or near each fire door in letters not less than 25 mm high to read as follows: 1. For doors designed to be kept normally open: FIRE DOOR—DO NOT BLOCK. 2. For doors designed to be kept normally closed: FIRE DOOR—KEEP CLOSED. 703.2.2 Hold-open devices and closers. Holdopen devices and automatic door closers, where provided, shall be maintained. During the period that such device is out of service for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the closed position.

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703.2.3 Door oper ation. Swinging fire doors shall close from the full-open position and latch automatically. The door closer shall exert enough force to close and latch the door from any partially open position. 703.3 Ceilings. The hanging and displaying of salable goods and other decorative materials from acoustical ceiling systems that are part of a fireresistance-rated horizontal assembly, shall be prohibited. 703.4 Testing. Horizontal and vertical sliding and rolling fire doors shall be inspected and tested annually to confirm proper operation and full closure. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.

SECTION 704 FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS 704.1 Enclosure. Interior vertical shafts including, but not limited to, stairways, elevator hoistways, service and utility shafts, that connect two or more stories of a building shall be enclosed or protected as required in Chapter 11. New floor openings in existing buildings shall comply with the SBC 201. 704.2 Opening protectives. Where openings are required to be protected, opening protectives shall be maintained self closing or automatic-closing by smoke detection. Existing fusible-link-type automatic door-closing devices are permitted if the fusible link rating does not exceed 57°C.

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Bibliography The following resource material was used in the preparation of the commentary for this chapter of the code: 1. Code Changes Resource Collection—2015 International Fire Code. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2014.

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Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS

accordance with the SBC 201 shall not be subject to interior finish requirements.

SECTION 801 GENERAL 801.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern interior finish, interior trim, furniture, furnishings, decorative materials and decorative vegetation in buildings. Existing buildings shall comply with Sections 803 through 808. New buildings shall comply with Sections 804 through 808, and Section 803 of the SBC 201.

803.1.1 Classification in accordance with ASTM E 84. Interior finish materials shall be grouped in the following classes in accordance with their flame spread and smoke-developed index where tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. •

SECTION 802 DEFINITIONS

802.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

• • • • •

FLAME SPREAD. FLAME SPREAD INDEX. INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX.

SECTION 803 INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH AND TRIM IN EXISTING BUILDINGS 803.1 General. The provisions of this section shall limit the allowable fire performance and smoke development of interior wall and ceiling finishes and interior wall and ceiling trim in existing buildings based on location and occupancy classification. Interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be classified in accordance with Section 803 of the SBC 201. Such materials shall be grouped in accordance with ASTM E 84, as indicated in Section 803.1.1, or in accordance with NFPA 286, as indicated in Section 803.1.2. Exceptions: 1. Materials having a thickness less than 0.9 mm applied directly to the surface of walls and ceilings. 2. Exposed portions of structural members complying with the requirements of buildings of Type IV construction in

Class A: flame spread index 0–25; smokedeveloped index 0–450. Class B: flame spread index 26–75; smoke-developed index 0–450. Class C: flame spread index 76–200; smoke-developed index 0–450.

803.1.2 Classification in accor dance with NFPA 286. Interior wall or ceiling finishes shall be allowed to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Finishes tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall comply with Section 803.1.2.1. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials tested in accordance with NFPA 286 and meeting the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 shall be allowed to be used where a Class A classification in accordance with ASTM E 84 is required. 803.1.2.1 Acceptance criteria for NFPA 286. The interior finish shall comply with the following: 1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling. 2. The flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 3. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not occur. 4. The peak heat release rate throughout the test shall not exceed 800 kW. 5. The total smoke released throughout the test shall not exceed 1,000 m2. 803.2 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this chapter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a manner that such materials will not readily become detached where

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subjected to room temperatures of 93°C for not less than 30 minutes.

3. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not occur.

803.3 Interior finish requirements based on occupancy. Interior wall and ceiling finish shall have a flame spread index not greater than that specified in Table 803.3 for the group and location designated.

4. For newly introduced wall and ceiling coverings, the total smoke released throughout the test shall not exceed 1,000 m2.

803.4 Fire-retardant coatings. The required flame spread or smoke-developed index of surfaces in existing buildings shall be allowed to be achieved by application of approved fire-retardant coatings, paints or solutions to surfaces having a flame spread index exceeding that allowed. Such applications shall comply with NFPA 703 and the required fire retardant properties shall be maintained or renewed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. 803.5 Textiles. Where used as interior wall or ceiling finish materials, textiles, including materials having woven or nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or similar surface, shall comply with the requirements of this section. 803.5.1 Textile wall or ceiling coverings. Textile wall or ceiling coverings shall comply with one of the following: 1. The wall or ceiling covering shall have a Class A flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, and be protected by automatic sprinklers installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 2. The wall covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.5.1.1 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with NFPA 265 using the product-mounting system, including adhesive, of actual use. 3. The wall or ceiling covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system, including adhesive, of actual use. 803.5.1.1 Method B test protocol. During the Method B protocol, the textile wall covering or expanded vinyl wall covering shall comply with the following: 1. During the 40-kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling. 2. The flame shall not spread to the outer extremities of the samples on the 2400 by 3600 mm walls.

803.5.2 Newly intr oduced textile wall and ceiling coverings. Newly introduced textile wall and ceiling coverings shall comply with one of the following: 1. The wall or ceiling covering shall have a Class A flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, and be protected by automatic sprinklers installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. Test specimen preparation and mounting shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2404. 2. The wall covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.5.1.1 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with NFPA 265 using the product-mounting system (including adhesive) of actual use. 3. The wall or ceiling covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system (including adhesive) of actual use. 803.6 Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings. Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings shall comply with one of the following: 1. The wall or ceiling covering shall have a Class A flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, and be protected by automatic sprinklers installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. Test specimen preparation and mounting shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2404. 2. The wall covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.5.1.1 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with NFPA 265 using the product-mounting system (including adhesive) of actual use. 3. The wall or ceiling covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system (including adhesive) of actual use. 803.7 Facings or wood veneers intended to be applied on site over a wood substrate. Facings or

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veneers intended to be applied on site over a wood substrate shall comply with one of the following: 1. The facing or veneer shall have a Class A, B or C flame spread index and smokedeveloped index, based on the requirements of Table 803.3, in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Test specimen preparation and mounting shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2404. 2. The facing or veneer shall meet the criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system, including adhesive, described in Section 5.8.9 of NFPA 286. 803.8 Foam plastic materials. Foam plastic materials shall not be used as interior wall and ceiling finish unless specifically allowed by Section 803.8.1 or 803.8.2. Foam plastic materials shall not be used as interior trim unless specifically allowed by Section 803.8.3. 803.8.1 Combustibility char acteristics. Foam plastic materials shall be allowed on the basis of fire tests that substantiate their combustibility characteristics for the use intended under actual fire conditions, as indicated in Section 2603.9 of the SBC 201. This section shall apply both to exposed foam plastics and to foam plastics used in conjunction with a textile or vinyl facing or cover. 803.8.2 Ther mal bar r ier. Foam plastic material shall be allowed if it is separated from the interior of the building by a thermal barrier in accordance with Section 2603.4 of the SBC 201. 803.8.3 Trim. Foam plastic shall be allowed for trim in accordance with Section 804.2. 803.9 High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). Where high-density polyethylene or polypropylene is used as an interior finish it shall comply with Section 803.1.2. 803.10 Site-fabricated stretch systems. Where used as newly installed interior wall or interior ceiling finish materials, site-fabricated stretch systems containing all three components described in the definition in Chapter 2 shall be tested in the manner intended for use, and shall comply with the requirements of Section 803.1.1 or 803.1.2. If the materials are tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, specimen preparation and mounting shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2573.

SECTION 804 INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING TRIM AND INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 804.1 Interior trim. Material, other than foam plastic, used as interior trim in new and existing buildings shall have minimum Class C flame spread and smoke-developed indices, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, as described in Section 803.1.1. Combustible trim, excluding handrails and guardrails, shall not exceed 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling areas to which it is attached. 804.1.1 Alter native testing. When the interior trim material has been tested as an interior finish in accordance with NFPA 286 and complies with the acceptance criteria in Section 803.1.2.1, it shall not be required to be tested for flame spread index and smoke-developed index in accordance with ASTM E 84. 804.2 Foam plastic. Foam plastic used as interior trim shall comply with Sections 804.2.1 through 804.2.4. 804.2.1 Density. The minimum density of the interior trim shall be 320 kg/m3. 804.2.2 Thickness. The maximum thickness of the interior trim shall be 13 mm and the maximum width shall be 200 mm. 804.2.3 Area limitation. The interior trim shall not constitute more than 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling area to which it is attached. 804.2.4 Flame spr ead. The flame spread index shall not exceed 75 where tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. The smoke-developed index shall not be limited. Exception: When the interior trim material has been tested as an interior finish in accordance with NFPA 286 and complies with the acceptance criteria in Section 803.1.2.1, it shall not be required to be tested for flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 804.3 New interior floor finish. New interior floor finish and floor covering materials in new and existing buildings shall comply with Sections 804.3.1 through 804.3.3.2. Exception: Floor finishes and coverings of a traditional type, such as wood, vinyl, linoleum or terrazzo, and resilient floor covering materials that are not composed of fibers.

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804.3.1 Classification. Interior floor finish and floor covering materials required by Section 804.3.3.2 to be of Class I or II materials shall be classified in accordance with NFPA 253. The classification referred to herein corresponds to the classifications determined by NFPA 253 as follows: Class I, 4.5 kilowatts/m2 or greater; Class II, 2.2 kilowatts/m2 or greater. 804.3.2 Testing and identification. Interior floor finish and floor covering materials shall be tested by an approved agency in accordance with NFPA 253 and identified by a hang tag or other suitable method so as to identify the manufacturer or supplier and style, and shall indicate the interior floor finish or floor covering classification in accordance with Section 804.3.1. Carpet-type floor coverings shall be tested as proposed for use, including underlayment. Test reports confirming the information provided in the manufacturer’s product identification shall be furnished to the fire code official upon request. 804.3.3 Inter ior floor finish requirements. New interior floor coverings materials shall comply with Sections 804.3.3.1 and 804.3.3.2, and interior floor finish materials shall comply with Section 804.3.1. 804.3.3.1 Pill test. In all occupancies, new floor covering materials shall comply with the requirements of the DOC FF-1 “pill test” (CPSC 16 CFR Part 1630) or of ASTM D 2859. 804.3.3.2 Minimum critical radiant flux. In all occupancies, new interior floor finish and floor covering materials in enclosures for stairways and ramps, exit passageways, corridors and rooms or spaces not separated from corridors by full-height partitions extending from the floor to the underside of the ceiling shall withstand a minimum critical radiant flux. The minimum critical radiant flux shall be not less than Class I in Groups I-1, I-2 and I-3 and not less than Class II in Groups A, B, E, H, I-4, M, R-1, R-2 and S. Exception: Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, Class II materials shall be permitted in any area where Class I materials are required and materials complying with DOC FF-1 “pill test” (CPSC 16 CFR Part 1630) or with ASTM D 2859 shall be permitted in any area where Class II materials are required. 804.4 Interior floor-wall base. Interior floorwall base that is 150 mm or less in height shall be

tested in accordance with NFPA 253 and shall be not less than Class II. Where a Class I floor finish is required, the floor-wall base shall be Class I. The classification referred to herein corresponds to the classifications determined by NFPA 253 as follows: Class I, 4.5 kilowatts/m2 or greater; Class II, 2.2 kilowatts/m2 or greater. Exception: Interior trim materials that comply with Section 804.1.

SECTION 805 UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 805.1 Group I-1, Condition 2. The requirements in Sections 805.1.1 through 805.1.2 shall apply to facilities in Group I-1, Condition 2. 805.1.1 Upholstered fur nitur e. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.1.1.1 through 805.1.1.3. 805.1.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following: 1. Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 38 mm when tested in accordance with NFPA 261. 2. The components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260. 805.1.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or California Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 1. The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 megajoules (MJ). Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic

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sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 805.1.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.1.1.1 and 805.1.1.2. 805.1.2 Mattr esses. Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.1.2.1 through 805.1.2.3. 805.1.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 50 mm. 805.1.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 1. The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress shall not exceed 100 kW. Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 2. The total energy released by the single mattress during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ. Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 805.1.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2. 805.2 Group I-2, nursing homes and hospitals. The requirements in Sections 805.2.1 through 805.2.2 shall apply to nursing homes and hospitals classified in Group I-2. 805.2.1 Upholstered fur nitur e. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.2.1.1 through 805.2.1.3. 805.2.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following:

(b) the components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260. Exception: Upholstered furniture belonging to the patients in sleeping rooms of nursing homes (Group I-2), provided that a smoke detector is installed in such rooms. Battery-powered, single-station smoke alarms shall be allowed. 805.2.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or California Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 1. The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ. Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 805.2.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.2.1.1 and 805.2.1.2. 805.2.2 Mattr esses. Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 through 805.2.2.3. 805.2.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 50 mm. 805.2.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 1. The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress shall not exceed 100 kW.

(a) mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 38 mm when tested in accordance with NFPA 261 or

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Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 2. The total energy released by the single mattress during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ. Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 805.2.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2. 805.3 Group I-3, detention and correction facilities. The requirements in Sections 805.3.1 through 805.3.2 shall apply to detention and correction facilities classified in Group I-3. 805.3.1 Upholstered fur nitur e. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.3.1.1 through 805.3.1.3 805.3.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following: 1. Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 38 mm when tested in accordance with NFPA 261. 2. The components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260. 805.3.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537, as follows: 1. The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ. 805.3.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.3.1.1 and 805.3.1.2. 805.3.2 Mattr esses. Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 through 805.3.2.3.

805.3.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 50 mm. 805.3.2.2 Fire performance tests. Newly introduced mattresses shall be tested in accordance with Section 805.3.2.2.1 or 805.3.2.2.2. 805.3.2.2.1 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 1. The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress shall not exceed 100 kW. 2. The total energy released by the single mattress during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ. 805.3.2.2.2 Mass loss test. Newly introduced mattresses shall have a mass loss not exceeding 15 percent of the initial mass of the mattress where tested in accordance with the test in Annex A of ASTM F 1085. 805.3.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 and 805.3.2.2. 805.4 Group R-2 college and university dormitories. The requirements of Sections 805.4.1 through 805.4.2.3 shall apply to college and university dormitories classified in Group R-2, including decks, porches and balconies. 805.4.1 Upholstered fur nitur e. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.4.1.1 through 805.4.1.3 805.4.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following: 1. Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 38 mm when tested in accordance with NFPA 261. 2. The components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260. 805.4.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited

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rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or California Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 1. The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ. Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 805.4.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.4.1.1 and 805.4.1.2. 805.4.2 Mattr esses. Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.4.2.1 through 805.4.2.3. 805.4.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 50 mm. 805.4.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 1. The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress shall not exceed 100 kW. Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 2. The total energy released by the single mattress during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ. Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 805.4.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming

compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.4.2.1 and 805.4.2.2.

SECTION 806 DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 806.1 Natural cut trees. Natural cut trees, where allowed by this section, shall have the trunk bottoms cut off not less than 13 mm above the original cut and shall be placed in a support device complying with Section 806.1.2. 806.1.1 Restr icted occupancies. Natural cut trees shall be prohibited within ambulatory care facilities and Group A, E, I-1, I-2, I-3, I-4, M, R-1, R-2 and R-4 occupancies. Exceptions: 1. Trees located in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall not be prohibited in Groups A, E, M, R-1 and R-2. 2. Trees shall be allowed within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies. 806.1.2 Suppor t devices. The support device that holds the tree in an upright position shall be of a type that is stable and that meets all of the following criteria: 1. The device shall hold the tree securely and be of adequate size to avoid tipping over of the tree. 2. The device shall be capable of containing a minimum two-day supply of water. 3. The water level, when full, shall cover the tree stem not less than 50 mm. The water level shall be maintained above the fresh cut and checked not less than once daily. 806.1.3 Dryness. The tree shall be removed from the building whenever the needles or leaves fall off readily when a tree branch is shaken or if the needles are brittle and break when bent between the thumb and index finger. The tree shall be checked daily for dryness. 806.2 Artificial vegetation. Artificial decorative vegetation shall meet the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701. Meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of

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NFPA 701 shall be documented and certified by the manufacturer in an approved manner. Alternatively, the artificial decorative vegetation item shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 289, using the 20 kW ignition source, and shall have a maximum heat release rate of 100 kW. 806.3 Obstruction of means of egress. The required width of any portion of a means of egress shall not be obstructed by decorative vegetation. Natural cut trees shall not be located within an exit, corridor, or a lobby or vestibule. 806.4 Open flame. Candles and open flames shall not be used on or near decorative vegetation. Natural cut trees shall be kept a distance from heat vents and any open flame or heat-producing devices at least equal to the height of the tree. 806.5 Electrical fixtures and wiring. The use of unlisted electrical wiring and lighting on natural cut trees and artificial decorative vegetation shall be prohibited. The use of electrical wiring and lighting on artificial trees constructed entirely of metal shall be prohibited.

SECTION 807 DECORATIVE MATERIALS OTHER THAN DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 807.1 General. Combustible decorative materials, other than decorative vegetation, shall comply with Sections 807.2 through 807.5.6. 807.2 Limitations. The following requirements shall apply to all occupancies: 1. Furnishings or decorative materials of an explosive or highly flammable character shall not be used. 2. Fire-retardant coatings in existing buildings shall be maintained so as to retain the effectiveness of the treatment under service conditions encountered in actual use. 3. Furnishings or other objects shall not be placed to obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom or visibility thereof. 4. The permissible amount of non-combustible decorative materials shall not be limited. 807.3 Combustible decorative materials. In other than Group I-3, curtains, draperies, fabric hangings and other similar combustible decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall comply with Section 807.4 and shall not exceed 10

percent of the specific wall or ceiling area to which they are attached. Fixed or movable walls and partitions, paneling, wall pads and crash pads applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation or other purposes shall be considered interior finish, shall comply with Section 803 and shall not be considered decorative materials or furnishings. Exceptions: 1. In auditoriums in Group A, the permissible amount of curtains, draperies, fabric hangings and other similar combustible decorative material suspended from walls or ceilings shall not exceed 75 percent of the aggregate wall area where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and where the material is installed in accordance with Section 803.11 of the SBC 201. 2. In Group R-2 dormitories, within sleeping units and dwelling units, the permissible amount of curtains, draperies, fabric hangings and other similar decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall not exceed 50 percent of the aggregate wall areas where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1. 3. In Group B and M occupancies, the amount of combustible fabric partitions suspended from the ceiling and not supported by the floor shall comply with Section 807.4 and shall not be limited. 807.4 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required to exhibit improved fire performance, curtains, draperies, fabric hangings and other similar combustible decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall be tested by an approved agency and meet the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 or exhibit a maximum rate of heat release of 100 kW when tested in accordance with NFPA 289, using the 20 kW ignition source. Reports of test results shall be prepared in accordance with the test method used and furnished to the fire code official upon request. 807.5 Occupancy-based requirements. In occupancies specified, combustible decorative

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materials not complying with Section 807.3 shall comply with Sections 807.5.1 through 807.5.6. 807.5.1 Gr oup A. In Group A occupancies, the requirements in Sections 807.5.1.1 through 807.5.1.4 shall apply. 807.5.1.1 Foam plastics. Exposed foam plastic materials and unprotected materials containing foam plastic used for decorative purposes or stage scenery or exhibit booths shall have a maximum heat release rate of 100 kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975, or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source. Exceptions: 1. Individual foam plastic items or items containing foam plastic where the foam plastic does not exceed 0.45 kg in weight. 2. Cellular or foam plastic shall be allowed for trim in accordance with Section 804.2. 807.5.1.2 Motion picture screens. The screens upon which motion pictures are projected in new and existing buildings of Group A shall either meet the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 or shall comply with the requirements for a Class B interior finish in accordance with Section 803 of the SBC 201. 807.5.1.3

Reserved for numbering. I.

807.5.1.4 Pyroxylin plastic. Imitation leather or other material consisting of or coated with a pyroxylin or similarly hazardous base shall not be used. 807.5.2 Gr oup E. Group E occupancies shall comply with Sections 807.5.2.1 through 807.5.2.3. 807.5.2.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and lobbies. Exceptions: 1. Corridors protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 2. Corridors protected by an approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with Section 907. 3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the minimum required egress width is maintained.

807.5.2.2 Artwork in corridors. Artwork and teaching materials shall be limited on the walls of corridors to not more than 20 percent of the wall area. 807.5.2.3 Artwork in classrooms. Artwork and teaching materials shall be limited on walls of classrooms to not more than 50 percent of the specific wall area to which they are attached. 807.5.3 Gr oups I-1 and I-2. In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, combustible decorative materials shall comply with Sections 807.5.3.1 through 807.5.3.4. 807.5.3.1 Group I-1 and I-2 Condition 1 within units. In Group I-1 and Group I-2 Condition 1 occupancies, equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, within sleeping units and dwelling units, combustible decorative materials placed on walls shall be limited to not more than 50 percent of the wall area to which they are attached. 807.5.3.2 In Group I-1 and I-2 Condition 1 for areas other than within units. In Group I-1 and Group I-2 Condition 1 occupancies, equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, combustible decorative materials placed on walls in areas other than within dwelling and sleeping units shall be limited to not more than 30 percent of the wall area to which they are attached. 807.5.3.3 In Group I-2 Condition 2. In Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies, equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, combustible decorative materials placed on walls shall be limited to not more than 30 percent of the wall area to which they are attached. 807.5.3.4 OtherareasinGroupsI-1andI-2.InGroupI-1 and I-2 occupancies, in areas not equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, combustible decorative materials shall be of such limited quantities that a hazard of fire development or spread is not present. 807.5.4 Gr oup I-3. In Group I-3, combustible decorative materials are prohibited. 807.5.5 Gr oup I-4. Group I-4 occupancies shall comply with the requirements in Sections 807.5.5.1 through 807.5.5.3.

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807.5.5.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and lobbies. Exceptions: 1. Corridors protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 2. Corridors protected by an approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with Section 907. 3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the minimum required egress width is maintained. 807.5.5.2 Artwork in corridors. Artwork and teaching materials shall be limited on walls of corridors to not more than 20 percent of the wall area.

808.2 Waste containers with a capacity of 75 L or more in Group R-2 college and university dormitories. Waste containers, including their lids, located in Group R-2 college and university dormitories, and with a capacity of 75 L or more, shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation. Metal wastebaskets and other metal waste containers with a capacity of 75 L or more shall be listed in accordance with UL 1315 and shall be provided with a noncombustible lid. Portable containers exceeding 120 L shall be stored in an area classified as a waste and linen collection room constructed in accordance with Table 509 of the SBC 201.

807.5.5.3 Artwork in classrooms. Artwork and teaching materials shall be limited on walls of classrooms to not more than 50 percent of the specific wall area to which they are attached.

808.3 Signs. Foam plastic signs that are not affixed to interior building surfaces shall have a maximum heat release rate of 150 kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975, or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20-kW ignition source.

807.5.6 Dormitor ies in Group R-2. In Group R-2 dormitories, within sleeping units and dwelling units, the combustible decorative materials shall be of limited quantities such that a hazard of fire development or spread is not present.

Exception: Where the aggregate area of foam plastic signs is less than 10 percent of the floor area or wall area of the room or space in which the signs are located, whichever is less, subject to the approval of the fire code official.

SECTION 808 FURNISHINGS OTHER THAN UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES OR DECORATIVE MATERIALS IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 808.1 Wastebaskets and linen containers in Group I-1, I-2 and I-3 occupancies. Wastebaskets, linen containers and other waste containers, including their lids, located in Group I-1, I-2 and I3 occupancies shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation. Metal wastebaskets and other metal waste containers with a capacity of 75 L or more shall be listed in accordance with UL 1315 and shall be provided with a noncombustible lid. Portable containers exceeding 120 L shall be stored in an area classified as a waste and linen collection room and constructed in accordance with Table 509 of the SBC 201.

808.4 Combustible lockers. Where lockers constructed of combustible materials are used, the lockers shall be considered interior finish and shall comply with Section 803. Exception: Lockers constructed entirely of wood and noncombustible materials shall be permitted to be used wherever interior finish materials are required to meet a Class C classification in accordance with Section 803.1.1.

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Bibliography The following resource material was used in the preparation of the commentary for this chapter of the code: 1. DeLauter, L., J. Lee, G. Roadarmel and D.W. Stroup. “Scotch Pine Christmas Tree Fire Tests.” FR4010. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology, US Department of Commerce, 1999.

Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Tables and Figures TABLE 803.3: INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPANCYk SPRINKLEREDl Corridors and Interior exit stairways enclosure for exit and interior exit ramps access stairways and and exit passagewaysa, b exit access ramps

GROUP

A-1 & A-2

B

f

B

Rooms and enclosed spacesc

C

NONSPRINKLERED Corridors and Interior exit stairways enclosure for exit and interior exit ramps access stairways and and exit passagewaysa, b exit access ramps

Rooms and enclosed spacesc

A

Ad

Be

d

A-3 , A-4, A-5

B

B

C

A

A

C

B, E, M, R-1, R-4

B

C

C

A

B

C

F

C

C

C

B

C

C

H

B

B

Cg

A

A

B

I-1

B

C

C

A

B

B

B Aj

Bh, i

A

A

B

C

A

A

B

I-2

B

I-3

A

I-4

B

B

Bh, i

A

A

B

R-2

C

C

C

B

B

C

R-3

C

C

C

C

C

C

S

C

C

C

B

B

C

U

No Restrictions

No Restrictions

a. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed for wainscoting or paneling of not more than 93 square meter of applied surface area in the grade lobby where applied directly to a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803.11 of the SBC 201. b. In exit enclosures of buildings less than three stories in height of other than Group I-3, Class B interior finish for nonsprinklered buildings and Class C for sprinklered buildings shall be permitted. c. Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural elements, the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions that do not comply with this shall be considered as enclosing spaces and the rooms or spaces on both sides shall be considered as one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific occupancy thereof shall be the governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure. d. Lobby areas in Group A-1, A-2 and A-3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B materials. e. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 300 persons or less. f. ** not applicable.. g. Class B material is required where the building exceeds two stories. h. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in administrative spaces. i. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less. j. Class B materials shall be allowed as wainscoting extending not more than 1200 mm above the finished floor in corridors. k. Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code. l. Applies when the vertical exits, exit passageways, corridors or rooms and spaces are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

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Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

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Fire Protection Systems

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

SECTION 901 GENERAL 901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and maintenance of all fire protection systems. 901.2 Construction documents. The fire code official shall have the authority to require construction documents and calculations for all fire protection systems and to require permits be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation. 901.2.1 Statement of compliance. Before requesting final approval of the installation, where required by the fire code official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written statement to the fire code official that the subject fire protection system has been installed in accordance with approved plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and the appropriate installation standard. Any deviations from the design standards shall be noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall be attached to the written statement. 901.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7. 901.4 Installation. Fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with the original installation standards for that system. Required systems shall be extended, altered or augmented as necessary to maintain and continue protection where the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alterations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance with applicable standards. 901.4.1 Required fire protection systems. Fire protection systems required by this code or the SBC 201 shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and maintained in accordance with this code. A fire protection system for which a design option, exception or reduction to the provisions of this code or the SBC 201 has been granted shall be considered to be a required system.

901.4.2 Nonr equired fire pr otection systems. A fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code or the SBC 201 shall be allowed to be furnished for partial or complete protection provided such installed system meets the applicable requirements of this code and the SBC 201. 901.4.3 Fire ar eas. Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the SBC 201 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the SBC 201, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10 of the SBC 201. 901.4.4 Additional fire pr otection systems. In occupancies of a hazardous nature, where special hazards exist in addition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where the fire code official determines that access for fire apparatus is unduly difficult, the fire code official shall have the authority to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards include, but shall not be limited to, the following: automatic fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment required under this section shall be installed in accordance with this code and the applicable referenced standards. 901.4.5 Appear ance of equipment. Any device that has the physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equipment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protection function shall be prohibited. 901.4.6 Pump and riser room size. Where provided, fire pump rooms and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working space around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be

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Fire Protection Systems

sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire resistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with a door(s) and an unobstructed passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment. 901.5 Installation acceptance testing. Fire detection and alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant systems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurtenances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained in the installation standards and as approved by the fire code official. The fire code official shall be notified before any required acceptance testing. 901.5.1 Occupancy. It shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the required fire detection, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and approved. 901.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire detection, alarm, and extinguishing systems, mechanical smoke exhaust systems, and smoke and heat vents shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or repaired where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or removed.

be provided for all occupants left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire protection system has been returned to service. Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with not less than one approved means for notification of the fire department (Civil Defense) and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires. 901.7.1 Impair ment coordinator. The building owner shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment coordinator. 901.7.2 Tag requir ed. A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service. 901.7.3 Placement of tag. The tag shall be posted at each fire department (Civil Defense) connection, system control valve, fire alarm control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command center, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been removed from service. The fire code official shall specify where the tag is to be placed. 901.7.4 Pr eplanned impair ment progr ams. Preplanned impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordinator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following procedures have been implemented:

901.6.1 Standar ds. Fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the referenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1.

1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.

901.6.2 Recor ds. Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained.

3. Recommendations have been submitted to management or the building owner/manager.

901.6.2.1 Records information. Initial records shall include the name of the installation contractor, type of components installed, manufacturer of the components, location and number of components installed per floor. Records shall also include the manufacturers’ operation and maintenance instruction manuals. Such records shall be maintained for the life of the installation. 901.7 Systems out of service. Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the fire department (Civil Defense) and the fire code official shall be notified immediately and, where required by the fire code official, the building shall be either evacuated or an approved fire watch shall

2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.

4. The fire department (Civil Defense) has been notified. 5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, the building owner/manager and other authorities having jurisdiction have been notified. 6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified. 7. A tag impairment implemented.

system

has

been

8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.

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Fire Protection Systems

901.7.5 Emer gency impair ments. Where unplanned impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impairment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Section 901.7.4. 901.7.6 Restor ing systems to service. When impaired equipment is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall verify that all of the following procedures have been implemented: 1. Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational. 2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored. 3. The Civil Defense has been advised that protection is restored. 4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm company and other involved parties have been advised that protection is restored. 5. The impairment tag has been removed. 901.8 Removal of or tampering with equipment. It shall be unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire suppression system or other fire appliance required by this code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training purposes, recharging or making necessary repairs or where approved by the fire code official. 901.8.1 Removal of or tampering with appur tenances. Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, tags or seals that have been installed by or at the direction of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any manner. 901.8.2 Removal of existing occupant-use hose lines. The fire code official is authorized to permit the removal of existing occupant-use hose lines where all of the following conditions exist: 1. Installation is not required by this code or SBC 201. 2. The hose line would not be utilized by trained personnel or the fire department. 3. The remaining outlets are compatible with local fire department (Civil Defense) fittings.

901.9 Termination of monitoring service. For fire alarm systems required to be monitored by this code, notice shall be made to the fire code official whenever alarm monitoring services are terminated. Notice shall be made in writing, to the fire code official by the monitoring service provider being terminated. 901.10 Recall of fire protection components. Any fire protection system component regulated by this code that is the subject of a voluntary or mandatory recall under a governmental law shall be replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the recalled component parts have been replaced.

SECTION 902 DEFINITIONS 902.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

SBC 801-CR-18

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. ALARM SIGNAL. ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. ANNUNCIATOR. AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. AUTOMATIC. AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM. AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. CLEAN AGENT. COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE. CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. DELUGE SYSTEM. DETECTOR, HEAT. DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. ELEVATOR GROUP. EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.

145

Fire Protection Systems

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • •

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. FIRE AREA. FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. INITIATING DEVICE. MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. NOTIFICATION ZONE. NUISANCE ALARM. PRIVATE GARAGE. RECORD DRAWINGS. SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. SLEEPING UNIT. SMOKE ALARM. SMOKE DETECTOR. STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Class I system. Class II system. Class III system. STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Automatic dry. Automatic wet. Manual dry. Manual wet. Semiautomatic dry. SUPERVISING STATION. SUPERVISORY SERVICE. SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. TROUBLE SIGNAL. VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

• • • •

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. ZONE. ZONE, NOTIFICATION.

SECTION 903 AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 903.1 General. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section. 903.1.1 Alter native pr otection. Alternative automatic fire extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted instead of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official. 903.2 Where required. Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12. Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the SBC 201 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the SBC 201, or both. 903.2.1 Gr oup A. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the story where the fire area containing the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and throughout all stories from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the levels of exit discharge serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5. 903.2.1.1 Group A-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-1 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

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146

Fire Protection Systems

1. The fire area exceeds 1115 m2. 2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex. 903.2.1.2 Group A-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-2 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists: 1. The fire area exceeds 465 m2. 2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more. 3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 903.2.1.3 Group A-3. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-3 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists: 1. The fire area exceeds 1115 m2. 2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies. Exception: Automatic Sprinkler System is not required in detached Mosque of Type I or Type II construction. 903.2.1.4 Group A-4. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-4 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists: 1. The fire area exceeds 1115 m2. 2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 903.2.1.5 Group A-5. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession

stands, retail areas, press boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 93 m2. 903.2.1.6 Assembly occupancies on roofs. Where an occupied roof has an assembly occupancy with an occupant load exceeding 100 for Group A2 and 300 for other Group A occupancies, all floors between the occupied roof and the level of exit discharge shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. Exception: Open parking garages of Type I or Type II construction. 903.2.1.7 Multiple fire areas. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided where multiple fire areas of Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancies share exit or exit access components and the combined occupant load of these fire areas is 300 or more. 903.2.2 Ambulator y car e facilities. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor containing an ambulatory care facility where either of the following conditions exist at any time: 1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable. 2. One or more care recipients that are incapable of self preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility. In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided as well as all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge. 903.2.3 Gr oup E. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows: 1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 1115 m2 in area. 2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.

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Fire Protection Systems

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has not fewer than one exterior exit door at ground level. 903.2.4 Gr oup F-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 2

1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 1115 m . 2. A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane. 3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 2230 m2. 4. A Group F-1 occupancy used for the manufacture of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 230 m2. 903.2.4.1 Woodworking operations. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 230 m2 in area that generate finely divided combustible waste or use finely divided combustible materials. 903.2.5 Gr oup H. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3. 903.2.5.1 General. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies. 903.2.5.2 Group H-5 occupancies. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required under the SBC 201 for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2. Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13. 903.2.5.3 Pyroxylin plastics. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 45 kg. 903.2.6 Gr oup I. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area. Exceptions:

1. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group I-1 Condition 1 facilities. 2. An automatic sprinkler system is not required where Group I-4 day care facilities are at the level of exit discharge and where every room where care is provided has not fewer than one exterior exit door. 3. In buildings where Group I-4 day care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be installed on the entire floor where care is provided, all floors between the level of care and the level of exit discharge and all floors below the level of exit discharge other than areas classified as an open parking garage. 903.2.7 Gr oup M. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 1. A Group M fire area exceeds 1115 m2. 2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane. 3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 2230 m2. 4. A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 465 m2. 903.2.7.1 High-piled storage. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided as required in Chapter 32 in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays. 903.2.8 Gr oup R. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area. 903.2.8.1 Group R-3. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 occupancies. 903.2.8.2 Group R-4 Condition 1. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 1 occupancies. 903.2.8.3 Group R-4 Condition 2. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance

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Fire Protection Systems

with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 2 occupancies. Attics shall be protected in accordance with Section 903.2.8.3.1 or 903.2.8.3.2.

1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basem*nts, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 930 m2.

903.2.8.3.1 Attics used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment. Attics used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.

2. Buildings not more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 1115 m2.

903.2.8.3.2 Attics not used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment. Attics not used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected in accordance with one of the following: 1. Attics protected throughout by a heat detector system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with Section 907.2.10. 2. Attics constructed materials.

of

noncombustible

3. The automatic sprinkler system shall be extended to provide protection throughout the attic space. 903.2.8.4 Care facilities. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in care facilities with five or fewer individuals in a singlefamily dwelling. 903.2.9 Gr oup S-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 1115 m2. 2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane. 3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 2230 m2. 4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 465 m2. 5. A Group S-1 occupancy used for the storage of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 230 m2. 903.2.9.1 Repair garages. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406.8 of the SBC 201, as shown:

3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basem*nts. 4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 465 m2. 903.2.9.2 Bulk storage of tires. Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 565 m3 shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 903.2.10 Gr oup S-2 enclosed par king gar ages. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.6 of the SBC 201 where either of the following conditions exists: 1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 1115 m2. 2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups. Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies. 903.2.10.1 Commercial parking garages. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 465 m2. 903.2.11 Specific buildings ar eas and hazar ds. In all occupancies other than Group U, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6. 903.2.11.1 Stories without openings. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basem*nts, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 140 m2 and where there is not provided not fewer than one of the following types of exterior wall openings: 1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1009 or an outside

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Fire Protection Systems

ramp complying with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 15 m, or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 15 m. 2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling not less than 1.85 m2 in each 15 m linear meter, or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 15 m. The height of the bottom of the clear opening shall not exceed 1110 mm measured from the floor. 903.2.11.1.1 Opening dimensions and access. Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 750 mm. Such openings shall be accessible to the Civil Defense from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner such that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior. 903.2.11.1.2 Openings on one side only. Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 23 m from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system or openings as specified above shall be provided on not fewer than two sides of the story. 903.2.11.1.3 Basem*nts. Where any portion of a basem*nt is located more than 23 m from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, or where walls, partitions or other obstructions are installed that restrict the application of water from hose streams, the basem*nt shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system. 903.2.11.2 Rubbish and linen chutes. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes shall have additional sprinkler heads installed at alternate floors and at the lowest intake. Where a rubbish chute extends through a building more than one floor below the lowest intake, the extension shall have sprinklers installed that are recessed from the drop area of the chute and protected from freezing in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Such sprinklers shall be installed at alternate floors beginning with the second level below the last intake and ending with the floor

above the discharge. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing. 903.2.11.3 Buildings 17 m or more in height. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings that have one or more stories with an occupant load of 30 or more located 17 m or more above the lowest level of Civil Defense vehicle access, measured to the finished floor. Exceptions: 1. Open parking structures. 2. Occupancies in Group F-2. 903.2.11.4 Ducts conveying hazardous exhausts. Where required by the SBC 501, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying hazardous exhaust or flammable or combustible materials. Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is less than 250 mm. 903.2.11.5 Commercial cooking operations. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct systems where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904. 903.2.11.6 Other required suppression systems. In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas. 903.2.12 Dur ing constr uction. Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3313. 903.3 Installation requirements. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.8. 903.3.1 Standar ds. Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2 and 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as applicable. 903.3.1.1 NFPA 13 sprinkler systems. Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Sections 903.3.1.1.1 and 903.3.1.1.2.

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Fire Protection Systems

903.3.1.1.1 Exempt locations. Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from a room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistancerated construction or contains electrical equipment. 1. A room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard. 2. A room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, where approved by the fire code official. 3. Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

903.3.1.2.1 Balconies and decks. Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units and sleeping units where the building is of Type V construction, provided there is a roof or deck above. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 25 mm to 150 mm below the structural members and a maximum distance of 350 mm below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction. 903.3.1.2.2 Open-ended corridors. Sprinkler protection shall be provided in open-ended corridors and associated exterior stairways and ramps as specified in Section 1027.6, Exception 3. 903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in one-and two-family dwellings; Group R-3; Group R-4 Condition 1 and townhouses shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D.

5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.

903.3.2 Quick-r esponse and residential sprinklers. Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in all of the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:

6. Machine rooms, machinery spaces, control rooms and control spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Chapter 13 of the SBC 501.

1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with the SBC 201.

903.3.1.1.2 Bathrooms. In Group R occupancies, other than Group R-4 occupancies, sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms that do not exceed 5 m2 in area and are located within individual dwelling units or sleeping units, provided that walls and ceilings, including the walls and ceilings behind a shower enclosure or tub, are of noncombustible or limited-combustible materials with a 15-minute thermal barrier rating.

2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.

4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.

903.3.1.2 NFPA 13R sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height in buildings not exceeding 18 m in height above grade plane shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R. The number of stories of Group R occupancies constructed in accordance with Sections 510.2 and 510.4 of the SBC 201 shall be measured from the horizontal assembly creating separate buildings.

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I1 and R occupancies. 4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13. 903.3.3 Obstr ucted locations. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment that exceeds 1200 mm in width. Not less than a 900 mm clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

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Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904. 903.3.4 Actuation. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code. 903.3.5 Water supplies. Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the SBC 701. For connections to public waterworks systems, the water supply test used for design of fire protection systems shall be adjusted to account for seasonal and daily pressure fluctuations based on information from the water supply authority and as approved by the fire code official. 903.3.5.1 Domestic services. Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section. 903.3.5.2 Residential combination services. A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R. 903.3.6 Hose thr eads. Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official. 903.3.7 Fire depar tment (Civil Defense) connections. Fire department (Civil Defense) connections for automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 912. 903.3.8 Limited ar ea sprinkler systems. Limited area sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with the standards listed in Section 903.3.1 except as provided in Sections 903.3.8.1 through 903.3.8.5. 903.3.8.1 Number of sprinklers. Limited area sprinkler systems shall not exceed six sprinklers in any single fire area. 903.3.8.2 Occupancy hazard classification. Only areas classified by NFPA 13 as Light Hazard or Ordinary Hazard Group 1 shall be permitted to be protected by limited area sprinkler systems. 903.3.8.3 Piping arrangement. Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building with an automatic wet standpipe system, sprinklers shall be supplied by the standpipe

system. Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building without an automatic wet standpipe system, water shall be permitted to be supplied by the plumbing system provided that the plumbing system is capable of simultaneously supplying domestic and sprinkler demands. 903.3.8.4 Supervision. Control valves shall not be installed between the water supply and sprinklers unless the valves are of an approved indicating type that are supervised or secured in the open position. 903.3.8.5 Calculations. Hydraulic calculations in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be provided to demonstrate that the available water flow and pressure are adequate to supply all sprinklers installed in any single fire area with discharge densities corresponding to the hazard classification. 903.4 Sprinkler system supervision and alarms. Valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit. Exceptions: 1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one and two-family dwellings. 2. Limited area sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.3.8. 3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided. 4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position. 5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position. 6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position. 7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position. 903.4.1 Monitor ing. Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall

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be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, where approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location. Exceptions: 1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored. 2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated. 903.4.2 Alar ms. An approved audible device, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler waterflow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system. 903.4.3 Floor contr ol valves. Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings. 903.5 Testing and maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901. 903.6 Where required in existing buildings and structures. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 11.

SECTION 904 ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 904.1 General. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards. 904.1.1 Cer tification of service per sonnel for fire-extinguishing equipment. Service personnel

providing or conducting maintenance on automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall possess a valid certificate issued by an approved governmental agency, or other approved organization for the type of system and work performed. 904.2 Where permitted. Automatic fireextinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code official. 904.2.1 Restr iction on using automatic sprinkler system exceptions or reductions. Automatic fireextinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed for automatic sprinkler systems or by other requirements of this code. 904.2.2 Commercial hood and duct systems. Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code. 904.3 Installation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section. 904.3.1 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70. 904.3.2 Actuation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved. Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously. 904.3.3 System interlocking. Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard. 904.3.4 Alar ms and war ning signs. Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided

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to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2. 904.3.5 Monitor ing. Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72. 904.4 Inspection and testing. Automatic fireextinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance. 904.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, all of the following items shall be inspected: 1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard. 2. Type, location and spacing of automatic and manual initiating devices. 3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices. 4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices. 5. Identification of designations.

devices

with

proper

6. Operating instructions. 904.4.2 Alar m testing. Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation. 904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals. The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified. 904.4.3 Monitor testing. Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fireextinguishing systems. 904.5 Wet-chemical systems. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.

904.5.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridgeoperated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 904.5.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system. 904.6 Dry-chemical systems. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained. 904.6.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridgeoperated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 904.6.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system. 904.7 Foam systems. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained. 904.7.1 System test. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 25. 904.8 Carbon dioxide systems. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained. 904.8.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.

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904.8.2 High-pr essur e cylinder s. High-pressure cylinders shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall be verified at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder shall be refilled or replaced. 904.8.3 Low-pressur e containers. The liquidlevel gauges of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain the minimum gas requirements. 904.8.4 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 12 month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At fiveyear intervals, all hoses shall be tested. 904.8.4.1 Test procedure. Hoses shall be tested at not less than 17250 kPa for high-pressure systems and at not less than 6200 kPa for lowpressure systems. 904.8.5 Auxiliar y equipment. Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure that such components are in proper operating condition. 904.9 Halon systems. Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained. 904.9.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 904.9.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container. 904.9.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 12 month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At fiveyear intervals, all hoses shall be tested. 904.9.3.1 Test procedure. For Halon 1301 systems, hoses shall be tested at not less than 10350

kPa for 4137 kPa charging pressure systems and not less than 6200 kPa for 2482 kPa charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 17250 kPa for high-pressure systems and 6200 kPa for low-pressure systems. 904.9.4 Auxiliar y equipment. Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating condition. 904.10 Clean-agent systems. Clean-agent fireextinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained. 904.10.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12month intervals. 904.10.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of the containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container. 904.10.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at five-year intervals. 904.11 Automatic water mist systems. Automatic water mist systems shall be permitted in applications that are consistent with the applicable listing or approvals and shall comply with Sections 904.11.1 through 904.11.3. 904.11.1 Design and installation requir ements. Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 904.11.1.1 through 904.11.1.4. 904.11.1.1 General. Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 750 and the manufacturer’s instructions. 904.11.1.2 Actuation. Automatic water mist systems shall be automatically actuated. 904.11.1.3 Water supply protection. Connections to a potable water supply shall be

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protected against backflow in accordance with the SBC 701.

5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.

904.11.1.4 Secondary water supply. Where a secondary water supply is required for an automatic sprinkler system, an automatic water mist system shall be provided with an approved secondary water supply.

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 of the SBC 501.

904.11.2 Water mist system super vision and alar ms. Supervision and alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4. 904.11.2.1 Monitoring. Monitoring shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.1. 904.11.2.2 Alarms. Alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.2. 904.11.2.3 Floor control valves. Floor control valves shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.3. 904.11.3 Testing and maintenance. Automatic water mist systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.6. 904.12 Commercial cooking systems. The automatic fire extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Pre-engineered automatic dry and wetchemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows: 1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12. 2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13. 3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16. 4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.

904.12.1 Manual system oper ation. A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area not less than 3000 mm and not more than 6000 mm from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 1200 mm nor less than 1000 mm above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 178 N and a maximum movement of 350 mm to actuate the fire suppression system. Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means. 904.12.2 System interconnection. The actuation of the fire extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual. Car bon dioxide systems. Where 904.12.3 carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 6 m and horizontal ducts exceeding 15 m. Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously. 904.12.3.1 Ventilation system. Commercialtype cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation. 904.12.4 Special provisions for automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.

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904.12.4.1 Listed sprinklers. Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing. 904.12.5 Por table fire extinguishers for commer cial cooking equipment. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided within a 9 m distance of travel from commercial-type cooking equipment. Cooking equipment involving solid fuels or vegetable or animal oils and fats shall be protected by a Class K rated portable extinguisher in accordance with Section 904.12.5.1 or 904.12.5.2, as applicable. 904.12.5.1 Portable fire extinguishers for solid fuel cooking appliances. Solid fuel cooking appliances, whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 0.14 m3 or less in volume shall have a minimum 9 L or two 6 L Class K wet-chemical portable fire extinguishers located in accordance with Section 904.12.5.

required to comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 904.12 through 904.12.4. 904.12.6.2 Extinguishing system service. Automatic fire extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least every six months and after activation of the system. Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and a certificate of inspection shall be forwarded to the fire code official upon completion. 904.12.6.3 Fusible link and sprinkler head replacement. Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall be replaced at least annually, and other protection devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be replaced annually.

1. For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 36 kg each: one Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 6 L capacity.

904.13 Domestic cooking systems in Group I-2 Condition 1. In Group I-2 Condition 1 occupancies where cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 407.2.6 of the SBC 201, the domestic cooking hood provided over the cooktop or range shall be equipped with an automatic fireextinguishing system of a type recognized for protection of domestic cooking equipment. Preengineered automatic extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300A and listed and labeled for the intended application. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer’s instructions.

2. For every additional group of four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 36 kg each: one additional Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 6 L capacity shall be provided.

904.13.1 Manual system oper ation and interconnection. Manual actuation and system interconnection for the hood suppression system shall be in accordance with Sections 904.12.1 and 904.12.2, respectively.

3. For individual fryers exceeding 0.55 m2 in surface area: Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with the extinguisher manufacturer’s recommendations.

904.13.2 Por table fire extinguishers for domestic cooking equipment in Gr oup I-2 Condition 1. A portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 shall be installed within a 9 m distance of travel from domestic cooking appliances.

904.12.5.2 Class K portable fire extinguishers for deep fat fryers. Where hazard areas include deep fat fryers, listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as follows:

904.12.6 Oper ations and maintenance. Automatic fire extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 904.12.6.1 through 904.12.6.3. 904.12.6.1 Existing automatic fireextinguishing systems. Where changes in the cooking media, positioning of cooking equipment or replacement of cooking equipment occur in existing commercial cooking systems, the automatic fire extinguishing system shall be

SECTION 905 STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 905.2 through 905.10. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 32.

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905.2 Installation standard. Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. Civil Defense connections for standpipe systems shall be in accordance with Section 912.

905.3.2 Gr oup A. Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in non-sprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.

905.3 Required Installations. Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.8. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.

Exceptions:

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies. 905.3.1 Height. Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 9 m above the lowest level of the fire department (Civil Defense) vehicle access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 9 m below the highest level of fire department (Civil Defense) vehicle access. Exceptions: 1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 45 m above the lowest level of fire department (Civil Defense) vehicle access. 3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5. 4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basem*nts equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system. 5. In determining the lowest level of fire department (Civil Defense) vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider either of the following: 5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less. 5.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department (Civil Defense) vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.

1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces. 2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings that are not high-rise buildings. 905.3.3 Covered and open mall buildings. Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 945 L/min at the most hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed not to exceed a 345 kPa residual pressure loss with a flow of 945 L/min from the fire department (Civil Defense) connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations: 1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor. 2. At each floor-level landing within interior exit stairways opening directly on the mall. 3. At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building 4. At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building. 5. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 60 m from a hose connection. 905.3.4 Stages. Stages greater than 93 m2 in area shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 40 mm and 65 mm hose connections on each side of the stage. Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 40 mm hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.

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905.3.4.1 Hose and cabinet. The 40 mm hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 40 mm hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack. 905.3.5 Under gr ound buildings. Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system. 905.3.6 Helistops and helipor ts. Buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 2007.5. 905.3.7 Mar inas and boatyar ds. Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36. 905.3.8 Rooftop gar dens and landscaped roofs. Buildings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located. 905.4 Location of Class I standpipe hose connections. Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations: 1. In every required interior exit stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each story above and below grade plane. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate landing between stories, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official. 2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit. Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 9 m hose stream from a nozzle attached to 30 m of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit. 3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building. Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 9 m hose stream from a nozzle attached to 30 m of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. 5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of an interior exit stairway with access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1011.12. 6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 15 m from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 60 m from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations. 905.4.1 Pr otection. Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an interior exit stairway shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located. Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an interior exit stairway are not required to be enclosed within fireresistance-rated construction. 905.4.2 Inter connection. In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14. 905.5 Location of Class II standpipe hose connections. Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 9 m of a nozzle attached to 30 m of hose. 905.5.1 Gr oups A-1 and A-2. In Group A-1 and A2 occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony and on each tier of dressing rooms. 905.5.2 Pr otection. Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.

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905.5.3 Class II system 25 mm hose. A minimum 25 mm hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official. 905.6 Location of Class III standpipe hose connections. Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5. 905.6.1 Pr otection. Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1. 905.6.2 Inter connection. In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14. 905.7 Cabinets. Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire department (Civil Defense) valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view. 905.7.1 Cabinet equipment identification. Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 50 mm high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein. Exceptions: 1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein. 2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked. 905.7.2 Locking cabinet doors. Cabinets shall be unlocked. Exceptions: 1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access. 2. Approved locking arrangements. 3. Group I-3 occupancies. 905.8 Dry standpipes. Dry standpipes shall not be installed.

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14. 905.9 Valve supervision. Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall be transmitted to the control unit. Exceptions: 1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision. 2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system. 905.10 During construction. Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3313. 905.11 Existing buildings. Where required in Chapter 11, existing structures shall be equipped with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905.

SECTION 906 PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in all of the following locations: 1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies. Exception: In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C. 2. Within 9 m equipment.

of

commercial

cooking

3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed. 4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1. 5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1.

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6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.

906.2 General requirements. Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and NFPA 10. Exceptions: 1. The distance of travel to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies. 2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and maintenance shall be allowed to be once every 3 years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met: 2.1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed. 2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal. 2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment. 2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every 3 years when extinguisher maintenance is performed. 2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10. 3. In Group I-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations. 906.2.1 Cer tification of service per sonnel for por table fire extinguishers. Service personnel providing or conducting maintenance on portable fire extinguishers shall possess a valid certificate issued by an approved governmental agency, or other approved organization for the type of work performed.

906.3 Size and distribution. The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4. 906.3.1 Class A fire hazar ds. Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 906.3(1). 906.3.2 Class B fire hazar ds. Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths of less than or equal to 6 mm shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2). Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 6 mm shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10. 906.3.3 Class C fire hazar ds. Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard. 906.4 Cooking grease fires. Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.12.5. 906.5 Conspicuous location. Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel. 906.6 Unobstructed and unobscured. Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers. 906.7 Hangers and brackets. Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. 906.8 Cabinets. Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked. Exceptions:

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1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access. 2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.

include, but not be limited to, all of the following where applicable to the system being installed: 1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms. 2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices. 3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.

906.9 Extinguisher installation. The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.

4. Design minimum audibility occupant notification.

906.9.1 Extinguishers weighing 18 kg or less. Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 18 kg shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 1500 mm above the floor.

6. Annunciators.

906.9.2 Extinguishers weighing mor e than 18 kg . Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 18 kg shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 1100 mm above the floor.

9. Conductor type and sizes.

906.9.3 Floor clear ance. The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall be not less than 100 mm. 906.10 Wheeled units. Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.

SECTION 907 FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS 907.1 General. This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components in new and existing buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to new buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.9 are applicable to existing buildings and structures. 907.1.1 Constr uction documents. Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the SBC 201 and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official. 907.1.2 Fire alar m shop dr awings. Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation, and shall

level

for

5. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies. 7. Power connection. 8. Battery calculations. 10. Voltage drop calculations. 11. Manufacturers’ data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials. 12. Details of ceiling height and construction. 13. The interface of fire safety control functions. 14. Classification of the supervising station. 907.1.3 Equipment. Systems and components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed. 907.2 Where required—new buildings and structures. An approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code. Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or waterflow detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire alarm box shall be installed. Exceptions: 1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and supervisory service.

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2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the public. 907.2.1 Gr oup A. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies where the occupant load due to the assembly occupancy is 300 or more. Group A occupancies not separated from one another in accordance with Section 707.3.10 of the SBC 201 shall be considered as a single occupancy for the purposes of applying this section. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy. Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow. 907.2.1.1 System initiation in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location. 907.2.1.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication system captions. Stadiums, arenas and grandstands required to caption audible public announcements shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.4. 907.2.2 Gr oup B. A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies where one of the following conditions exists: 1. The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 500 or more.

2. The Group B occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 3. The fire area contains an ambulatory care facility. Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow. 907.2.2.1 Ambulatory care facilities. Fire areas containing ambulatory care facilities shall be provided with an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system installed within the ambulatory care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies. Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 provided the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow. 907.2.3 Gr oup E. A manual fire alarm system that initiates the occupant notification signal utilizing an emergency voice/ alarm communication system meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system. Exceptions: 1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or less. 2. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall not be required in Group E occupancies with occupant loads of 100 or less, provided that activation of the manual fire alarm system initiates an approved occupant notification signal in accordance with Section 907.5. 3. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply: 3.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors.

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3.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and similar areas are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.

detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1, 907.2.6.2 and 907.2.6.3.3.

3.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.

Exceptions:

4. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply: 4.1. The building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 4.2. The emergency voice/alarm communication system will activate on sprinkler water flow. 4.3. Manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location. 907.2.4 Gr oup F. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group F occupancies where both of the following conditions exist: 1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in height. 2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow. 907.2.5 Gr oup H. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 60, 62 and 63, respectively. 907.2.6 Gr oup I. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group I occupancies. An automatic smoke

1. Manual fire alarm boxes in sleeping units of Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all care providers’ control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that the distances of travel required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded. 2. Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official and staff evacuation responsibilities are included in the fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404. 907.2.6.1 Group I-1. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Exceptions: 1. For Group I-1 Condition 1 occupancies, smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior balconies. 907.2.6.1.1 Smoke alarms. Single and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11. 907.2.6.2 Group I-2. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors in Group I-2 Condition 1 facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 of the SBC 201. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.4. Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies shall be equipped with an automatic smoke detection system as required in Section 407 of the SBC 201. Exceptions:

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1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where such units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at the care providers’ station attending each unit. 2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function. 907.2.6.3 Group I-3 occupancies. Group I3 occupancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system and automatic smoke detection system installed for alerting staff. 907.2.6.3.1 System initiation. Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, automatic sprinkler system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal that automatically notifies staff. 907.2.6.3.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4.2 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted. 907.2.6.3.2.1 Manual fire alarms boxes in detainee areas. Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes. 907.2.6.3.3 Automatic smoke detection system. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally accessible to residents. Exceptions: 1. Other approved smoke detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, including, but not limited to, placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective guards listed for the

purpose, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering. 2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as described in Section 308 of the SBC 201. 3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping units with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 907.2.7 Gr oup M. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group M occupancies where one of the following conditions exists: 1. The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons. 2. The Group M occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. Exceptions: 1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered or open mall buildings complying with Section 402 of the SBC 201. 2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow. 907.2.7.1 Occupant notification. During times that the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box or from a waterflow switch shall not be required to activate the alarm notification appliances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly attended location from which evacuation instructions shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 907.2.8 Gr oup R-1. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3. 907.2.8.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies. Exceptions:

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1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard. 2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where all of the following conditions are met: 2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 2.3. Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location. 907.2.8.2 Automatic smoke detection system. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units. Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit. 3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units. Exceptions: 1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard. 2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler water flow. 3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1027.6, Exception 3.

907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms. Single and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

907.2.9.2 Smoke alarms. Single and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

907.2.9 Gr oup R-2. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.9.1 and 907.2.9.3.

907.2.9.3 Group R-2 college and university buildings. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing in all of the following locations:

907.2.9.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where any of the following conditions apply: 1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge. 2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level

1. Common spaces outside of dwelling units and sleeping units. 2. Laundry rooms, mechanical equipment rooms and storage rooms. 3. All interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units.

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Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units and where each sleeping unit or dwelling unit either has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit or a means of egress door opening directly to an exit.

Required smoke alarms in dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing shall be interconnected with the fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72. 907.2.10 Gr oup R-4. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3. 907.2.10.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies. Exceptions: 1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1 hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard. 2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where all of the following conditions are met: 2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 2.3. Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location. 3. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits where located at all nurses’ control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that the distances of travel required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.

907.2.10.2 Automatic smoke detection system. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens. Exceptions: 1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 2. An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit. 907.2.10.3 Smoke alarms. Single and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11. 907.2.11 Single and multiple-station smoke alar ms. Listed single and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11.1 through 907.2.11.6 and NFPA 72. 907.2.11.1 Group R-1. Single or multiplestation smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1: 1. In sleeping areas. 2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit. 3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basem*nts. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level. 907.2.11.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1. Single or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:

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1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms. 2. In each room used for sleeping purposes. 3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basem*nts but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level. 907.2.11.3 Installation near cooking appliances. Smoke alarms shall not be installed in the following locations unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm in a location required by Section 907.2.11.1 or 907.2.11.2: 1. Ionization smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 6 m horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance. 2. Ionization smoke alarms with an alarmsilencing switch shall not be installed less than 3000 mm horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance. 3. Photoelectric smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 1800 mm horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance. 907.2.11.4 Installation near bathrooms. Smoke alarms shall be installed not less than 900 mm horizontally from the door or opening of a bathroom that contains a bathtub or shower unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm required by Section 907.2.11.1 or 907.2.11.2. 907.2.11.5 Interconnection. Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R or I-1 occupancies the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed. 907.2.11.6 Power source. In new construction, required smoke alarms shall receive

their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery back-up shall be connected to an emergency electrical system in accordance with Section 604. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection. Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup where they are connected to an emergency electrical system that complies with Section 604. 907.2.11.7 Smoke detection system. Smoke detectors listed in accordance with UL 268 and provided as part of the building fire alarm system shall be an acceptable alternative to single-and multiple-station smoke alarms and shall comply with the following: 1. The fire alarm system shall comply with all applicable requirements in Section 907. 2. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall initiate alarm notification in the dwelling unit or sleeping unit in accordance with Section 907.5.2. 3. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall not activate alarm notification appliances outside of the dwelling unit or sleeping unit, provided that a supervisory signal is generated and monitored in accordance with Section 907.6.6. 907.2.12 Special amusem*nt buildings. An automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in special amusem*nt buildings in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.1 through 907.2.12.3. 907.2.12.1 Alarm. Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately activate an audible and visible alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2. 907.2.12.2 System response. The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically do all of the following:

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1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 11 lux at the walking surface level. 2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions. 3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency. 4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusem*nt building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound that is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation. 907.2.12.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special amusem*nt building. 907.2.13 High-r ise buildings. High-rise buildings shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, a fire department (Civil Defense) communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. Exceptions: 1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 907.2.22 of this code and Section 412 of the SBC 201. 2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5 of the SBC 201. 3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1 of the SBC 201. 4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1 of the SBC 201. 5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415 of the SBC 201. 6. In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.

907.2.13.1 Automatic smoke detection. Automatic smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accordance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 907.2.13.1.2. 907.2.13.1.1 Area smoke detection. Area smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall activate the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. In addition to smoke detectors required by Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.10, smoke detectors shall be located as follows: 1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room that is not provided with sprinkler protection. 2. In each elevator machine room, machinery space, control room and control space and in elevator lobbies. 907.2.13.1.2 Duct smoke detection. Duct smoke detectors complying with Section 907.3.1 shall be located as follows: 1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 0.94 m3/s. Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet. 2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 2.4 m3/s and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings. 907.2.13.2 Fire department (Civil Defense) communication system. Where a wired communication system is approved in lieu of an emergency responder radio coverage system in accordance with Section 510, the wired fire department (Civil Defense) communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 508, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside interior exit stairways. The fire department (Civil Defense) communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the interior exit stairway.

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907.2.14 Atriums connecting more than two stories. A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke detection in locations required by a rational analysis in Section 909.4 and in accordance with the system operation requirements in Section 909.17. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Such occupancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system complying with the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2. 907.2.15 High-piled combustible stor age ar eas. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where required by Section 3206.5. 907.2.16 Aerosol stor age uses. Aerosol storage rooms and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where required by this code. 907.2.17 Lumber , wood str uctur al panel and veneer mills. Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual fire alarm system. 907.2.18 Under gr ound buildings with smoke contr ol systems. Where a smoke control system is installed in an underground building in accordance with the SBC 201, automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.18.1. 907.2.18.1 Smoke detectors. Not fewer than one smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed in all of the following areas: 1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms. 2. Elevator lobbies. 3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet. 4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 2.4 m3/s and serving not more than 10 air inlet openings.

907.2.18.2 Alarm required. Activation of the smoke control system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location. 907.2.19 Deep under gr ound buildings. Where the lowest level of a structure is more than 18 m below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 907.2.20 Covered and open mall buildings. Where the total floor area exceeds 4650 m2 within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department (Civil Defense) . The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 907.2.21 Residential aircr aft hangars. Not fewer than one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential aircraft hangar as defined in Chapter 2 of the SBC 201 and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm that will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling. 907.2.22 Airpor t tr affic contr ol tower s. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in airport control towers in accordance with Sections 907.2.22.1 and 907.2.22.2. Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed within the control tower cab. 907.2.22.1 Airport traffic control towers with multiple exits and automatic sprinklers. Airport traffic control towers with multiple exits and equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be provided with smoke detectors in all of the following locations: 1. Airport traffic control cab. 2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms. 3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms. 4. Outside each opening into interior exit stairways.

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5. Along the single means of egress permitted from observation levels.

alarm. They shall not be used as a substitute for required open area detection.

6. Outside each opening into the single means of egress permitted from observation levels.

Exceptions:

907.2.22.2 Other airport traffic control towers. Airport traffic control towers with a single exit or where sprinklers are not installed throughout shall be provided with smoke detectors in all of the following locations: 1. Airport traffic control cab. 2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms. 3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms. 4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation. 5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities. 6. Means of egress. 7. Accessible utility shafts. 907.2.23 Batter y rooms. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing stationary storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 190 L. 907.3 Fire safety functions. Automatic fire detectors utilized for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be connected to the building’s fire alarm control unit where a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72. 907.3.1 Duct smoke detectors. Smoke detectors installed in ducts shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors shall be connected to the building’s fire alarm control unit when a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Activation of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location and shall perform the intended fire safety function in accordance with this code and the SBC 501. In facilities that are required to be monitored by a supervising station, duct smoke detectors shall report only as a supervisory signal and not as a fire

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building’s alarm notification appliances. 2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble. 907.3.2 Delayed egress locks. Where delayed egress locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.7, an automatic smoke or heat detection system shall be installed as required by that section. 907.3.3 Elevator emer gency oper ation. Automatic fire detectors installed for elevator emergency operation shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of ASME A17.1 and NFPA 72. 907.3.4 Wiring. The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72. 907.4 Initiating devices. Where manual or automatic alarm initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the initiating devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 907.4.3.1. 907.4.1 Pr otection of fire alar m control unit. In areas that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm control unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders and supervising station transmitting equipment. Exception: Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of smoke detector, a heat detector shall be permitted. 907.4.2 Manual fire alar m boxes. Where a manual fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.2.1 through 907.4.2.6.

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907.4.2.1 Location. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located not more than 1500 mm from the entrance to each exit. In buildings not protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so that the exit access travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 60 m. 907.4.2.2 Height. The height of the manual fire alarm boxes shall be not less than 1000 mm and not more than 1200 mm measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the box. 907.4.2.3 Color. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color. 907.4.2.4 Signs. Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT (CIVIL DEFENSE) . Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box. 907.4.2.5 Protective covers. The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3. 907.4.2.6 Unobstructed and unobscured. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be accessible, unobstructed, unobscured and visible at all times. 907.4.3 Automatic smoke detection. Where an automatic smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be utilized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat detectors

shall be permitted. 907.4.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system. For conditions other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 907.3, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the installation of smoke

detectors, an automatic sprinkler system installed in such areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the fire alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat detection. 907.5 Occupant notification systems. A fire alarm system shall annunciate at the fire alarm control unit and shall initiate occupant notification upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.5.1 through 907.5.2.3.3. Where a fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by: 1. Automatic fire detectors. 2. Automatic devices.

sprinkler

system

waterflow

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. Exception: Where notification systems are allowed elsewhere in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly attended location. 907.5.1 Pr esignal featur e. A presignal feature shall not be installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire department (Civil Defense) . Where a presignal feature is provided, a signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location approved by the fire department (Civil Defense) , so that occupant notification can be activated in the event of fire or other emergency. 907.5.2 Alar m notification appliances. Alarm notification appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their purpose. 907.5.2.1 Audible alarms. Audible alarm notification appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm. Exceptions: 1. Audible alarm notification appliances are not required in critical care areas of Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2. 2. A visible alarm notification appliance installed in a nurses’ control station or other continuously attended staff location in a Group I-2 Condition 2 suite shall be an acceptable alternative to the installation of audible alarm notification appliances throughout the suite in Group I-2 Condition

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2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.

be provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones.

3. Where provided, audible notification appliances located in each occupant evacuation elevator lobby in accordance with Section 3008.9.1 of the SBC 201 shall be connected to a separate notification zone for manual paging only.

907.5.2.2.2 Live voice messages. The emergency voice/ alarm communication system shall have the capability to broadcast live voice messages by paging zones on a selective and all-call basis.

907.5.2.1.1 Average sound pressure. The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of not less than 60 seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupiable space within the building. 907.5.2.1.2 Maximum sound pressure. The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notification appliances shall be 110 dBA at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be required. 907.5.2.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication systems. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems required by this code shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a general or staged evacuation in accordance with the building’s fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404. In highrise buildings, the system shall operate on at least the alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows: 1. Elevator groups.

907.5.2.2.3 Alternate uses. The emergency voice/ alarm communication system shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use. 907.5.2.2.4 Emergency voice/alarm communication captions. Where stadiums, arenas and grandstands are required to caption audible public announcements in accordance with Section 1108.2.7.3 of the SBC 201, the emergency/voice alarm communication system shall be captioned. Prerecorded or live emergency captions shall be from an approved location constantly attended by personnel trained to respond to an emergency. 907.5.2.2.5 Emergency power. Emergency voice/ alarm communications systems shall be provided with emergency power in accordance with Section 604. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 24 hours, as required in NFPA 72. 907.5.2.3 Visible alarms. Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.5.2.3.1 through 907.5.2.3.3. Exceptions: 1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed. 2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Chapter 2. 3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.

2. Interior exit stairways. 3. Each floor. 4. Areas of refuge as defined in Chapter 2. Exception: In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page. 907.5.2.2.1 Manual override. A manual override for emergency voice communication shall

4. Visual alarm notification appliances are not required in critical care areas of Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2. 907.5.2.3.1 Public use areas and common use areas. Visible alarm notification appliances

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shall be provided in public use areas and common use areas. Exception: Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall be initially designed with not less than 20-percent spare capacity to account for the potential of adding visible notification appliances in the future to accommodate hearing-impaired employee(s). 907.5.2.3.2 Groups I-1 and R-1. Group I-1 and R-1 dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.5.2.3.2 shall be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm system. 907.5.2.3.3 Group R-2. In Group R-2 occupancies required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with Chapter 10 of ICC A117.1. Such capability shall be permitted to include the potential for future interconnection of the building fire alarm system with the unit smoke alarms, replacement of audible appliances with combination audible/ visible appliances, or future extension of the existing wiring from the unit smoke alarm locations to required locations for visible appliances. 907.6 Installation and monitoring. A fire alarm system shall be installed and monitored in accordance with Sections 907.6.1 through 907.6.6.2 and NFPA 72. 907.6.1 Wiring. Wiring shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72.

Exceptions: 1. Fire alarm systems in single-story buildings less than 2100 m2 in area. 2. Fire alarm systems that only include manual fire alarm boxes, waterflow initiating devices and not more than 10 additional alarminitiating devices. 3. Special initiating devices that do not support individual device identification. 4. Fire alarm systems or devices that are replacing existing equipment. 907.6.3.1 Annunciation. The initiating device status shall be annunciated at an approved on-site location. 907.6.4 Zones. Each floor shall be zoned separately and a zone shall not exceed 2100 m2. The length of any zone shall not exceed 90 m in any direction. Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13. 907.6.4.1 Zoning indicator panel. A zoning indicator panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved location. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of an audible alarm-silencing switch. 907.6.4.2 High-rise buildings In high-rise buildings, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for each of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where provided: 1. Smoke detectors. 2. Sprinkler water flow devices. 3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection devices or suppression systems.

907.6.2 Power supply. The primary and secondary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72.

907.6.5 Access. Access shall be provided to each fire alarm device and notification appliance for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing.

Exception: Backup power for single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 907.2.11.6.

907.6.6 Monitor ing. Fire alarm systems required by this chapter or by the SBC 201 shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.

907.6.3 Initiating device identification. The fire alarm system shall identify the specific initiating device address, location, device type, floor level where applicable and status including indication of normal, alarm, trouble and supervisory status, as appropriate.

Exception: Monitoring by a supervising station is not required for: 1. Single and multiple-station smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11. 2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.

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3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one and twofamily dwellings. 907.6.6.1 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number unless approved by the fire chief. 907.6.6.2 Termination of monitoring service. Termination of fire alarm monitoring services shall be in accordance with Section 901.9. 907.7 Acceptance tests and completion. Upon completion of the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm components shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72. 907.7.1 Singleand multiple-station alar m devices. When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each device and interconnecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the smoke alarm provisions of NFPA 72. 907.7.2 Recor d of completion. A record of completion in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been installed and tested in accordance with the approved plans and specifications shall be provided. 907.7.3 Instr uctions. Operating, testing and maintenance instructions and record drawings (“as builts”) and equipment specifications shall be provided at an approved location. 907.8 Inspection, testing and maintenance. The maintenance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Sections 907.8.1 through 907.8.5 and NFPA 72. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained. 907.8.1 Maintenance required. Where required for compliance with the provisions of this code, devices, equipment, systems, conditions, arrangements, levels of protection or other features shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as directed by the fire code official. 907.8.2 Testing. Testing shall be performed in accordance with the schedules in NFPA 72 or more frequently where required by the fire code official. Records of testing shall be maintained. Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible for safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled shutdowns where approved by the fire code official, but not less than every 18 months.

907.8.3 Smoke detector sensitivity. Smoke detector sensitivity shall be checked within one year after installation and every alternate year thereafter. After the second calibration test, where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained within its listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4 percent obscuration light grey smoke, if not marked), the length of time between calibration tests shall be permitted to be extended to not more than 5 years. Where the frequency is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance alarms and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be maintained. In zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be performed. 907.8.4 Sensitivity test method. To verify that each smoke detector is within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be tested using one of the following methods: 1. A calibrated test method. 2. The manufacturer’s calibrated sensitivity test instrument. 3. Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose. 4. A smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control unit where the detector’s sensitivity is outside its acceptable sensitivity range. 5. Another calibrated sensitivity test method acceptable to the fire code official. Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced. Exceptions: 1. Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recalibrated or they shall be replaced. 2. This requirement shall not apply to singlestation smoke alarms. 907.8.4.1 Sensitivity testing device. Smoke detector sensitivity shall not be tested or measured using a device that administers an unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into the detector. 907.8.5 Inspection, testing and maintenance. The building owner shall be responsible to maintain the fire and life safety systems in an operable condition

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at all times. Service personnel shall meet the qualification requirements of NFPA 72 for inspection, testing and maintenance of such systems. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained. 907.9 Where required in existing buildings and structures. An approved fire alarm system shall be provided in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 11.

SECTION 908 EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS 908.1 Group H occupancies. Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 50. 908.2 Group H-5 occupancy. Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 2703.12. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance with Section 2703.13. 908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Where required by Section 6004.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed gases. 908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms. A gas detection system shall be provided in ozone gasgenerator rooms in accordance with Section 6005.3.2. 908.5 Repair garages. A flammable-gas detection system shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 2311.7.2. 908.6 Refrigeration systems. Refrigeration system machinery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in accordance with Section 606.9. 908.7 Carbon dioxide (CO2) systems. Emergency alarm systems in accordance with Section 5307.5.2 shall be provided where required for compliance with Section 5307.5. mmentary

ectio .

SECTION 909 SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 909.1 Scope and purpose. This section applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems where they are required for new buildings or portions

thereof by provisions of the SBC 201 or this code. The purpose of this section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of operations or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a different purpose than the smoke and heat venting provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the SBC 501. 909.2 General design requirements. Buildings, structures, or parts thereof required by the SBC 201 or this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the generally accepted and wellestablished principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to describe adequately the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied with sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions. 909.3 Special inspection and test requirements. In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements that buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms as in Section 1704 of the SBC 201. 909.4 Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their operations, the systems supporting them and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction

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documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.7. 909.4.1 Stack effect. The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used. 909.4.2 Temper atur e effect of fire. Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities. 909.4.3 Wind effect. The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind-loading provisions of the SBC 301. 909.4.4 Systems. The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and airconditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems. 909.4.5 Climate. The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage. 909.4.6 Dur ation of oper ation. All portions of active or engineered smoke control systems shall be capable of continued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress time, whichever is greater. 909.4.7 Smoke contr ol system inter action. The design shall consider the interaction effects of the operation of multiple smoke control systems for all design scenarios. 909.5 Smoke barrier construction. Smoke barriers required for passive smoke control and a smoke control system using the pressurization method shall comply with Section 709 of the SBC 201. Smoke barriers shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios: 1. Walls: A/Aw = 0.00100

2. Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw = 0.00035

3. Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150

4. Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050 where: A = Total leakage area, m2. AF = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, m2. Aw = Unit wall area of barrier, m2. The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to gaps around doors and operable windows. The total leakage area of the smoke barrier shall be determined in accordance with Section 909.5.1 and tested in accordance with Section 909.5.2. 909.5.1 Total leakage area. Total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps around doors and operable windows. 909.5.2 Testing of leakage ar ea. Compliance with the maximum total leakage area shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems utilizing the pressurization method. Compliance with the maximum total leakage area of passive smoke control systems shall be verified through methods such as door fan testing or other methods, as approved by the fire code official. 909.5.3 Opening pr otection. Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 716.5.3 of the SBC 201. Exceptions: 1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spottype smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3. 2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method. 3. In Group I-1 Condition 2, Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where a pair of opposite-swinging doors are installed across a corridor in accordance with Section

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909.5.3.1, the doors shall not be required to be protected in accordance with Section 716 of the SBC 201. The doors shall be closefitting within operational tolerances and shall not have a center mullion or undercuts in excess of 20 mm louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops and astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and, where permitted by the door manufacturer’s listing, positive-latching devices are not required. 4. In Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where such doors are special-purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies installed in accordance with Section 1010.1.4.3 and are automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 of the SBC 201. 5. Group I-3. 6. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 4250 mm or greater and bank down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size. 909.5.3.1 Group I-1 Condition 2, Group I2 and ambulatory care facilities. In Group I-1 Condition 2, Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where doors are installed across a corridor, the doors shall be automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 of the SBC 201 and shall have a vision panel with fire protection-rated glazing materials in fire-protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. 909.5.3.2 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 121°C smoke damper complying with Section 717 of the SBC 201. 909.6 Pressurization method. The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin. 909.6.1 Minimum pr essur e difference. The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 12 Pa in fully sprinklered buildings. In buildings allowed to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences not less than two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.

909.6.2 Maximum pressur e difference. The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required dooropening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1010.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by: 𝐹 = 𝐹𝑑𝑐 + 𝐾(𝑊𝐴𝑃)/2(𝑊 − 𝑑)

(9-1)

where: A = Door area, m2. d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, m. F = Total door opening force, N. Fdc = Force required to overcome closing device, N. K = Coefficient 1.0. W = Door width, m. P = Design pressure difference, Pa. 909.6.3 Pr essurized stairways and elevator hoistways. Where stairways or elevator hoistways are pressurized, such pressurization systems shall comply with Section 909 as smoke control systems, in addition to the requirements of Section 909.21 of this code and Section 909.20 of the SBC 201. 909.7 Airflow design method. Where approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. Smoke control systems using the airflow method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92. 909.7.1 Pr ohibited conditions. This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow toward the fire exceed 1.0 m/s. Where the

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calculated airflow exceeds this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.

c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, kJ/kg · K.

909.8 Exhaust method. Where approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92.

m = Exhaust rate, kg/s.

909.8.1 Smoke layer . The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained not less than 1800 mm above a walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone.

Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.

909.9 Design fire. The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this section. 909.9.1 Factor s considered. The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady. 909.9.2 Design fire fuel. Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing and configuration. 909.9.3 Heat-r elease assumptions. The analysis shall make use of best available data from approved sources and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material. 909.9.4 Spr inkler effectiveness assumptions. A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation. 909.10 Equipment. Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers shall be suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as approved by the fire code official. 909.10.1 Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by: 𝑇𝑠 = (𝑄𝑐/𝑚𝑐) + (𝑇𝑎) where:

(9-2)

Qc = Convective heat output of fire, kW. Ta = Ambient temperature, K. Ts = Smoke temperature, K.

909.10.2 Ducts. Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the SBC 501. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports. Exception: Flexible connections, for the purpose of vibration isolation, complying with the SBC 501 and that are constructed of approved fire resistancerated materials. 909.10.3 Equipment, inlets and outlets. Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard. 909.10.4 Automatic dampers. Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of approved recognized standards. 909.10.5 Fans. In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer’s fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the

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structural design requirements of Chapter 16 of the SBC 201.

official and in accordance with both of the following:

Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate kilowatts as determined from measurement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.

1. Where the operation of components is bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test, presence of power downstream of all disconnects shall be verified weekly by a listed control unit.

909.11 Standby power. Smoke control systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 604. 909.11.1 Equipment room. The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the SBC 201 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the SBC 201, or both. 909.11.2 Power sour ces and power sur ges. Elements of the smoke control system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke control system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means. 909.12 Detection and control systems. Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment. 909.12.1 Verification. Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override and the presence of power downstream of all disconnects. A preprogrammed weekly test sequence shall report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. The preprogrammed weekly test shall operate all devices, equipment, and components used for smoke control. Exception: Where verification of individual components tested through the preprogrammed weekly testing sequence will interfere with, and produce unwanted effects to, normal building operation, such individual components are permitted to be bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly testing, where approved by the fire code

2. Testing of all components bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test shall be in accordance with Section 909.20.6. 909.12.2 Wiring. In addition to meeting requirements of NFPA 70, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways. 909.12.3 Activation. Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section. 909.12.3.1 Pressurization, airflow or exhaust method. Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control. 909.12.3.2 Passive method. Passive smoke control systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted. 909.12.4 Automatic contr ol. Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire department (Civil Defense) and any smoke detectors required by the engineering analysis. 909.13 Control air tubing. Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action. 909.13.1 Materials. Control air tubing shall be hard drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B 16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compressiontype fittings shall be used at final connection to

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devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 593°C and liquidus below 816°C. Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only. Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices, provided all of the following conditions are met: 1. Tubing shall comply with the requirements of Section 602.2.1.3 of SBC 501. 2. Tubing and the connected device shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.75 mm. Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or Teflon or by suitable brass compression to malebarbed adapter. 3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding. 4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within the enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinets and doors or moveable devices shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges. 909.13.2 Isolation from other functions. Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system. 909.13.3 Testing. Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices. 909.14 Marking and identification. The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses and terminations. 909.15 Control diagrams. Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the fire code official, the fire department (Civil Defense) and in the fire command center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief. 909.16 Fire fighter’s smoke control panel. A fire fighter’s smoke control panel for fire department (Civil Defense) emergency response purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located

in a fire command center complying with Section 508 in high-rise buildings or buildings with smokeprotected assembly seating. In all other buildings, the fire fighter’s smoke control panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to the fire alarm control panel. The fire fighter’s smoke control panel shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3. 909.16.1 Smoke control systems. Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire fighter’s control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows: 1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status—WHITE. 2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status—RED. 3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status—GREEN. 4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status—YELLOW/AMBER. 909.16.2 Smoke contr ol panel. The fire fighter’s control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke control system equipment within the building as follows: 1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can also be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes. 2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are also controlled from other sources within the building. 3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire fighter’s control panel. Exceptions: 1. Complex systems, where approved, where the controls and indicators are combined to

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control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit. 2. Complex systems, where approved, where the control is accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands. 909.16.3 Control action and pr iorities. The fire fighter’s control panel actions shall be as follows: 1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire fighter’s control panel, automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall not contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment including, but not limited to, duct freeze stats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices, such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire fighter’s control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire fighter’s control panel switch position shall prevail. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time. Exception: Power disconnects required by NFPA 70. 1. Only the AUTO position of each threeposition fire-fighter’s control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire fighter’s control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described in Section 909.16.1. Where directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

909.17 System response time. Smoke-control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes of smoke control, the fire fighter’s control panel response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action initiated from any other building control point. The total response time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The system response time for each component and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis and verification of their installed condition reported in the required final report. 909.18 Acceptance testing. Devices, equipment, components and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, where applicable, capacity of their installed condition. 909.18.1 Detection devices. Smoke or fire detectors that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. Where applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions. 909.18.2 Ducts. Ducts that are part of a smoke control system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to determine actual air quantities. 909.18.3 Damper s. Dampers shall be tested for function in their installed condition. 909.18.4 Inlets and outlets. Inlets and outlets shall be read using generally accepted practices to determine air quantities. 909.18.5 Fans. Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute and belt tension shall be made. 909.18.6 Smoke bar r iers. Measurements using inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring devices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke barriers. Such

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measurements shall be conducted for each possible smoke control condition. 909.18.7 Controls. Each smoke zone equipped with an automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by the actuation of one such device. Each additional device within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the fire fighter’s control panel and simulation of standby power conditions. 909.18.8 Testing for smoke contr ol. Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector in accordance with Section 1705.18 of the SBC 201. 909.18.8.1 Scope of testing. Testing shall be conducted in accordance with the following: 1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location. 2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressuredifference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification. 909.18.8.2 Qualifications. Approved agencies for smoke control testing shall have expertise in fire protection engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air balancers. 909.18.8.3 Reports. A complete report of testing shall be prepared by the approved agency. The report shall include identification of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, measured values and identification tag or mark. The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered design professional and, when satisfied that the design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered design professional shall sign, seal and date the report. 909.18.8.3.1 Report filing. A copy of the final report shall be filed with the fire code official and an identical copy shall be maintained in an approved location at the building. 909.18.9 Identification and documentation. Charts, drawings and other documents identifying and locating each component of the smoke control system, and describing their proper function and maintenance requirements, shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the report required by

Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by whom. 909.19 System acceptance. Buildings, or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section shall not be issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire code official determines that the provisions of this section have been fully complied with and that the fire department (Civil Defense) has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and manual, of the system and a written maintenance program complying with the requirements of Section 909.20.1 has been submitted and approved by the fire code official. Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a temporary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code official, shall be allowed, provided that those portions of the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this section and that the remainder does not pose a significant hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent buildings. 909.20 Maintenance. Smoke control systems shall be maintained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capable of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and Sections 909.20.1 through 909.20.6. 909.20.1 Schedule. A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated immediately after the smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established. 909.20.2 Recor ds. Records of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained. The record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced. 909.20.3 Testing. Operational testing of the smoke control system shall include all equipment such as initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows. 909.20.4 Dedicated smoke contr ol systems. Dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence semiannually.

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The system shall be tested under standby power conditions. 909.20.5 Nondedicated smoke contr ol systems. Non-dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence annually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions. 909.20.6 Components bypassing weekly test. Where components of the smoke control system are bypassed by the preprogrammed weekly test required by Section 909.12.1, such components shall be tested semiannually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions. 909.21 Elevator hoistway pressurization alternative. Where elevator hoistway pressurization is provided in lieu of required enclosed elevator lobbies, the pressurization system shall comply with Sections 909.21.1 through 909.21.11. 909.21.1 Pr essurization requirements. Elevator hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 25 Pa and a maximum positive pressure of 62 Pa with respect to adjacent occupied space on all floors. This pressure shall be measured at the midpoint of each hoistway door, with all elevator cars at the floor of recall and all hoistway doors on the floor of recall open and all other hoistway doors closed. The pressure differential shall be measured between the hoistway and the adjacent elevator landing. The opening and closing of hoistway doors at each level must be demonstrated during this test. The supply air intake shall be from an outside, uncontaminated source located a minimum distance of 6 m from any air exhaust system or outlet. Exceptions:

3.1. The fire floor. 3.2. The two floors immediately below the fire floor. 3.3. The floor immediately above the fire floor. 4. The minimum positive pressure of 25 Pa and a maximum positive pressure of 62 Pa with respect to occupied floors is not required at the floor of recall with the doors open. 909.21.1.1 Use of ventilation systems. Ventilation systems, other than hoistway supply air systems, are permitted to be used to exhaust air from adjacent spaces on the fire floor, two floors immediately below and one floor immediately above the fire floor to the building’s exterior where necessary to maintain positive pressure relationships as required in Section 909.21.1 during operation of the elevator shaft pressurization system. 909.21.2 Rational analysis. A rational analysis complying with Section 909.4 shall be submitted with the construction documents. 909.21.3 Ducts for system. Any duct system that is part of the pressurization system shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating as required for the elevator shaft enclosure. 909.21.4 Fan system. The fan system provided for the pressurization system shall be as required by Sections 909.21.4.1 through 909.21.4.4. 909.21.4.1 Fire resistance. Where located within the building, the fan system that provides the pressurization shall be protected with the same fireresistance rating required for the elevator shaft enclosure.

1. On floors containing only Group R occupancies, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and a dwelling unit or sleeping unit.

909.21.4.2 Smoke detection. The fan system shall be equipped with a smoke detector that will automatically shut down the fan system when smoke is detected within the system.

2. Where an elevator opens into a lobby enclosed in accordance with Section 3007.6 or 3008.6 of the SBC 201, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and the space immediately outside the door(s) from the floor to the enclosed lobby.

909.21.4.3 Separate systems. A separate fan system shall be used for each elevator hoistway.

3. The pressure differential is permitted to be measured relative to the outdoor atmosphere on floors other than the following:

909.21.4.4 Fan capacity. The supply fan shall be either adjustable with a capacity of not less than 0.47 m3/s per door, or that specified by a registered design professional to meet the requirements of a designed pressurization system. 909.21.5 Standby power . The pressurization system shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 604.

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909.21.6 Activation of pr essur ization system. The elevator pressurization system shall be activated upon activation of either the building fire alarm system or the elevator lobby smoke detectors. Where both a building fire alarm system and elevator lobby smoke detectors are present, each shall be independently capable of activating the pressurization system. 909.21.7 Testing. Testing for performance shall be required in accordance with Section 909.18.8. System acceptance shall be in accordance with Section 909.19. 909.21.8 Mar king and identification. Detection and control systems shall be marked in accordance with Section 909.14. 909.21.9 Control diagr ams. Control diagrams shall be provided in accordance with Section 909.15. 909.21.10 Control panel. A control panel complying with Section 909.16 shall be provided. 909.21.11 System response time. Hoistway pressurization systems shall comply with the requirements for smoke control system response time in Section 909.17.

SECTION 910 SMOKE AND HEAT REMOVAL 910.1 General. Where required by this code, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke removal systems shall conform to the requirements of this section. 910.2 Where required. Smoke and heat vents or a mechanical smoke removal system shall be installed as required by Sections 910.2.1 and 910.2.2. Exceptions: 1. Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of Class I and II commodities where protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. 2. Smoke and heat removal shall not be required in areas of buildings equipped with early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers. 3. Smoke and heat removal shall not be required in areas of buildings equipped with control mode special application sprinklers with a response time index of 50 (m · S)1/2 or less that are listed to control a fire in stored commodities with 12 or fewer sprinklers.

910.2.1 Gr oup F-1 or S-1. Smoke and heat vents installed in accordance with Section 910.3 or a mechanical smoke removal system installed in accordance with Section 910.4 shall be installed in buildings and portions thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy having more than 4650 m2 of undivided area. In occupied portions of a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, where the upper surface of the story is not a roof assembly, a mechanical smoke removal system in accordance with Section 910.4 shall be installed. Exception: Group S-1 aircraft repair hangars. 910.2.2 High-piled combustible storage. Smoke and heat removal required by Table 3206.2 for buildings and portions thereof containing high piled combustible storage shall be installed in accordance with Section 910.3 in unsprinklered buildings. In buildings and portions thereof containing highpiled combustible storage equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, a smoke and heat removal system shall be installed in accordance with Section 910.3 or 910.4. In occupied portions of a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 where the upper surface of the story is not a roof assembly, a mechanical smoke removal system in accordance with Section 910.4 shall be installed. 910.3 Smoke and heat vents. The design and installation of smoke and heat vents shall be in accordance with Sections 910.3.1 through 910.3.3. 910.3.1 Listing and labeling. Smoke and heat vents shall be listed and labeled to indicate compliance with UL 793 or FM 4430. 910.3.2 Smoke and heat vent locations. Smoke and heat vents shall be located 6 m or more from adjacent lot lines and fire walls and 3000 mm or more from fire barriers. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof in the areas of the building where the vents are required to be installed by Section 910.2, with consideration given to roof pitch, sprinkler location and structural members. 910.3.3 Smoke and heat vents area. The required aggregate area of smoke and heat vents shall be calculated as follows: For buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1:

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AVR = V/2745

(9-4)

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assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the SBC 201, or both.

where: AVR = The required aggregate vent area (m2). 3

V = Volume (m ) of the area that requires smoke removal. For unsprinklered buildings: AVR = AFA/50

(9-5)

Where: AVR = The required aggregate vent area (m2). AFA = The area of the floor in the area that requires smoke removal. 910.4 Mechanical smoke removal systems. Mechanical smoke removal systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 910.4.1 through 910.4.7. 910.4.1 Automatic spr inklers required. The building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 910.4.2 Exhaust fan constr uction Exhaust fans that are part of a mechanical smoke removal system shall be rated for operation at 105°C. Exhaust fan motors shall be located outside of the exhaust fan air stream. 910.4.3 System design criteria. The mechanical smoke removal system shall be sized to exhaust the building at a minimum rate of two air changes per hour based upon the volume of the building or portion thereof without contents. The capacity of each exhaust fan shall not exceed 14.2 m3/sec. 910.4.3.1 Makeup air. Makeup air openings shall be provided within 1800 mm of the floor level. Operation of makeup air openings shall be manual or automatic. The minimum gross area of makeup air inlets shall be 0.74 m2 per 0.47 m3/s of smoke exhaust. 910.4.4 Activation. The mechanical smoke removal system shall be activated by manual controls only. 910.4.5 Manual contr ol location. Manual controls shall be located so as to be accessible to the fire service from an exterior door of the building and protected against interior fire exposure by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the SBC 201 or horizontal

910.4.6 Control wiring. Wiring for operation and control of mechanical smoke removal systems shall be connected ahead of the main disconnect in accordance with Section 701.12E of NFPA 70 and be protected against interior fire exposure to temperatures in excess of 538°C for a period of not less than 15 minutes. 910.4.7 Controls. Where building air-handling and mechanical smoke removal systems are combined or where independent building air-handling systems are provided, fans shall automatically shut down in accordance with the SBC 501. The manual controls provided for the smoke removal system shall have the capability to override the automatic shutdown of fans that are part of the smoke removal system. 910.5 Maintenance. Smoke and heat vents and mechanical smoke removal systems shall be maintained in an operative condition in accordance with Section 910.5.1 or 910.5.2, respectively. 910.5.1 Smoke and heat vents. Smoke and heat vents shall be maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 204 and Section 910.5.1.1 910.5.1.1 Fusible links. Fusible links for smoke and heat vents shall be replaced whenever fused, damaged or painted. 910.5.2 Mechanical smoke removal systems. Mechanical smoke removal systems shall be maintained in accordance with the equipment manufacturer’s maintenance instructions and Sections 910.5.2.1 through 910.5.2.4. 910.5.2.1 Frequency. Systems shall be operationally tested not less than once per year. Testing shall include the operation of all system components, including control elements. 910.5.2.2 Testing. Operational testing of the mechanical smoke removal system shall include all equipment such as fans, controls and make-up air openings. 910.5.2.3 Schedule. A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated and a written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established. 910.5.2.4 Written record. A written record of mechanical smoke exhaust system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on the premises. The written record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing

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personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced.

SECTION 911 EXPLOSION CONTROL 911.1 General. Explosion control shall be provided in the following locations: 1. Where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as identified in Table 911.1.

maximum internal pressure allowed by Item 5 of this section. 5. Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance with the SBC 201. Vents shall consist of any one or any combination of the following to relieve at a maximum internal pressure of 1 kPa, but not less than the loads required by the SBC 201: 5.1. Exterior walls designed to release outward.

2. Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in Table 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 5003.1.1(1). Such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagration) venting, explosion (deflagration) prevention systems or barricades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69, or NFPA 495 as applicable. Deflagration venting shall not be utilized as a means to protect buildings from detonation hazards. 911.2 Required deflagration venting. Areas that are required to be provided with deflagration venting shall comply with the following: 1. Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure of 4.8 kPa. The minimum internal design pressure shall be not less than five times the maximum internal relief pressure specified in Item 5 of this section. 2. Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior walls and roofs. Exception: Where sufficient exterior wall and roof venting cannot be provided because of inadequate exterior wall or roof area, deflagration venting shall be allowed by specially designed shafts vented to the exterior of the building. 3. Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unacceptable structural damage. Where relieving a deflagration, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening injuries to the occupants or other persons on the property or adjacent public ways. 4. The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices shall be governed by the pressure resistance of the construction assemblies specified in Item 1 of this section and the

5.2. Hatch covers. 5.3. Outward swinging doors. 5.4. Roofs designed to uplift. 5.5. Venting devices purpose.

listed for

the

6. Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs of the building when venting a deflagration shall discharge directly to the exterior of the building where an unoccupied space not less than 15 m in width is provided between the exterior walls of the building and the lot line. Exception: Vents complying with Item 7 of this section. 7. Vents designed to remain attached to the building when venting a deflagration shall be so located that the discharge opening shall be not less than 3000 mm vertically from window openings and exits in the building and 6 m horizontally from exits in the building, from window openings and exits in adjacent buildings on the same lot and from the lot line. 8. Discharge from vents shall not be into the interior of the building. 911.3 Explosion prevention systems. Explosion prevention systems shall be of an approved type and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 69. 911.4 Barricades. Barricades shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 495.

SECTION 912 FIRE DEPARTMENT (CIVIL DEFENSE) CONNECTIONS 912.1 Installation. Fire department (Civil Defense) connections shall be installed in accordance with the NFPA standard applicable to

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the system design and shall comply with Sections 912.2 through 912.7. 912.2 Location. With respect to hydrants, driveways, buildings and landscaping, fire department (Civil Defense) connections shall be so located that fire apparatus and hose connected to supply the system will not obstruct access to the buildings for other fire apparatus. The location of fire department (Civil Defense) connections shall be approved by the fire chief. 912.2.1 Visible location. Fire department (Civil Defense) connections shall be located on the street side of buildings, fully visible and recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire department (Civil Defense) vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the fire chief. 912.2.2 Existing buildings. On existing buildings, wherever the fire department (Civil Defense) connection is not visible to approaching fire apparatus, the fire department (Civil Defense) connection shall be indicated by an approved sign mounted on the street front or on the side of the building. Such sign shall have the letters “FDC” not less than 150 mm high and words in letters not less than 50 mm high or an arrow to indicate the location. Such signs shall be subject to the approval of the fire code official. 912.3 Fire hose threads. Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department (Civil Defense) hose threads. 912.4 Access. Immediate access to fire department (Civil Defense) connections shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other fixed or moveable object. Access to fire department (Civil Defense) connections shall be approved by the fire chief. Exception: Fences, where provided with an access gate equipped with a sign complying with the legend requirements of Section 912.5 and a means of emergency operation. The gate and the means of emergency operation shall be approved by the fire chief and maintained operational at all times. 912.4.1 Locking fire depar tment (Civil Defense) connection caps. The fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on fire department (Civil Defense) connections for waterbased fire protection systems where the responding fire department (Civil Defense) carries appropriate key wrenches for removal.

912.4.2 Clear space around connections. A working space of not less than 900 mm in width, 900 mm in depth and 1980 mm in height shall be provided and maintained in front of and to the sides of wallmounted fire department (Civil Defense) connections and around the circumference of freestanding fire department (Civil Defense) connections, except as otherwise required or approved by the fire chief. 912.4.3 Physical protection. Where fire department (Civil Defense) connections are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312. 912.5 Signs. A metal sign with raised letters not less than 25 mm in size shall be mounted on all fire department (Civil Defense) connections serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or fire pump connections. Such signs shall read: AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS or STANDPIPES or TEST CONNECTION or a combination thereof as applicable. Where the fire department (Civil Defense) connection does not serve the entire building, a sign shall be provided indicating the portions of the building served. 912.6 Backflow protection. The potable water supply to automatic sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected against backflow as required by SBC 701 and NFPA standards. 912.7 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire department (Civil Defense) connections shall be periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.

SECTION 913 FIRE PUMPS 913.1 General. Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 20. 913.2 Protection against interruption of service. The fire pump, driver and controller shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service through damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism and other adverse conditions. 913.2.1 Pr otection of fire pump rooms. Fire pumps shall be located in rooms that are separated from all other areas of the building by 2-hour fire

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barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

913.4.1 Test outlet valve super vision. Fire pump test outlet valves shall be supervised in the closed position.

Exceptions:

913.5 Testing and maintenance. Fire pumps shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the requirements of this section and NFPA 25. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.

1. In other than high-rise buildings, separation by 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 1-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both, shall be permitted in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 2. Separation is not required for fire pumps physically separated in accordance with NFPA 20. 913.2.2 Circuits supplying fire pumps. Cables used for survivability of circuits supplying fire pumps shall be listed in accordance with UL 2196. Electrical circuit protective systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements. 913.3 Temperature of pump room. Suitable means shall be provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or pump house, where required, above 4°C. 913.3.1 Engine manufactur er ’s recommendation. Temperature of the pump room, pump house or area where engines are installed shall never be less than the minimum recommended by the engine manufacturer. The engine manufacturer’s recommendations for oil heaters shall be followed. 913.4 Valve supervision. Where provided, the fire pump suction, discharge and bypass valves, and isolation valves on the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be supervised open by one of the following methods: 1. Central-station, proprietary or remote-station signaling service. 2. Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an audible signal at a constantly attended location. 3. Locking valves open. 4. Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspection where valves are located within fenced enclosures under the control of the owner.

913.5.1 Acceptance test. Acceptance testing shall be done in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20. 913.5.2 Gener ator sets. Engine generator sets supplying emergency or standby power to fire pump assemblies shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110. Records of testing shall be maintained. 913.5.3 Tr ansfer switches. Automatic transfer switches shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110. Records of testing shall be maintained. 913.5.4 Pump room environmental conditions. Tests of pump room environmental conditions, including heating, ventilation and illumination, shall be made to ensure proper manual or automatic operation of the associated equipment.

SECTION 914 FIRE PROTECTION BASED ON SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS OF USE AND OCCUPANCY 914.1 General. This section shall specify where fire protection systems are required based on the detailed requirements of use and occupancy of the SBC 201 and this code. 914.2 Covered and open mall buildings. Covered and open mall buildings shall comply with Sections 914.2.1 through 914.2.4. 914.2.1 Automatic spr inkler system. Covered and open mall buildings and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the all of the following: 1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected

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Fire Protection Systems

unless provided with approved alternative protection.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of:

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall of a covered mall building shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchor buildings.

1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5 of the SBC 201.

3. Sprinkler protection for the tenant spaces of an open mall building shall be independent from that provided for anchor buildings. 4. Sprinkler protection shall be provided beneath exterior circulation balconies located adjacent to an open mall. 5. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled. Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages separated from the covered or open mall in accordance with Section 402.4.2.3 of the SBC 201 and constructed in accordance with Section 406.5 of the SBC 201. 914.2.2 Standpipe system. The covered and open mall building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.3. 914.2.3 Emer gency voice/alar m communication system. Where the total floor area exceeds 4650 m2 within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/ alarm communication system shall be provided. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department (Civil Defense) . The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 914.2.4 Fire depar tment (Civil Defense) access to equipment. Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic fireextinguishing systems, automatic sprinkler systems or other detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire department (Civil Defense) . 914.3 High-rise buildings. High-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 914.3.1 through 914.3.7. 914.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary water supply where required by Section 914.3.3.

2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the SBC 201 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the SBC 201, or both. 914.3.1.1 Number of sprinkler risers and system design. Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are more than 128 m in height shall be supplied by no fewer than two risers. Each riser shall supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not be supplied from the same riser. 914.3.1.1.1 Riser location. Sprinkler risers shall be placed in interior exit stairways and ramps that are remotely located in accordance with Section 1015.2. 914.3.1.2 Water supply to required fire pumps. In buildings that are more than 128 m in building height, required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to no fewer than two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate. Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through no fewer than one of the connections. 914.3.2 Secondar y water supply. An automatic secondary on-site water supply having a capacity not less than the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for high-rise buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as

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Fire Protection Systems

determined by the SBC 301. An additional fire pump shall not be required for the secondary water supply unless needed to provide the minimum design intake pressure at the suction side of the fire pump supplying the automatic sprinkler system. The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes as determined by the occupancy hazard classification in accordance with NFPA 13. Exception: Existing buildings. 914.3.3 Fire alar m system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13. 914.3.4 Automatic smoke detection. Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1. 914.3.5 Emer gency voice/alar m communication system. An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 914.3.6 Emer gency responder radio coverage. Emergency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accordance with Section 510. 914.3.7 Fire command. A fire command center complying with Section 508 shall be provided in a location approved by the fire department (Civil Defense) . 914.4 Atriums. Atriums shall comply with Sections 914.4.1 and 914.4.2. 914.4.1 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building. Exceptions: 1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered, provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the SBC 201 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the SBC 201, or both. 2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 16 m above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required. 914.4.2 Fire alar m system. A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Section 907.2.14.

914.5 Underground buildings. Underground buildings shall comply with Sections 914.5.1 through 914.5.5. 914.5.1 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in accordance with Section 903.4. 914.5.2 Smoke contr ol system. A smoke control system is required to control the migration of products of combustion in accordance with Section 909 and provisions of this section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a usable condition. 914.5.3 Compar tment smoke contr ol system. Where compartmentation is required by Section 405.4 of the SBC 201, each compartment shall have an independent smoke control system. The system shall be automatically activated and capable of manual operation in accordance with Section 907.2.18. 914.5.4 Fire alar m system. A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19. 914.5.5 Standpipe system. The underground building shall be provided throughout with a standpipe system in accordance with Section 905. 914.6 Stages. Stages shall comply with Sections 914.6.1 and 914.6.2. 914.6.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such stages. Exceptions: 1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 1200 mm in clear height utilized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by Type X gypsum board not less than 1 6 mm in thickness. 2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 93 m2 or less in area and 15 m or less in height where curtains, scenery or other combustible

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Fire Protection Systems

hangings are not retractable vertically. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a single main curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop. 3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra enclosures on stages. 914.6.2 Standpipe system. Standpipe systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 905. 914.7 Special amusem*nt buildings. Special amusem*nt buildings shall comply with Sections 914.7.1 and 914.7.2. 914.7.1 Automatic spr inkler system. Special amusem*nt buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusem*nt building is temporary, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means. Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusem*nt building is less than 93 m2 and the exit access travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 15 m. 914.7.2 Automatic smoke detection. Special amusem*nt buildings shall be equipped with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.12. 914.8 Aircraft-related occupancies. Aircraftrelated occupancies shall comply with Sections 914.8.1 through 914.8.6. 914.8.1 Automatic smoke detection systems. Airport traffic control towers shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.22. 914.8.2 Automatic sprinkler system for new air por t tr affic contr ol towers. Where an occupied floor is located more than 10.5 m above the lowest level of fire department (Civil Defense) vehicle access, new airport traffic control towers shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 914.8.3 Fire suppr ession for aircr aft hangar s. Aircraft hangars shall be provided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar given in Table 914.8.3. Exception: Where a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage

of transient aircraft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system shall be exempt from foam requirements. 914.8.3.1 Hazardous operations. Any Group III aircraft hangar in accordance with Table 914.8.3 that contains hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire suppression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as applicable: 1. Doping. 2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, torch cutting and torch soldering. 3. Fuel transfer. 4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled. 5. Spray finishing operations. 6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 6050 L. 7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maximum single fire area in excess of 28400 L for a hangar equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 914.8.3.2 Separation of maximum single fire areas. Maximum single fire areas established in accordance with hangar classification and construction type in Table 914.8.3 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls constructed in accordance with Section 706 of the SBC 201. In determining the maximum single fire area as set forth in Table 914.8.3, ancillary uses that are separated from aircraft servicing areas by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the SBC 201 shall not be included in the area. 914.8.4 Finishing. The process of “doping,” involving the use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting shall be carried on in a separate detached building equipped with automatic fireextinguishing equipment in accordance with Section 903. 914.8.5 Residential aircr aft hangar smoke alar ms. Smoke alarms shall be provided within residential aircraft hangars in accordance with Section 907.2.21.

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914.8.6 Aircr aft paint hangar fire suppr ession. Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409. 914.9 Application of flammable finishes. An automatic sprinkler system or fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in all spray, dip and immersing spaces and storage rooms, and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 9. 914.10 Drying rooms. Drying rooms designed for high-hazard materials and processes, including special occupancies as provided for in Chapter 4 of the SBC 201, shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of Chapter 9. 914.11 Ambulatory care facilities. Occupancies classified as ambulatory care facilities shall comply with Sections 914.11.1 through 914.11.3. 914.11.1 Automatic sprinkler systems. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 903.2.2. 914.11.2 Manual fire alar m systems. A manual fire alarm system shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 907.2.2. 914.11.3 Fire alar m systems. An automatic smoke detection system shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 907.2.2.1. 914.12 Emergency responder safety features. Emergency responder safety features shall be addressed in accordance with sections 914.12.1 and 914.12.2. 914.12.1 Shaftway mar kings. Vertical shafts shall be identified as required by Sections 914.12.1.1 and 914.12.1.2.Exterior access to shaftways. Outside openings accessible to the fire department (Civil Defense) and that open directly on a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or more floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the word “SHAFTWAY” in red letters not less than 150 mm high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible from the outside of the building. 914.12.1.2 Interior access to shaftways. Door or window openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the building shall be plainly marked with the word “SHAFTWAY” in red letters not less than 150 mm high on a white background.

Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible. Exception: Markings shall not be required on shaftway openings that are readily discernible as openings onto a shaftway by the construction or arrangement. 914.12.2 Equipment room identification. Fire protection equipment shall be identified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls for air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves or other fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for the use of the fire department (Civil Defense) . Approved signs required to identify fire protection equipment and equipment location shall be constructed of durable materials, permanently installed and readily visible.

SECTION 915 CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTION 915.1 General. Carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in new buildings in accordance with Sections 915.1.1 through 915.6. Carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in existing buildings in accordance with Section 1103.9. 915.1.1 Where required. Carbon monoxide detection shall be provided in Group I-1, I-2, I-4 and R occupancies and in classrooms in Group E occupancies in the locations specified in Section 915.2 where any of the conditions in Sections 915.1.2 through 915.1.6 exist. 915.1.2 Fuel-bur ning appliances and fuelbur ning fireplaces. Carbon monoxide detection shall be provided in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms that contain a fuel-burning appliance or a fuel-burning fireplace. 915.1.3 For ced-air fur naces. Carbon monoxide detection shall be provided in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms served by a fuelburning, forced-air furnace. Exception: Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms where carbon monoxide detection is provided in the first room or area served by each main duct leaving the furnace, and the carbon monoxide alarm signals are automatically transmitted to an approved location. 915.1.4 Fuel-bur ning appliances outside of dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms. Carbon monoxide detection shall be provided in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms

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193

Fire Protection Systems

located in buildings that contain fuel-burning appliances or fuel-burning fireplaces.

Section 406.6 of the SBC 201 shall not be considered a private garage.

Exceptions:

915.2 Locations. Where required by Section 915.1.1, carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in the locations specified in Sections 915.2.1 through 915.2.3.

1. Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms where there are no communicating openings between the fuelburning appliance or fuel-burning fireplace and the dwelling unit, sleeping unit or classroom. 2. Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms where carbon monoxide detection is provided in one of the following locations: 2.1. In an approved location between the fuel burning appliance or fuel-burning fireplace and the dwelling unit, sleeping unit or classroom. 2.2. On the ceiling of the room containing the fuel-burning appliance or fuel-burning fireplace. 915.1.5 Pr ivate gar ages. Carbon monoxide detection shall be provided in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms in buildings with attached private garages. Exceptions: 1. Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required where there are no communicating openings between the private garage and the dwelling unit, sleeping unit or classroom. 2. Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms located more than one story above or below a private garage. 3. Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required where the private garage connects to the building through an open-ended corridor. 4. Where carbon monoxide detection is provided in an approved location between openings to a private garage and dwelling units, sleeping units or classrooms, carbon monoxide detection shall not be required in the dwelling units, sleeping units or classrooms. 915.1.6 Exempt gar ages. For determining compliance with Section 915.1.5, an open parking garage complying with Section 406.5 of the SBC 201 or an enclosed parking garage complying with

915.2.1 Dwelling units. Carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in dwelling units outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms. Where a fuel-burning appliance is located within a bedroom or its attached bathroom, carbon monoxide detection shall be installed within the bedroom. 915.2.2 Sleeping units. Carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in sleeping units. Exception: Carbon monoxide detection shall be allowed to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the sleeping unit where the sleeping unit or its attached bathroom does not contain a fuel-burning appliance and is not served by a forced air furnace. 915.2.3 Gr oup E occupancies. Carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in classrooms in Group E occupancies. Carbon monoxide alarm signals shall be automatically transmitted to an on-site location that is staffed by school personnel. Exception: Carbon monoxide alarm signals shall not be required to be automatically transmitted to an on-site location that is staffed by school personnel in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 30 or less. 915.3 Detection equipment. Carbon monoxide detection required by Sections 915.1 through 915.2.3 shall be provided by carbon monoxide alarms complying with Section 915.4 or carbon monoxide detection systems complying with Section 915.5. 915.4 Carbon monoxide alarms. Carbon monoxide alarms shall comply with Sections 915.4.1 through 915.4.3. 915.4.1 Power source. Carbon monoxide alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source, and when primary power is interrupted, shall receive power from a battery. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than that required for overcurrent protection.

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Exception: Where installed in buildings without commercial power, battery-powered carbon monoxide alarms shall be an acceptable alternative. 915.4.2 Listings. Carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed in accordance with UL 2034. 915.4.3 Combination alar ms. Combination carbon monoxide/smoke alarms shall be an acceptable alternative to carbon monoxide alarms. Combination carbon monoxide/smoke alarms shall be listed in accordance with UL 2034 and UL 217. 915.5 Carbon monoxide detection systems. Carbon monoxide detection systems shall be an acceptable alternative to carbon monoxide alarms and shall comply with Sections 915.5.1 through 915.5.3. 915.5.1 Gener al. Carbon monoxide detection systems shall comply with NFPA 720. Carbon monoxide detectors shall be listed in accordance with UL 2075. 915.5.2 Locations. Carbon monoxide detectors shall be installed in the locations specified in Section 915.2. These locations supersede the locations specified in NFPA 720. 915.5.3 Combination detectors. Combination carbon monoxide/smoke detectors installed in carbon monoxide detection systems shall be an acceptable alternative to carbon monoxide detectors, provided they are listed in accordance with UL 2075 and UL 268. 915.6 Maintenance. Carbon monoxide alarms and carbon monoxide detection systems shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 720. Carbon monoxide alarms and carbon monoxide detectors that become inoperable or begin producing end-oflife signals shall be replaced.

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195

Bibliography The following resource materials were used in the preparation of the commentary for this chapter of the code: 1. Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) – Standard for Accessible Design 2010. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, 2. ASHRAE Guideline 5-1994 (RA 2001), Commissioning Smoke Management Systems. Atlanta GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 2001. 3. Cobb, Nathaniel and Ruth A. Etzel Ruth. “Unintentional Carbon Monoxide–Related Deaths in the United States, 1979 through 1988,” Journal of the American Medical Association, August 7th, 1991, Vol. 266, No. 5, pp. 659-663. 4. Fire Protection Handbook, 19th edition. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 2003. 5. International Code Interpretations. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2009. 6. Klote, J. and D. Evans. A Guide to Smoke Control in the 2006 IBC. Washington, DC: International Code Council, 2007. 7. Klote, J. and J. Milke. Principles of Smoke Management. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 2002. 8. SFPE Engineering Guide to Performance-based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of Buildings. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 2004. 9. The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering; 4th edition. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 2008.

Fire Protection Systems

Tables TABLE 901.6.1 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS SYSTEM

STANDARD

Portable fire extinguishers

NFPA 10

Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system

NFPA 12

Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systems

NFPA 12A

Dry-chemical extinguishing systems

NFPA 17

Wet-chemical extinguishing systems

NFPA 17A

Water-based fire protection systems

NFPA 25

Fire alarm systems

NFPA 72

Smoke and heat vents

NFPA 204

Water-mist systems

NFPA 750

Clean-agent extinguishing systems

NFPA 2001

TABLE 903.2.5.2 GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA LOCATION

OCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSIFICATION

Fabrication areas

Ordinary Hazard Group 2

Service corridors

Ordinary Hazard Group 2

Storage rooms without dispensing

Ordinary Hazard Group 2

Storage rooms with dispensing Corridors

Extra Hazard Group 2 Ordinary Hazard Group 2

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Fire Protection Systems

TABLE 903.2.11.6 ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS SECTION

SUBJE CT

914.2.1

Covered and open mall buildings

914.3.1

High-rise buildings

914.4.1

Atriums

914.5.1

Underground structures

914.6.1

Stages

914.7.1

Special amusem*nt buildings

914.8.2

Airport traffic control towers

914.8.3, 914.8.6

Aircraft hangars

914.9 914.10

Flammable finishes Drying rooms

914.11.1

Ambulatory care facilities

1029.6.2.3

Smoke-protected assembly seating

1103.5.1

Pyroxylin plastic storage in existing buildings

1103.5.2

Existing Group I-2 occupancies

1103.5.3

Existing Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies

1103.5.4

Pyroxylin plastics

2108.2

Dry cleaning plants

2108.3

Dry cleaning machines

2309.3.2.6.2

Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies

2404.2

Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R

2404.4

Spray booths and spray rooms

2405.2

Dip-tank rooms in Group A, I or R

2405.4.1

Dip tanks

2405.9.4

Hardening and tempering tanks

2703.10

HPM facilities

2703.10.1.1

HPM work station exhaust

2703.10.2

HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures

2703.10.3

HPM exit access corridor

2703.10.4

HPM exhaust ducts

2703.10.4.1

HPM noncombustible ducts

2703.10.4.2

HPM combustible ducts

2807.3

Lumber production conveyor enclosures

2808.7

Recycling facility conveyor enclosures

3006.1

Class A and B ovens

3006.2

Class C and D ovens

Table 3206.2

Storage fire protection

3206.4

Storage

5003.8.4.1

Gas rooms

5003.8.5.3

Exhausted enclosures

5004.5

Indoor storage of hazardous materials

5005.1.8

Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials

5104.4.1

Aerosol warehouses

(continued)

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Fire Protection Systems

TABLE 903.2.11.6—continued ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS SECTION

SUBJECT

5106.3.2

Aerosol display and merchandising areas

5204.5

Storage of more than 28.3 cubic meters of loose combustible fibers

5306.2.1

Exterior medical gas storage room

5306.2.2

Interior medical gas storage room

5306.2.3

Medical gas storage cabinet

5606.5.2.1

Storage of smokeless propellant

5606.5.2.3

Storage of small arms primers

5704.3.7.5.1

Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms

5704.3.8.4

Flammable and combustible liquid storage warehouses

5705.3.7.3

Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or H-3 areas

6004.1.2

Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas

6004.1.3

Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas

6004.2.2.6

Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas

6004.3.3

Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas

6504.1.1

Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets

6504.1.3

Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults

6504.2

Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing

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Fire Protection Systems

TABLE 906.1 ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS SECTION

SUBJECT

303.5

Asphalt kettles

307.5

Open burning

308.1.3

Open flames—torches

309.4

Powered industrial trucks

2005.2

Aircraft towing vehicles

2005.3

Aircraft welding apparatus

2005.4

Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles

2005.5

Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles

2005.6

Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations

2007.7

Heliports and helistops

2108.4

Dry cleaning plants

2305.5

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities

2310.6.4 2311.6

Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities Repair garages

2404.4.1

Spray-finishing operations

2405.4.2

Dip-tank operations

2406.4.2

Powder-coating areas

2804.3

Lumberyards/woodworking facilities

2808.8

Recycling facilities

2809.5

Exterior lumber storage

2903.5

Organic-coating areas

3006.3

Industrial ovens

3104.12

Tents and membrane structures

3206.10

High-piled storage

3315.1

Buildings under construction or demolition

3317.3

Roofing operations

3408.2

Tire rebuilding/storage

3504.2.6

Welding and other hot work

3604.4

Marinas

3703.6

Combustible fibers

5703.2.1

Flammable and combustible liquids, general

5704.3.3.1 Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids 5704.3.7.5.2

Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids

5705.4.9

Solvent distillation units

5706.2.7

Farms and construction sites—flammable and combustible liquids storage

5706.4.10.1

Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids

5706.5.4.5

Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments—fuel dispensing

5706.6.4

Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids

5906.5.7

Flammable solids

6108.2

LP-gas

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200

Fire Protection Systems

TABLE 906.3(1) FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

ORDINARY (Moderate) HAZARD OCCUPANCY

LIGHT (Low) HAZARD OCCUPANCY

Minimum rated single extinguisher Maximum floor area per unit of A Maximum floor area for extinguisherb Maximum distance of travel to extinguisher

EXTRA (High) HAZARD OCCUPANCY

2-Ac

2-A

4-Aa

280 m2

139 m2

93 m2

1,045 m2

1,045 m2

1,045 m2

23 m

23 m

23 m

a. Two 9.5 L water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher. b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria. c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies. TABLE 906.3(2) FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 6-mma

TYPE OF HAZARD

BASIC MINIMUM EXTINGUISHER RATING

MAXIMUM DISTANCE OF TRAVEL TO EXTINGUISHERS (meter)

5-B 10-B 10-B 20-B 40-B 80-B

9 15 9 15 9 15

Light (Low) Ordinary (Moderate) Extra (High)

a. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10. TABLE 907.5.2.3.2 VISIBLE ALARMS NUMBER OF SLEEPING UNITS

SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH VISIBLE ALARMS

6 to 25

2

26 to 50

4

51 to 75

7

76 to 100

9

101 to 150

12

151 to 200

14

201 to 300

17

301 to 400

20

401 to 500

22

501 to 1,000

5% of total

1,001 and over

50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000

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201

Fire Protection Systems

TABLE 911.1 EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTSf EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS MATERIAL

CLASS Barricade construction

Explosion (deflagration) venting or explosion (deflagration) prevention systems

Hazard Category

Not required

Required

Cryogenic fluids

Flammable

Not required

Required

Explosives

Division 1.1 Division 1.2 Division 1.3 Division 1.4 Division 1.5 Division 1.6

Required Required Not required Not required Required Required

Not required Not required Required Required Not required Not required

Gaseous Liquefied

Not required Not required

Required Required

IAb

Not required Not required

Required Required

Unclassified detonable I

Required Required

Not permitted Not permitted

4

Required

Not permitted

Gases

Not required

Required

4 3 detonable 3 nondetonable

Required Required Not required

Not permitted Not permitted Required

3 2e

Not required Not required

Required Required

Combustible dusts

a

Flammable gas Flammable liquids Organic peroxides Oxidizer liquids and solids Pyrophoric Unstable (reactive) Water-reactive liquids and solids

Special Uses

Acetylene generator rooms

Not required

Required

Grain processing

Not required

Required

Not required

Required

Detonation Deflagration

Required Not required

Not permitted Required

Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilities Where explosion hazards existd

Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of “Combustible dust” in Chapter 2. Storage or use. In open use or dispensing. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials where an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. e. A method of explosion control shall be provided where Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. f. Explosion venting is not required for Group H-5 Fabrication Areas complying with Chapter 27 and the SBC 201. a. b. c. d.

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Fire Protection Systems

TABLE 914.8.3 HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c MAXIMUM SINGLE FIRE AREA (square meter) > 3715 3715 2785 1860 1390 1115 740 465

SBC 201 TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION IA

IB

IIA

IIB

IIIA

IIIB

IV

VA

VB

Group I Group II Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III

Group I Group II Group II Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III

Group I Group II Group II Group II Group III Group III Group III Group III

Group I Group II Group II Group II Group II Group III Group III Group III

Group I Group II Group II Group II Group III Group III Group III Group III

Group I Group II Group II Group II Group II Group III Group III Group III

Group I Group II Group II Group II Group III Group III Group III Group III

Group I Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group III Group III

Group I Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group III

a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 8500 mm shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area. b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409. c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 of the SBC 201 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar.

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Fire Protection Systems

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Means of Egress

MEANS OF EGRESS

SECTION 1001 ADMINISTRATION 1001.1 General. Buildings or portions thereof shall be provided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, construction and arrangement of means of egress components required to provide an approved means of egress from structures and portions thereof. Sections 1003 through 1029 shall apply to new construction. Section 1030 shall apply to existing buildings. Exception: Detached one and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with the SBC 1101. 1001.2 Minimum requirements. It shall be unlawful to alter a building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required by this code.

SECTION 1002 DEFINITIONS 1002.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2: • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. AISLE. AISLE ACCESSWAY. ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. AREA OF REFUGE. BLEACHERS. BREAKOUT. COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. CORRIDOR. DOOR, BALANCED. EGRESS COURT. EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. EXIT. EXIT ACCESS.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

SBC 801-CR-18

EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. EXIT ACCESS RAMP. EXIT ACCESS STAIRWAY. EXIT DISCHARGE. EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. EXIT, HORIZONTAL. EXIT PASSAGEWAY. EXTERIOR EXIT RAMP. EXTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. FIXED SEATING. FLIGHT. FLOOR AREA, GROSS. FLOOR AREA, NET. FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. GRANDSTAND. GUARD. HANDRAIL. INTERIOR EXIT RAMP. INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. LOW ENERGY POWER-OPERATED DOOR. MEANS OF EGRESS. MERCHANDISE PAD. NOSING. OCCUPANT LOAD. OPEN-ENDED CORRIDOR. PANIC HARDWARE. PHOTOLUMINESCENT. POWER-ASSISTED DOOR. POWER-OPERATED DOOR. PUBLIC WAY. RAMP. SCISSOR STAIRWAY. SELF-LUMINOUS. SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. STAIR. STAIRWAY. STAIRWAY, SPIRAL.

206

Means of Egress

WINDER.

SECTION 1003 GENERAL MEANS OF EGRESS 1003.1 Applicability. The general requirements specified in Sections 1003 through 1015 shall apply to all three elements of the means of egress system, in addition to those specific requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge detailed elsewhere in this chapter. 1003.2 Ceiling height. The means of egress shall have a ceiling height of not less than 2300 mm. Exceptions: 1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2. 2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within residential occupancies in accordance with Section 1208.2.

clearance is less than 2000 mm high. The leading edge of such a barrier shall be located 700 mm maximum above the floor. 1003.3.2 Post-mounted objects. A freestanding object mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or pylon more than 100 mm where the lowest point of the leading edge is more than 700 mm and less than 2000 mm above the walking surface. Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons is greater than 300 mm, the lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 700 mm maximum or 2000 mm minimum above the finished floor or ground. Exception: These requirements shall not apply to sloping portions of handrails between the top and bottom riser of stairs and above the ramp run.

3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 1003.3.

1003.3.3 Hor izontal projections. Objects with leading edges more than 700 mm and not more than 2000 mm above the floor shall not project horizontally more than 100 mm into the circulation path.

4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1011.3.

Exception: Handrails are permitted to protrude 115 mm from the wall.

5. Door height in accordance with Section 1010.1.1.

1003.3.4 Clear width. Protruding objects shall not reduce the minimum clear width of accessible routes.

6. Ramp headroom in accordance with Section 1012.5.2. 7. The clear height of floor levels in vehicular and pedestrian traffic areas of public and private parking garages in accordance with Section 406.4.1. 8. Areas above and below mezzanine floors in accordance with Section 505.2. 1003.3 Protruding objects. Protruding objects on circulation paths shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4. 1003.3.1 Headr oom. Protruding objects are permitted to extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Section 1003.2 where a minimum headroom of 2000 mm is provided over any walking surface, including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress shall be reduced in height by protruding objects. Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce headroom to less than 2000 mm. A barrier shall be provided where the vertical

1003.4 Floor surface. Walking surfaces of the means of egress shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached. 1003.5 Elevation change. Where changes in elevation of less than 300 mm exist in the means of egress, sloped surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps complying with Section 1012 shall be used. Where the difference in elevation is 150 mm or less, the ramp shall be equipped with either handrails or floor finish materials that contrast with adjacent floor finish materials. Exceptions: 1. A single step with a maximum riser height of 175 mm is permitted for buildings with occupancies in Groups F, H, R-2, R-3, S and U at exterior doors not required to be accessible by Chapter 11. 2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a tread is permitted at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 11 where the risers and treads comply with

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Means of Egress

Section 1011.5, the minimum depth of the tread is 325 mm and not less than one handrail complying with Section 1014 is provided within 750 mm of the centerline of the normal path of egress travel on the stair. 3. A step is permitted in aisles serving seating that has a difference in elevation less than 300 mm at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 11, provided that the risers and treads comply with Section 1029.13 and the aisle is provided with a handrail complying with Section 1029.15. Throughout a story in a Group I-2 occupancy, any change in elevation in portions of the means of egress that serve non-ambulatory persons shall be by means of a ramp or sloped walkway. 1003.6 Means of egress continuity. The path of egress travel along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by a building element other than a means of egress component as specified in this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the minimum width or required capacity of a means of egress component except projections permitted by this chapter. The minimum width or required capacity of a means of egress system shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel. 1003.7 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a required means of egress from any other part of the building. Exception: Elevators used as an accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 1009.4.

SECTION 1004 OCCUPANT LOAD 1004.1 Design occupant load. In determining means of egress requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of egress facilities are provided shall be determined in accordance with this section. 1004.1.1 Cumulative occupant loads. Where the path of egress travel includes intervening rooms, areas or spaces, cumulative occupant loads shall be determined in accordance with this section. 1004.1.1.1 Intervening spaces or accessory areas. Where occupants egress from one or more rooms, areas or spaces through others, the design occupant load shall be the combined occupant load of interconnected accessory or intervening spaces.

Design of egress path capacity shall be based on the cumulative portion of occupant loads of all rooms, areas or spaces to that point along the path of egress travel. 1004.1.1.2 Adjacent levels for mezzanines. That portion of the occupant load of a mezzanine with required egress through a room, area or space on an adjacent level shall be added to the occupant load of that room, area or space. 1004.1.1.3 Adjacent stories. Other than for the egress components designed for convergence in accordance with Section 1005.6, the occupant load from separate stories shall not be added. 1004.1.2 Areas without fixed seating. The number of occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant per unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004.1.2. For areas without fixed seating, the occupant load shall be not less than that number determined by dividing the floor area under consideration by the occupant load factor assigned to the function of the space as set forth in Table 1004.1.2. Where an intended function is not listed in Table 1004.1.2, the building official shall establish a function based on a listed function that most nearly resembles the intended function. Exception: Where approved by the building official, the actual number of occupants for whom each occupied space, floor or building is designed, although less than those determined by calculation, shall be permitted to be used in the determination of the design occupant load. 1004.2 Increased occupant load. The occupant load permitted in any building, or portion thereof, is permitted to be increased from that number established for the occupancies in Table 1004.1.2, provided that all other requirements of the code are met based on such modified number and the occupant load does not exceed one occupant per 0.65 m2 of occupiable floor space. Where required by the building official, an approved aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram substantiating any increase in occupant load shall be submitted. Where required by the building official, such diagram shall be posted. 1004.3 Posting of occupant load. Every room or space that is an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be maintained by the owner or the owner’s authorized agent.

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1004.4 Fixed seating. For areas having fixed seats and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004.1.2 and added to the number of fixed seats. The occupant load of wheelchair spaces and the associated companion seat shall be based on one occupant for each wheelchair space and one occupant for the associated companion seat provided in accordance with Section 1108.2.3. For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall be not less than the number of seats based on one person for each 450 mm of seating length. The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one person for each 600 mm of booth seat length measured at the backrest of the seating booth. 1004.5 Outdoor areas. Yards, patios, courts and similar outdoor areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chapter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned by the building official in accordance with the anticipated use. Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas. Exceptions: 1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the building need only have one means of egress. 2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R3 and individual dwelling units of Group R2. 1004.6 Multiple occupancies. Where a building contains two or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of the same means of egress system, those egress components shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies that are served.

SECTION 1005 MEANS OF EGRESS SIZING 1005.1 General. All portions of the means of egress system shall be sized in accordance with this section. Exception: Aisles and aisle accessways in rooms or spaces used for assembly purposes complying with Section 1029. 1005.2 Minimum width based on component. The minimum width, in mm, of any means of egress components shall be not less than that specified for such component, elsewhere in this code. 1005.3 Required capacity based on occupant load. The required capacity, in mm, of the means of egress for any room, area, space or story shall be not less than that determined in accordance with Sections 1005.3.1 and 1005.3.2. 1005.3.1 Stair ways. The capacity, in millimeters, of means of egress stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant load served by such stairways by a means of egress capacity factor of 7.5 mm per occupant. Where stairways serve more than one story, only the occupant load of each story considered individually shall be used in calculating the required capacity of the stairways serving that story. Exceptions: 1. For other than Group H and I-2 occupancies, the capacity, in millimeters, of means of egress stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant load served by such stairways by a means of egress capacity factor of 5 mm per occupant in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and an emergency voice/ alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 2. Facilities with smoke-protected assembly seating shall be permitted to use the capacity factors in Table 1029.6.2 indicated for stepped aisles for exit access or exit stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is provided with a smoke control system complying with Section 909. 3. Facilities with outdoor smoke-protected assembly seating shall be permitted to the capacity factors in Section 1029.6.3 indicated for stepped aisles for exit access or exit

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stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is open to the outdoors. 1005.3.2 Other egress components. The capacity, in millimeters, of means of egress components other than stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant load served by such component by a means of egress capacity factor of 5 mm per occupant. Exceptions: 1. For other than Group H and I-2 occupancies, the capacity, in millimeters, of means of egress components other than stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant load served by such component by a means of egress capacity factor of 3.8 mm per occupant in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 2. Facilities with smoke-protected assembly seating shall be permitted to use the capacity factors in Table 1029.6.2 indicated for level or ramped aisles for means of egress components other than stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is provided with a smoke control system complying with Section 909. 3. Facilities with outdoor smoke-protected assembly seating shall be permitted to the capacity factors in Section 1029.6.3 indicated for level or ramped aisles for means of egress components other than stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is open to the outdoors. 1005.4 Continuity. The minimum width or required capacity of the means of egress required from any story of a building shall not be reduced along the path of egress travel until arrival at the public way. 1005.5 Distribution of minimum width and required capacity. Where more than one exit, or access to more than one exit, is required, the means of egress shall be configured such that the loss of any one exit, or access to one exit, shall not reduce the available capacity or width to less than 50 percent of the required capacity or width.

1005.6 Egress convergence. Where the means of egress from stories above and below converge at an intermediate level, the capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence shall be not less than the largest minimum width or the sum of the required capacities for the stairways or ramps serving the two adjacent stories, whichever is larger. 1005.7 Encroachment. Encroachments into the required means of egress width shall be in accordance with the provisions of this section. 1005.7.1 Doors. Doors, when fully opened, shall not reduce the required width by more than 175 mm. Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half. Exceptions: 1. Surface-mounted latch release hardware shall be exempt from inclusion in the 175 mm encroachment where both of the following conditions exist: 1.1. The hardware is mounted to the side of the door facing away from the adjacent wall where the door is in the open position. 1.2. The hardware is mounted not less than 850 mm nor more than 1200 mm above the finished floor. 2. The restrictions on door swing shall not apply to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R-2 occupancies and dwelling units of Group R-3 occupancies. 1005.7.2 Other pr ojections. Handrail projections shall be in accordance with the provisions of Section 1014.8. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features shall be permitted to project into the required width not more than 38 mm on each side. Exception: Projections are permitted in corridors within Group I-2 Condition 1 in accordance with Section 407.4.3. 1005.7.3 Pr otr uding objects. Protruding objects shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1003.3.

SECTION 1006 NUMBER OF EXITS AND EXIT ACCESS DOORWAYS 1006.1 General. The number of exits or exit access doorways required within the means of egress system shall comply with the provisions of Section

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1006.2 for spaces, including mezzanines, and Section 1006.3 for stories.

distance equal to one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of the room.

1006.2 Egress from spaces. Rooms, areas or spaces, including mezzanines, within a story or basem*nt shall be provided with the number of exits or access to exits in accordance with this section.

All portions of machinery rooms shall be within 45 m of an exit or exit access doorway. An increase in exit access travel distance is permitted in accordance with Section 1017.1.

1006.2.1 Egr ess based on occupant load and common path of egress tr avel distance. Two exits or exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where the design occupant load or the common path of egress travel distance exceeds the values listed in Table 1006.2.1.

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel, regardless of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting and self-closing.

Exceptions: 1. In Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, one means of egress is permitted within and from individual dwelling units with a maximum occupant load of 20 where the dwelling unit is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the common path of egress travel does not exceed 38 m. 2. Care suites in Group I-2 occupancies complying with Section 407.4. 1006.2.1.1 Three or more exits or exit access doorways. Three exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load of 501 to 1,000. Four exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load greater than 1,000. 1006.2.2 Egr ess based on use. The numbers of exits or access to exits shall be provided in the uses described in Sections 1006.2.2.1 through 1006.2.2.5. 1006.2.2.1 Boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms. Two exit access doorways are required in boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms where the area is over 45 m2 and any fuel-fired equipment exceeds 422000 KJ input capacity. Where two exit access doorways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the room. 1006.2.2.2 Refrigeration machinery rooms. Machinery rooms larger than 93 m2 shall have not less than two exits or exit access doorways. Where two exit access doorways are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal

1006.2.2.3 Refrigerated rooms or spaces. Rooms or spaces having a floor area larger than 93 m2, containing a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature below 20°C, shall have access to not less than two exits or exit access doorways. Exit access travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 1017.1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be within 45 m of an exit or exit access doorway where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. Egress is allowed through adjoining refrigerated rooms or spaces. Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the SBC 501. 1006.2.2.4 Day care means of egress. Day care facilities, rooms or spaces where care is provided for more than 10 children that are 2-1/2 years of age or less, shall have access to not less than two exits or exit access doorways. 1006.2.2.5 Vehicular ramps. Vehicular ramps shall not be considered as an exit access ramp unless pedestrian facilities are provided. 1006.3 Egress from stories or occupied roofs. The means of egress system serving any story or occupied roof shall be provided with the number of exits or access to exits based on the aggregate occupant load served in accordance with this section. The path of egress travel to an exit shall not pass through more than one adjacent story. 1006.3.1 Egr ess based on occupant load. Each story and occupied roof shall have the minimum number of independent exits, or access to exits, as specified in Table 1006.3.1. A single exit or access to a single exit shall be permitted in accordance with Section 1006.3.2. The required number of exits, or exit access stairways or ramps providing access to exits, from any story or occupied roof shall be maintained until arrival at the exit discharge or a public way.

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1006.3.2 Single exits. A single exit or access to a single exit shall be permitted from any story or occupied roof where one of the following conditions exists: 1. The occupant load, number of dwelling units and exit access travel distance do not exceed the values in Table 1006.3.2(1) or 1006.3.2(2). 2. Rooms, areas and spaces complying with Section 1006.2.1 with exits that discharge directly to the exterior at the level of exit discharge, are permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit. 3. Parking garages where vehicles are mechanically parked shall be permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit. 4. Group R-3 and R-4 occupancies shall be permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit. 5. Individual single-story or multistory dwelling units shall be permitted to have a single exit or access to a single exit from the dwelling unit provided that both of the following criteria are met: 5.1. The dwelling unit complies with Section 1006.2.1 as a space with one means of egress. 5.2. Either the exit from the dwelling unit discharges directly to the exterior at the level of exit discharge, or the exit access outside the dwelling unit’s entrance door provides access to not less than two approved independent exits. 1006.3.2.1 Mixed occupancies. Where one exit, or exit access stairway or ramp providing access to exits at other stories, is permitted to serve individual stories, mixed occupancies shall be permitted to be served by single exits provided each individual occupancy complies with the applicable requirements of Table 1006.3.2(1) or 1006.3.2(2) for that occupancy. Where applicable, cumulative occupant loads from adjacent occupancies shall be considered in accordance with the provisions of Section 1004.1. In each story of a mixed occupancy building, the maximum number of occupants served by a single exit shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the calculated number of occupants of the space divided by the allowable number of occupants indicated in Table 1006.3.2(2) for each occupancy does not exceed one. Where dwelling units are located on a story with other occupancies,

the actual number of dwelling units divided by four plus the ratio from the other occupancy does not exceed one.

SECTION 1007 EXIT AND EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY CONFIGURATION 1007.1 General. Exits, exit access doorways, and exit access stairways and ramps serving spaces, including individual building stories, shall be separated in accordance with the provisions of this section. 1007.1.1 Two exits or exit access door ways. Where two exits, exit access doorways, exit access stairways or ramps, or any combination thereof, are required from any portion of the exit access, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between them. Interlocking or scissor stairways shall be counted as one exit stairway. Exceptions: 1. Where interior exit stairways or ramps are interconnected by a 1-hour fire-resistancerated corridor conforming to the requirements of Section 1020, the required exit separation shall be measured along the shortest direct line of travel within the corridor. 2. Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the separation distance shall be not less than onethird of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area served. 1007.1.1.1 Measurement point. The separation distance required in Section 1007.1.1 shall be measured in accordance with the following:The separation distance to exit or exit access doorways shall be measured to any point along the width of the doorway. 2. The separation distance to exit access stairways shall be measured to the closest riser. 3. The separation distance to exit access ramps shall be measured to the start of the ramp run. 1007.1.2 Thr ee or more exits or exit access door ways. Where access to three or more exits is required, not less than two exit or exit access

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doorways shall be arranged in accordance with the provisions of Section 1007.1.1. Additional required exit or exit access doorways shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked, the others will be available.

2. Steps, landings and the sides of ramps shall be permitted to be marked with self-luminous materials in accordance with Sections 1025.2.1, 1025.2.2 and 1025.2.4 by systems listed in accordance with UL 1994.

1007.1.3 Remoteness of exit access stairways or ramps. Where two exit access stairways or ramps provide the required means of egress to exits at another story, the required separation distance shall be maintained for all portions of such exit access stairways or ramps.

1008.2.2 Exit dischar ge. In Group I-2 occupancies where two or more exits are required, on the exterior landings required by Section 1010.6.1, means of egress illumination levels for the exit discharge shall be provided such that failure of any single lighting unit shall not reduce the illumination level on that landing to less than 11 lux.

1007.1.3.1 Three or more exit access stairways or ramps. Where more than two exit access stairways or ramps provide the required means of egress, not less than two shall be arranged in accordance with Section 1007.1.3.

SECTION 1008 MEANS OF EGRESS ILLUMINATION 1008.1 Means of egress illumination. Illumination shall be provided in the means of egress in accordance with Section 1008.2. Under emergency power, means of egress illumination shall comply with Section 1008.3. 1008.2 Illumination required. The means of egress serving a room or space shall be illuminated at all times that the room or space is occupied. Exceptions: 1. Occupancies in Group U.

1008.3 Emergency power for illumination. The power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises’ electrical supply. 1008.3.1 Gener al. In the event of power supply failure in rooms and spaces that require two or more means of egress, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas: 1. Aisles. 2. Corridors. 3. Exit access stairways and ramps. 1008.3.2 Buildings. In the event of power supply failure in buildings that require two or more means of egress, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:

2. Aisle accessways in Group A.

1. Interior exit access stairways and ramps.

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-1, R-2 and R-3.

2. Interior and exterior exit stairways and ramps. 3. Exit passageways.

4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies. 1008.2.1 Illumination level under nor mal power. The means of egress illumination level shall be not less than 11 lux at the walking surface. Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the walking surface is permitted to be reduced during performances by one of the following methods provided that the required illumination is automatically restored upon activation of a premises’ fire alarm system: 1. Externally illuminated walking surfaces shall be permitted to be illuminated to not less than 2.2 lux.

4. Vestibules and areas on the level of discharge used for exit discharge in accordance with Section 1028.1. 5. Exterior landings as required by Section 1010.1.6 for exit doorways that lead directly to the exit discharge. 1008.3.3 Rooms and spaces. In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas: 1. Electrical equipment rooms. 2. Fire command centers. 3. Fire pump rooms. 4. Generator rooms.

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5. Public restrooms with an area greater than 28 m2.

2. Interior exit stairways complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1023.

1008.3.4 Dur ation. The emergency power system shall provide power for a duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Section 2702.

3. Exit access stairways complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1019.3 or 1019.4.

1008.3.5 Illumination level under emer gency power. Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is not less than an average of 11 lux and a minimum at any point of 1 lux measured along the path of egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to 6 lux average and a minimum at any point of 0.6 lux at the end of the emergency lighting time duration. A maximum-tominimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. In Group I-2 occupancies, failure of any single lighting unit shall not reduce the illumination level to less than 2.2 lux.

SECTION 1009 ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS 1009.1 Accessible means of egress required. Accessible means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible means of egress. Where more than one means of egress are required by Section 1006.2 or 1006.3 from any accessible space, each accessible portion of the space shall be served by not less than two accessible means of egress. Exceptions: 1. Accessible means of egress are not required to be provided in existing buildings. 2. One accessible means of egress is required from an accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Section 1009.3, 1009.4 or 1009.5. 3. In assembly areas with ramped aisles or stepped aisles, one accessible means of egress is permitted where the common path of egress travel is accessible and meets the requirements in Section 1029.8. 1009.2 Continuity and components. Each required accessible means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and shall consist of one or more of the following components: 1. Accessible routes complying with Section 1104.

4. Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1027 and serving levels other than the level of exit discharge. 5. Elevators complying with Section 1009.4. 6. Platform lifts complying with Section 1009.5. 7. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1026. 8. Ramps complying with Section 1012. 9. Areas of refuge complying with Section 1009.6. 10. Exterior areas for assisted rescue complying with Section 1009.7 serving exits at the level of exit discharge. 1009.2.1 Elevators requir ed. In buildings where a required accessible floor is four or more stories above or below a level of exit discharge, not less than one required accessible means of egress shall be an elevator complying with Section 1009.4. Exceptions: 1. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a horizontal exit and located at or above the levels of exit discharge. 2. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 1012. 1009.3 Stairways. In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress, a stairway between stories shall have a clear width of 1200 mm minimum between handrails and shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an enlarged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from an area of refuge complying with Section 1009.6. Exit access stairways that connect levels in the same story are not permitted as part of an accessible means of egress. Exceptions:

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1. Exit access stairways providing means of egress from mezzanines are permitted as part of an accessible means of egress.

3. Areas of refuge are not required at elevators not required to be located in a shaft in accordance with Section 712.

2. The clear width of 1200 mm between handrails is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

4. Areas of refuge are not required at elevators serving smoke-protected assembly seating areas complying with Section 1029.6.2.

3. The clear width of 1200 mm between handrails is not required for stairways accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit. 4. Areas of refuge are not required at exit access stairways where two-way communication is provided at the elevator landing in accordance with Section 1009.8. 5. Areas of refuge are not required at stairways in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 6. Areas of refuge are not required at stairways serving open parking garages. 7. Areas of refuge are not required for smokeprotected assembly seating areas complying with Section 1029.6.2. 8. Areas of refuge are not required at stairways in Group R-2 occupancies. 9. Areas of refuge are not required for stairways accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit. 1009.4 Elevators. In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress, an elevator shall comply with the emergency operation and signaling device requirements of Section 2.27 of ASME/CSA B44 A17.1. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 27 and Section 3003. The elevator shall be accessed from an area of refuge complying with Section 1009.6. Exceptions: 1. Areas of refuge are not required at the elevator in open parking garages. 2. Areas of refuge are not required in buildings and facilities equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

5. Areas of refuge are not required for elevators accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit. 1009.5 Platform lifts. Platform lifts shall be permitted to serve as part of an accessible means of egress where allowed as part of a required accessible route in Section 1109.8 except for Item 10. Standby power for the platform lift shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 27. 1009.6 Areas of refuge. Every required area of refuge shall be accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of egress. 1009.6.1 Tr avel distance. The maximum travel distance from any accessible space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the exit access travel distance permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section 1017.1. 1009.6.2 Stair way or elevator access. Every required area of refuge shall have direct access to a stairway complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1023 or an elevator complying with Section 1009.4. 1009.6.3 Size. Each area of refuge shall be sized to accommodate one wheelchair space of 750 mm by 1200 mm for each 200 occupants or portion thereof, based on the occupant load of the area of refuge and areas served by the area of refuge. Such wheelchair spaces shall not reduce the means of egress minimum width or required capacity. Access to any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area of refuge shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheelchair space. 1009.6.4 Separ ation. Each area of refuge shall be separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier complying with Section 709 or a horizontal exit complying with Section 1026. Each area of refuge shall be designed to minimize the intrusion of smoke. Exceptions: 1. Areas of refuge located within an enclosure for interior exit stairways complying with Section 1023.

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2. Areas of refuge in outdoor facilities where exit access is essentially open to the outside. 1009.6.5 Two-way communication. Areas of refuge shall be provided with a two-way communication system complying with Sections 1009.8.1 and 1009.8.2. 1009.7 1009.7 Exterior areas for assisted rescue. Exterior areas for assisted rescue shall be accessed by an accessible route from the area served. Where the exit discharge does not include an accessible route from an exit located on the level of exit discharge to a public way, an exterior area of assisted rescue shall be provided on the exterior landing in accordance with Sections 1009.7.1 through 1009.7.4. 1009.7.1 Size. Each exterior area for assisted rescue shall be sized to accommodate wheelchair spaces in accordance with Section 1009.6.3. 1009.7.2 Separ ation. Exterior walls separating the exterior area of assisted rescue from the interior of the building shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour, rated for exposure to fire from the inside. The fire-resistance-rated exterior wall construction shall extend horizontally 3 m beyond the landing on either side of the landing or equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction is permitted to extend out perpendicular to the exterior wall 1.2 m minimum on the side of the landing. The fire-resistance-rated construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 3 m above the floor level of the area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower. Openings within such fire-resistance-rated exterior walls shall be protected in accordance with Section 716. 1009.7.3 Openness. The exterior area for assisted rescue shall be open to the outside air. The sides other than the separation walls shall be not less than 50 percent open, and the open area shall be distributed so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases. 1009.7.4 Stair ways. Stairways that are part of the means of egress for the exterior area for assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 1.2 m between handrails. Exception: The clear width of 1.2 m between handrails is not required at stairways serving buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

1009.8 Two-way communication. A two-way communication system complying with Sections 1009.8.1 and 1009.8.2 shall be provided at the landing serving each elevator or bank of elevators on each accessible floor that is one or more stories above or below the level of exit discharge. Exceptions: 1. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landing serving each elevator or bank of elevators where the two-way communication system is provided within areas of refuge in accordance with Section 1009.6.5. 2. Two-way communication systems are not required on floors provided with ramps conforming to the provisions of Section 1012. 3. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landings serving only service elevators that are not designated as part of the accessible means of egress or serve as part of the required accessible route into a facility. 4. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landings serving only freight elevators. 5. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landing serving a private residence elevator. 1009.8.1 System requirements. Two-way communication systems shall provide communication between each required location and the fire command center or a central control point location approved by the fire department (Civil Defense) . Where the central control point is not a constantly attended location, a two-way communication system shall have a timed automatic telephone dial-out capability to a monitoring location or 911. The two-way communication system shall include both audible and visible signals.

1009.8.2 Directions. Directions for the use of the two-way communication system, instructions for summoning assistance via the two-way communication system and written identification of the location shall be posted adjacent to the two-way communication system. Signage shall comply with the ICC A117.1 requirements for visual characters. 1009.9 Signage. Signage indicating special accessibility provisions shall be provided as shown: 1. Each door providing access to an area of refuge from an adjacent floor area shall be

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identified by a sign stating: AREA OF REFUGE.

required by this code shall meet the requirements of this section.

2. Each door providing access to an exterior area for assisted rescue shall be identified by a sign stating: EXTERIOR AREA FOR ASSISTED RESCUE.

Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials.

Signage shall comply with the ICC A117.1 requirements for visual characters and include the International Symbol of Accessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by Section 1013.3, the signs shall be illuminated. Additionally, visual characters, raised character and braille signage complying with ICC A117.1 shall be located at each door to an area of refuge and exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Section 1013.4. 1009.10 Directional signage. Directional signage indicating the location of all other means of egress and which of those are accessible means of egress shall be provided at the following: 1. At exits serving a required accessible space but not providing an approved accessible means of egress. 2. At elevator landings. 3. Within areas of refuge.

1010.1.1 Size of door s. The required capacity of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a minimum clear width of 800 mm. Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees. Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 800 mm and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 800 mm. The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 1200 mm nominal. Means of egress doors in a Group I-2 occupancy used for the movement of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 1000 mm. The height of door openings shall be not less than 2000 mm). Exceptions:

1009.11 Instructions. In areas of refuge and exterior areas for assisted rescue, instructions on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted. Signage shall comply with the ICC A117.1 requirements for visual characters. The instructions shall include all of the following: 1. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as possible, unless they are assisting others. 2. Information on planned availability of assistance in the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators and how to summon such assistance. 3. Directions for use of the two-way communication system where provided.

SECTION 1010 DOORS, GATES AND TURNSTILES 1010.1 Doors. Means of egress doors shall meet the requirements of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1022.2. Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than

1. The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies. 2. Door openings to resident sleeping units in Group I-3 occupancies shall have a clear width of not less than 700 mm. 3. Door openings to storage closets less than 0.93 m2 in area shall not be limited by the minimum width. 4. Width of door leaves in revolving doors that comply with Section 1010.1.4.1 shall not be limited. 5. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall be not less than 2000 mm in height. 6. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and sleeping units, other than the required exit door, shall be not less than 1900 mm in height. 7. In other than Group R-1 occupancies, the minimum widths shall not apply to interior egress doors within a dwelling unit or

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sleeping unit that is not required to be an Accessible unit, Type A unit or Type B unit. 8. Door openings required to be accessible within Type B units shall have a minimum clear width of 800 mm. 9. Doors to walk-in freezers and coolers less than 93 m2 in area shall have a maximum width of 1500 mm. 10. In Group R-1 dwelling units or sleeping units not required to be Accessible units, the minimum width shall not apply to doors for showers or saunas. 1010.1.1.1 Projections into clear width. There shall not be projections into the required clear width lower than 850 mm above the floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 850 mm and 2000 mm above the floor or ground shall not exceed 100 mm. Exception: Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 2000 mm minimum above the floor. 1010.1.2 Door swing. Egress doors shall be of the pivoted or side-hinged swinging type. Exceptions:

1010.1.2.1 Direction of swing. Pivot or sidehinged swinging doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where serving a room or area containing an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group H occupancy. 1010.1.3 Door opening force. The force for pushing or pulling open interior swinging egress doors, other than fire doors, shall not exceed 22 N. These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door in a closed position. For other swinging doors, as well as sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a 67 N force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 133 N force. The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a 67 N force. 1010.1.3.1 Location of applied forces. Forces shall be applied to the latch side of the door. 1010.1.4 Special door s. Special doors and security grilles shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1010.1.4.1 through 1010.1.4.4. 1010.1.4.1 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall comply with the following:

1. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage areas with an occupant load of 10 or less.

1. Revolving doors shall comply with BHMA A156.27 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

2. Group I-3 occupancies used as a place of detention.

2. Each revolving door shall be capable of breakout in accordance with BHMA A156.27 and shall provide an aggregate width of not less than 900 mm.

3. Critical or intensive care patient rooms within suites of health care facilities. 4. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in Groups R-2 and R-3. 5. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving doors complying with Section 1010.1.4.1. 6. In other than Group H occupancies, special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies complying with Section 1010.1.4.3. 7. Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 1010.1.4.2. 8. Doors serving a bathroom within an individual sleeping unit in Group R-1. 9. In other than Group H occupancies, manually operated horizontal sliding doors are permitted in a means of egress from spaces with an occupant load of 10 or less.

3. A revolving door shall not be located within 3000 mm of the foot or top of stairways or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairways or escalators and the revolving doors. 4. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving door shall not exceed the maximum rpm as specified in BHMA A156.27. Manual revolving doors shall comply with Table 1010.1.4.1(1). Automatic or power-operated revolving doors shall comply with Table 1010.1.4.1(2). 5. An emergency stop switch shall be provided near each entry point of power or automatic operated revolving doors within 1200 mm of the door and between 600 mm and 1200 mm above the floor. The activation area of the emergency stop switch button shall be not less than 25 mm in diameter and shall be red.

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6. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged swinging door that complies with Section 1010.1 in the same wall and within 3000 mm of the revolving door. 7. Revolving doors shall not be part of an accessible route required by Section 1009 and Chapter 11. 1010.1.4.1.1 Egress component. A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1010.1.4.1 and the following three conditions: 1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the minimum width or required capacity. 2. Each revolving door shall be credited with a capacity based on not more than a 50-person occupant load. 3. Each revolving door shall provide for egress in accordance with BHMA A156.27 with a breakout force of not more than 578 N. 1010.1.4.1.2 Other than egress component. A revolving door used as other than a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1010.1.4.1. The breakout force of a revolving door not used as a component of a means of egress shall not be more than 801 N. Exception: A breakout force in excess of 801 N is permitted if the collapsing force is reduced to not more than 578 N when not less than one of the following conditions is satisfied:

manually to permit means of egress travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. The forces required to open these doors manually shall not exceed those specified in Section 1010.1.3, except that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 220 N. The door shall be capable of swinging open from any position to the full width of the opening in which such door is installed when a force is applied to the door on the side from which egress is made. Power-operated swinging doors, power-operated sliding doors and power-operated folding doors shall comply with BHMA A156.10. Power-assisted swinging doors and low-energy power-operated swinging doors shall comply with BHMA A156.19. Exceptions: 1. Occupancies in Group I-3. 2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 1010.1.4.3. 3. For a bi-parting door in the emergency breakout mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf opening shall be exempt from the minimum 800 mm single-leaf requirement of Section 1010.1.1, provided a minimum 800 mm clear opening is provided when the two bi-parting leaves meeting in the center are broken out.

1. There is a power failure or power is removed to the device holding the door wings in position.

1010.1.4.3 Special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding doors. In other than Group H occupancies, special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies permitted to be a component of a means of egress in accordance with Exception 6 to Section 1010.1.2 shall comply with all of the following criteria:

2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprinkler system where such system is provided.

1. The doors shall be power operated and shall be capable of being operated manually in the event of power failure.

3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection system that is installed in accordance with Section 907 to provide coverage in areas within the building that are within 23 m of the revolving doors.

2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method from both sides without special knowledge or effort.

4. There is an actuation of a manual control switch, in an approved location and clearly identified, that reduces the breakout force to not more than 578 N. 1010.1.4.2 Power-operated doors. Where means of egress doors are operated or assisted by power, the design shall be such that in the event of power failure, the door is capable of being opened

3. The force required to operate the door shall not exceed 133 N to set the door in motion and 67 N to close the door or open it to the minimum required width. 4. The door shall be openable with a force not to exceed 67 N when a force of 1100 N is applied perpendicular to the door adjacent to the operating device. 5. The door assembly shall comply with the applicable fire protection rating and, where

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rated, shall be self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80 and shall comply with Section 716. 6. The door assembly shall have an integrated standby power supply. 7. The door assembly power supply shall be electrically supervised. 8. The door shall open to the minimum required width within 10 seconds after activation of the operating device. 1010.1.4.4 Security grilles. In Groups B, F, M and S, horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permitted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort during periods that the space is occupied. The grilles shall remain secured in the full-open position during the period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or more means of egress are required, not more than one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles. 1010.1.5 Floor elevation. There shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope). Exceptions: 1. Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 where the following apply: 1.1. A door is permitted to open at the top step of an interior flight of stairs, provided the door does not swing over the top step. 1.2. Screen doors and storm doors are permitted to swing over stairs or landings. 2. Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, Exception 1, and Section 1022.2, which are not on an accessible route.

exterior storm or screen door, does not swing over the landing. 4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish materials, but not more than 13 mm. 5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of Type B dwelling units, have impervious surfaces and that are not more than 100 mm below the finished floor level of the adjacent interior space of the dwelling unit. 6. Doors serving equipment spaces not required to be accessible in accordance with Section 1103.2.9 and serving an occupant load of five or less shall be permitted to have a landing on one side to be not more than 175 mm above or below the landing on the egress side of the door. 1010.1.6 Landings at doors. Landings shall have a width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 180 mm. Where a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in any position shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length measured in the direction of travel of not less than 1100 mm. Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in Groups R-3 and U and within individual units of Group R-2 need not exceed 900 mm. 1010.1.7 Thr esholds. Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 20 mm in height above the finished floor or landing for sliding doors serving dwelling units or 13 mm above the finished floor or landing for other doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes greater than 6 mm at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent slope). Exceptions: 1. In occupancy Group R-2 or R-3, threshold heights for sliding and side-hinged exterior doors shall be permitted to be up to 200 mm in height if all of the following apply:

3. In Group R-3 occupancies not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the landing at an exterior doorway shall be not more than 200 mm below the top of the threshold, provided the door, other than an

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1.3. The door is not part of an Accessible unit, Type A unit or Type B unit.

locking devices operated by means of a key, electronic opener or integral combination lock.

2. In Type B units, where Exception 5 to Section 1010.1.5 permits a 100 mm elevation change at the door, the threshold height on the exterior side of the door shall not exceed 120 mm in height above the exterior deck, patio or balcony for sliding doors or 115 mm above the exterior deck, patio or balcony for other doors.

1010.1.9.3 Locks and latches. Locks and latches shall be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of the following exist:

1010.1.8 Door ar r angement. Space between two doors in a series shall be 1200 mm minimum plus the width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in a series shall swing either in the same direction or away from the space between the doors.

1. Places of detention or restraint. 2. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an occupant load of 300 or less, Groups B, F, M and S, the main door or doors are permitted to be equipped with key-operated locking devices from the egress side provided: 2.1. The locking device distinguishable as locked.

1. The minimum distance between horizontal sliding power-operated doors in a series shall be 1200 mm. 2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be spaced 1200 mm from the other door.

1010.1.9 Door oper ations. Except as specifically permitted by this section, egress doors shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. 1010.1.9.1 Hardware. Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices on doors required to be accessible by Chapter 11 shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or twisting of the wrist to operate. 1010.1.9.2 Hardware height. Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices shall be installed 850 mm minimum and 1200 mm maximum above the finished floor. Locks used only for security purposes and not used for normal operation are permitted at any height. Exception: Access doors or gates in barrier walls and fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall be permitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on self-latching devices at 1400 mm maximum above the finished floor or ground, provided the self-latching devices are not also self-

readily

2.2. A readily visible durable sign is posted on the egress side on or adjacent to the door stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN THIS SPACE IS OCCUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 25 mm high on a contrasting background.

Exceptions:

3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 other than within Type A dwelling units.

is

2.3. The use of the key-operated locking device is revokable by the building official for due cause. 3. Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved automatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, provided that the door leaf having the automatic flush bolts does not have a doorknob or surface-mounted hardware. 4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units of Group R occupancies having an occupant load of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided such devices are openable from the inside without the use of a key or tool. 5. Fire doors after the minimum elevated temperature has disabled the unlatching mechanism in accordance with listed fire door test procedures. 1010.1.9.4 Bolt locks. Manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts are not permitted. Exceptions: 1. On doors not required for egress in individual dwelling units or sleeping units. 2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equipment room, manually operated edge-or

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surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf. 3. Where a pair of doors serves an occupant load of less than 50 persons in a Group B, F or S occupancy, manually operated edge-or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf. The inactive leaf shall not contain doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware. 4. Where a pair of doors serves a Group B, F or S occupancy, manually operated edge-or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf provided such inactive leaf is not needed to meet egress capacity requirements and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The inactive leaf shall not contain doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware. 5. Where a pair of doors serves patient care rooms in Group I-2 occupancies, selflatching edge-or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf provided that the inactive leaf is not needed to meet egress capacity requirements and the inactive leaf shall not contain doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware. 1010.1.9.5 Unlatching. The unlatching of any door or leaf shall not require more than one operation. Exceptions: 1. Places of detention or restraint. 2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permitted by Section 1010.1.9.4. 3. Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted by Section 1010.1.9.3, Item 3. 4. Doors from individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R occupancies as permitted by Section 1010.1.9.3, Item 4. 1010.1.9.5.1 Closet and bathroom doors in Group R-4 occupancies. In Group R-4 occupancies, closet doors that latch in the closed position shall be openable from inside the closet, and bathroom doors that latch in the closed position shall be capable of being unlocked from the ingress side. 1010.1.9.6 Controlled egress doors in Groups I-1 and I-2. Electric locking systems, including electro-mechanical locking systems and

electromagnetic locking systems, shall be permitted to be locked in the means of egress in Group I-1 or I-2 occupancies where the clinical needs of persons receiving care require their containment. Controlled egress doors shall be permitted in such occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, provided that the doors are installed and operate in accordance with all of the following: 1. The door locks shall unlock on actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system. 2. The door locks shall unlock on loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism. 3. The door locking system shall be installed to have the capability of being unlocked by a switch located at the fire command center, a nursing station or other approved location. The switch shall directly break power to the lock. 4. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a controlled egress locking system before entering an exit. 5. The procedures for unlocking the doors shall be described and approved as part of the emergency planning and preparedness required by Chapter 4 of the International Fire Code. 6. All clinical staff shall have the keys, codes or other means necessary to operate the locking systems. 7. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door. 8. The door locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294. Exceptions: 1. Items 1 through 4 shall not apply to doors to areas occupied by persons who, because of clinical needs, require restraint or containment as part of the function of a psychiatric treatment area. 2. Items 1 through 4 shall not apply to doors to areas where a listed egress control system is utilized to reduce the risk of child abduction

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from nursery and obstetric areas of a Group I-2 hospital.

6.1. For doors that swing in the direction of egress, the sign shall read: PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] SECONDS.

1010.1.9.7 Delayed egress. Delayed egress locking systems shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E and H in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system installed in accordance with Section 907. The locking system shall be installed and operated in accordance with all of the following: 1. The delay electronics of the delayed egress locking system shall deactivate upon actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system, allowing immediate, free egress. 2. The delay electronics of the delayed egress locking system shall deactivate upon loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism, allowing immediate free egress. 3. The delayed egress locking system shall have the capability of being deactivated at the fire command center and other approved locations. 4. An attempt to egress shall initiate an irreversible process that shall allow such egress in not more than 15 seconds when a physical effort to exit is applied to the egress side door hardware for not more than 3 seconds. Initiation of the irreversible process shall activate an audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the delay electronics have been deactivated, rearming the delay electronics shall be by manual means only. Exception: Where approved, a delay of not more than 30 seconds is permitted on a delayed egress door. 5. The egress path from any point shall not pass through more than one delayed egress locking system. Exception: In Group I-2 or I-3 occupancies, the egress path from any point in the building shall pass through not more than two delayed egress locking systems provided the combined delay does not exceed 30 seconds. 6. A sign shall be provided on the door and shall be located above and within 300 mm of the door exit hardware:

6.2. For doors that swing in the opposite direction of egress, the sign shall read: PULL UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] SECONDS. 6.3. The sign shall comply with the visual character requirements in ICC A117.1. Exception: Where approved, in Group I occupancies, the installation of a sign is not required where care recipients who because of clinical needs require restraint or containment as part of the function of the treatment area. 7. Emergency lighting shall be provided on the egress side of the door. 8. The delayed egress locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294. 1010.1.9.8 Sensor release of electrically locked egress doors. The electric locks on sensor released doors located in a means of egress in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E, I-1, I-2, I-4, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Group A, B, E, I-1, I-2, I4, M, R-1 or R-2 are permitted where installed and operated in accordance with all of the following criteria: 1. The sensor shall be installed on the egress side, arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a signal from or loss of power to the sensor. 2. Loss of power to the lock or locking system shall automatically unlock the doors. 3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a manual unlocking device located 1000 mm to 1200 mm vertically above the floor and within 1500 mm of the secured doors. Ready access shall be provided to the manual unlocking device and the device shall be clearly identified by a sign that reads “PUSH TO EXIT.” When operated, the manual unlocking device shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock— independent of other electronics—and the doors shall remain unlocked for not less than 30 seconds.

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4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, where provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler system or fire detection system, where provided, shall automatically unlock the doors. The doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 6. The door locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294. 1010.1.9.9 Electromagnetically locked egress doors. Doors in the means of egress in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E, I-1, I-2, I-4, M, R-1 or R-2 and doors to tenant spaces in Group A, B, E, I-1, I-2, I-4, M, R-1 or R-2 shall be permitted to be locked with an electromagnetic locking system where equipped with hardware that incorporates a built-in switch and where installed and operated in accordance with all of the following: 1. The hardware that is affixed to the door leaf has an obvious method of operation that is readily operated under all lighting conditions. 2. The hardware is capable of being operated with one hand. 3. Operation of the hardware directly interrupts the power to the electromagnetic lock and unlocks the door immediately. 4. Loss of power to the locking system automatically unlocks the door. 5. Where panic or fire exit hardware is required by Section 1010.1.10, operation of the panic or fire exit hardware also releases the electromagnetic lock. 6. The locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294. 1010.1.9.10 Locking arrangements in correctional facilities. In occupancies in Groups A-2, A-3, A-4, B, E, F, I-2, I3, M and S within correctional and detention facilities, doors in means of egress serving rooms or spaces occupied by persons whose movements are controlled for security reasons shall be permitted to be locked where equipped with egress control devices that shall unlock manually and by not less than one of the following means:

1. Activation of an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 2. Activation of an approved manual fire alarm box. 3. A signal from a constantly attended location. 1010.1.9.11 Stairway doors. Interior stairway means of egress doors shall be openable from both sides without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. Exceptions: 1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side. 2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in accordance with Section 403.5.3. 3. In stairways serving not more than four stories, doors are permitted to be locked from the side opposite the egress side, provided they are openable from the egress side and capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center, if present, or a signal by emergency personnel from a single location inside the main entrance to the building. 4. Stairway exit doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side in Group B, F, M and S occupancies where the only interior access to the tenant space is from a single exit stairway where permitted in Section 1006.3.2. 5. Stairway exit doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side in Group R-2 occupancies where the only interior access to the dwelling unit is from a single exit stairway where permitted in Section 1006.3.2. 1010.1.10 Panic and fire exit har dwar e. Doors serving a Group H occupancy and doors serving rooms or spaces with an occupant load of 50 or more in a Group A or E occupancy shall not be provided with a latch or lock other than panic hardware or fire exit hardware. Exceptions: 1. A main exit of a Group A occupancy shall be permitted to be locking in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.3, Item 2.

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2. Doors serving a Group A or E occupancy shall be permitted to be electromagnetically locked in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.9. Electrical rooms with equipment rated 1,200 amperes or more and over 1800 mm wide, and that contain overcurrent devices, switching devices or control devices with exit or exit access doors, shall be equipped with panic hardware or fire exit hardware. The doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel. 1010.1.10.1 Installation. Where panic or fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the following: 1. Panic hardware shall be listed in accordance with UL 305. 2. Fire exit hardware shall be listed in accordance with UL 10C and UL 305. 3. The actuating portion of the releasing device shall extend not less than one-half of the door leaf width. 4. The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 67 N. 1010.1.10.2 Balanced doors. If balanced doors are used and panic hardware is required, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and the pad shall not extend more than one-half the width of the door measured from the latch side. 1010.2 Gates. Gates serving the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a component in a means of egress shall conform to the applicable requirements for doors. Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding the 1200 mm maximum leaf width limitation are permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium. 1010.2.1 Stadiums. Panic hardware is not required on gates surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant immediate supervision while the public is present, and where safe dispersal areas based on 0.28 m2 per occupant are located between the fence and enclosed space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 15 m from the enclosed space. See Section 1028.5 for means of egress from safe dispersal areas. 1010.3 Turnstiles. Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict travel to one direction shall not be

placed so as to obstruct any required means of egress. Exception: Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited with a capacity based on not more than a 50-person occupant load where all of the following provisions are met: 1. Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress travel when primary power is lost and on the manual release by an employee in the area. 2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity or width. 3. Each device is not more than 990 mm high. 4. Each device has not less than 420 mm clear width at and below a height of 990 mm and not less than 560 mm clear width at heights above 990 mm. Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles shall have not less than 900 mm clear at and below a height of 850 mm, not less than 800 mm clear width between 850 mm and 2000 mm and shall consist of a mechanism other than a revolving device. 1010.3.1 High tur nstile. Turnstiles more than 990 mm high shall meet the requirements for revolving doors. 1010.3.2 Additional door . Where serving an occupant load greater than 300, each turnstile that is not portable shall have a side-hinged swinging door that conforms to Section 1010.1 within 15 m.

SECTION 1011 STAIRWAYS 1011.1 General. Stairways serving occupied portions of a building shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1011.2 through 1011.13. Alternating tread devices shall comply with Section 1011.14. Ship’s ladders shall comply with Section 1011.15. Ladders shall comply with Section 1011.16. Exception: Within rooms or spaces used for assembly purposes, stepped aisles shall comply with Section 1029. 1011.2 Width and capacity. The required capacity of stairways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but the minimum width

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shall be not less than 1100 mm. See Section 1009.3 for accessible means of egress stairways. Exceptions: 1. Stairways serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall have a width of not less than 900 mm. 2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1011.10. 3. Where an incline platform lift or stairway chairlift is installed on stairways serving occupancies in Group R-3, or within dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, a clear passage width not less than 500 mm shall be provided. Where the seat and platform can be folded when not in use, the distance shall be measured from the folded position. 1011.3 Headroom. Stairways shall have a headroom clearance of not less than 2000 mm measured vertically from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the full width of the stairway and landing. Exceptions: 1. Spiral stairways complying with Section 1011.10 are permitted a 2000 mm headroom clearance. 2. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; where the nosings of treads at the side of a flight extend under the edge of a floor opening through which the stair passes, the floor opening shall be allowed to project horizontally into the required headroom not more than 120 mm. 1011.4 Walkline. The walkline across winder treads shall be concentric to the direction of travel through the turn and located 300 mm from the side where the winders are narrower. The 300 mm dimension shall be measured from the widest point of the clear stair width at the walking surface of the winder. Where winders are adjacent within the flight, the point of the widest clear stair width of the adjacent winders shall be used.

1011.5 Stair treads and risers. Stair treads and risers shall comply with Sections 1011.5.1 through 1011.5.5.3. 1011.5.1 Dimension reference surfaces. For the purpose of this section, all dimensions are exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners. 1011.5.2 Riser height and tread depth. Stair riser heights shall be 180 mm maximum and 100 mm minimum. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the nosings of adjacent treads. Rectangular tread depths shall be 280 mm minimum measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread’s nosing. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 280 mm between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the intersections with the walkline and a minimum tread depth of 250 mm within the clear width of the stair. Exceptions: 1. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1011.10. 2. Stairways connecting stepped aisles to cross aisles or concourses shall be permitted to use the riser/ tread dimension in Section 1029.13.2. 3. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; the maximum riser height shall be 200 mm; the minimum tread depth shall be 250 mm; the minimum winder tread depth at the walkline shall be 250 mm; and the minimum winder tread depth shall be 150 mm. A nosing projection not less than 19 mm but not more than 32 mm shall be provided on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is less than 275 mm). 4. See Section 403.1 of the SBC 901 for the replacement of existing stairways. 5. In Group I-3 facilities, stairways providing access to guard towers, observation stations and control rooms, not more than 23 m2 in area, shall be permitted to have a maximum riser height of 200 mm and a minimum tread depth of 230 mm.

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1011.5.3 Winder treads. Winder treads are not permitted in means of egress stairways except within a dwelling unit.

1011.5.5.1 Nosing projection size. The leading edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 32 mm beyond the tread below.

Exceptions:

1011.5.5.2 Nosing projection uniformity. Nosing projections of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, including the projections of the nosing’s leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight.

1. Curved stairways in accordance with Section 1011.9. 2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1011.10. 1011.5.4 Dimensional uniformity. Stair treads and risers shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between the largest and smallest riser height or between the largest and smallest tread depth shall not exceed 9.5 mm in any flight of stairs. The greatest winder tread depth at the walkline within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 9.5 mm. Exceptions: 1. Stairways connecting stepped aisles to cross aisles or concourses shall be permitted to comply with the dimensional non-uniformity in Section 1029.13.2. 2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with Section 1011.5, differing from rectangular treads in the same flight of stairs. 3. Non-uniform riser dimension complying with Section 1011.5.4.1. 1011.5.4.1 Nonuniform height risers. Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public way, walkway or driveway having an established grade and serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to be reduced along the slope to less than 100 mm in height, with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope) of stair width. The nosings or leading edges of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a distinctive marking stripe, different from any other nosing marking provided on the stair flight. The distinctive marking stripe shall be visible in descent of the stair and shall have a slip-resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a width of not less than 25 mm but not more than 50 mm. 1011.5.5 Nosing and riser pr ofile. Nosings shall have a curvature or bevel of not less than 1.6 mm but not more than 14.3 mm from the foremost projection of the tread. Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped under the tread above from the underside of the nosing above at an angle not more than 30 degrees from the vertical.

1011.5.5.3

Solid risers. Risers shall be solid.

Exceptions: 1. Solid risers are not required for stairways that are not required to comply with Section 1009.3, provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 100 mm. 2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in Group I-3 or in Group F, H and S occupancies other than areas accessible to the public. There are no restrictions on the size of the opening in the riser. 3. Solid risers are not required for spiral stairways constructed in accordance with Section 1011.10. 1011.6 Stairway landings. There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings shall be not less than the width of stairways served. Every landing shall have a minimum width measured perpendicular to the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Where the stairway has a straight run the depth need not exceed 1200 mm. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half the required width. When fully open, the door shall not project more than 175 mm into a landing. Where wheelchair spaces are required on the stairway landing in accordance with Section 1009.6.3, the wheelchair space shall not be located in the required width of the landing and doors shall not swing over the wheelchair spaces. Exception: Where stairways connect stepped aisles to cross aisles or concourses, stairway landings are not required at the transition between stairways and stepped aisles constructed in accordance with Section 1029. 1011.7 Stairway construction. Stairways shall be built of materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall be permitted for all types of construction.

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1011.7.1 Stair way walking surface. The walking surface of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be securely attached. Exceptions: 1. Openings in stair walking surfaces shall be a size that does not permit the passage of 13 mm sphere. Elongated openings shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the direction of travel. 2. In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than areas of parking structures accessible to the public, openings in treads and landings shall not be prohibited provided a sphere with a diameter of 30 mm cannot pass through the opening. 1011.7.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor stairways and outdoor approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. 1011.7.3 Enclosures under inter ior stairways. The walls and soffits within enclosed usable spaces under enclosed and unenclosed stairways shall be protected by 1-hour fireresistance-rated construction or the fire-resistance rating of the stairway enclosure, whichever is greater. Access to the enclosed space shall not be directly from within the stairway enclosure. Exception: Spaces under stairways serving and contained within a single residential dwelling unit in Group R-2 or R-3 shall be permitted to be protected on the enclosed side with 13 mm gypsum board. 1011.7.4 Enclosures under exterior stairways. There shall not be enclosed usable space under exterior exit stairways unless the space is completely enclosed in 1-hour fireresistance-rated construction. The open space under exterior stairways shall not be used for any purpose. 1011.8 Vertical rise. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise greater than 3600 mm between floor levels or landings. Exception: Spiral stairways used as a means of egress from technical production areas. 1011.9 Curved stairways. Curved stairways with winder treads shall have treads and risers in

accordance with Section 1011.5 and the smallest radius shall be not less than twice the minimum width or required capacity of the stairway. Exception: The radius restriction shall not apply to curved stairways in Group R-3 and within individual dwelling units in Group R-2. 1011.10 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted to be used as a component in the means of egress only within dwelling units or from a space not more than 23 m2 in area and serving not more than five occupants, or from technical production areas in accordance with Section 410.6. A spiral stairway shall have a 190 mm minimum clear tread depth at a point 300 mm from the narrow edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 2000 mm minimum, but riser height shall not be more than 240 mm. The minimum stairway clear width at and below the handrail shall be 650 mm. 1011.11 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each side and shall comply with Section 1014. Where glass is used to provide the handrail, the handrail shall comply with Section 2407. Exceptions: 1. Stairways within dwelling units and spiral stairways are permitted to have a handrail on one side only. 2. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change in elevation where the landing depth on each side of the change of elevation is greater than what is required for a landing do not require handrails. 3. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation consisting of a single riser at an entrance or egress door does not require handrails. 4. Changes in room elevations of three or fewer risers within dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R- 2 and R-3 do not require handrails. 1011.12 Stairway to roof. In buildings four or more stories above grade plane, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface unless the roof has a slope steeper than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope). Exception: Other than where required by Section 1011.12.1, in buildings without an occupied roof access to the roof from the top story shall be

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permitted to be by an alternating tread device, a ship’s ladder or a permanent ladder.

at the same elevation as the platform, landing or floor surface.

1011.12.1 Stair way to elevator equipment. Roofs and penthouses containing elevator equipment that must be accessed for maintenance are required to be accessed by a stairway.

Exception: Alternating tread devices used as an element of a means of egress in buildings from a mezzanine area not more than 23 m2 in area that serves not more than five occupants shall have a minimum tread depth of 75 mm with a minimum projected tread depth of 265 mm. The rise to the next alternating tread surface shall not exceed 200 mm.

1011.12.2 Roof access. Where a stairway is provided to a roof, access to the roof shall be provided through a penthouse complying with Section 1510.2. Exception: In buildings without an occupied roof, access to the roof shall be permitted to be a roof hatch or trap door not less than 1.5 m2 in area and having a minimum dimension of 600 mm. 1011.13 Guards. Guards shall be provided along stairways and landings where required by Section 1015 and shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1015. Where the roof hatch opening providing the required access is located within 3000 mm of the roof edge, such roof access or roof edge shall be protected by guards installed in accordance with Section 1015. 1011.14 Alternating tread devices. Alternating tread devices are limited to an element of a means of egress in buildings of Groups F, H and S from a mezzanine not more than 23 m2 in area and that serves not more than five occupants; in buildings of Group I-3 from a guard tower, observation station or control room not more than 23 m2 in area and for access to unoccupied roofs. Alternating tread devices used as a means of egress shall not have a rise greater than 6000 mm between floor levels or landings. 1011.14.1 Handr ails of alter nating tr ead devices. Handrails shall be provided on both sides of alternating tread devices and shall comply with Section 1014. 1011.14.2 Treads of alter nating tr ead devices. Alternating tread devices shall have a minimum tread depth of 125 mm, a minimum projected tread depth of 215 mm, a minimum tread width of 175 mm and a maximum riser height of 240 mm. The tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projections of adjacent treads. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent treads. The riser height and tread depth provided shall result in an angle of ascent from the horizontal of between 50 and 70 degrees. The initial tread of the device shall begin

1011.15 Ship’s ladders. Ship’s ladders are permitted to be used in Group I-3 as a component of a means of egress to and from control rooms or elevated facility observation stations not more than 23 m2 with not more than three occupants and for access to unoccupied roofs. The minimum clear width at and below the handrails shall be 500 mm. 1011.15.1 Handr ails of ship’s ladder s. Handrails shall be provided on both sides of ship’s ladders. 1011.15.2 Treads of ship’s ladder s. Ship’s ladders shall have a minimum tread depth of 125 mm. The tread shall be projected such that the total of the tread depth plus the nosing projection is not less than 215 mm. The maximum riser height shall be 240 mm. 1011.16 Ladders. Permanent ladders shall not serve as a part of the means of egress from occupied spaces within a building. Permanent ladders shall be permitted to provide access to the following areas: 1. Spaces frequented only by personnel for maintenance, repair or monitoring of equipment. 2. Non-occupiable spaces accessed only by catwalks, crawl spaces, freight elevators or very narrow passageways. 3. Raised areas used primarily for purposes of security, life safety or fire safety including, but not limited to, observation galleries, prison guard towers, fire towers or lifeguard stands. 4. Elevated levels in Group U not open to the general public. 5. Non-occupied roofs that are not required to have stairway access in accordance with Section 1011.12.1. 6. Ladders shall be constructed in accordance with Section 306.5 of the SBC 501.

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SECTION 1012 RAMPS 1012.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to ramps used as a component of a means of egress. Exceptions: 1. Ramped aisles within assembly rooms or spaces shall comply with the provisions in Section 1029. 2. Curb ramps shall comply with ICC A117.1. 3. Vehicle ramps in parking garages for pedestrian exit access shall not be required to comply with Sections 1012.3 through 1012.10 where they are not an accessible route serving accessible parking spaces, other required accessible elements or part of an accessible means of egress. 1012.2 Slope. Ramps used as part of a means of egress shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope). The slope of other pedestrian ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope).

1012.6 Landings. Ramps shall have landings at the bottom and top of each ramp, points of turning, entrance, exits and at doors. Landings shall comply with Sections 1012.6.1 through 1012.6.5. 1012.6.1 Slope. Landings shall have a slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in any direction. Changes in level are not permitted. 1012.6.2 Width. The landing width shall be not less than the width of the widest ramp run adjoining the landing. 1012.6.3 Length. The landing length shall be 1500 mm minimum. Exceptions: 1. In Group R-2 and R-3 individual dwelling and sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units in accordance with Section 1107, landings are permitted to be 900 mm minimum. 2. Where the ramp is not a part of an accessible route, the length of the landing shall not be required to be more than 1200 mm in the direction of travel.

1012.3 Cross slope. The slope measured perpendicular to the direction of travel of a ramp shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope).

1012.6.4 Change in direction. Where changes in direction of travel occur at landings provided between ramp runs, the landing shall be 1500 mm by 1500 mm minimum.

1012.4 Vertical rise. The rise for any ramp run shall be 750 mm maximum.

Exception: In Group R-2 and R-3 individual dwelling or sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units in accordance with Section 1107, landings are permitted to be 900 mm by 900 mm by 900 mm minimum.

1012.5 Minimum dimensions. The minimum dimensions of means of egress ramps shall comply with Sections 1012.5.1 through 1012.5.3. 1012.5.1 Width and capacity. The minimum width and required capacity of a means of egress ramp shall be not less than that required for corridors by Section 1020.2. The clear width of a ramp between handrails, if provided, or other permissible projections shall be 900 mm minimum. 1012.5.2 Headr oom. The minimum headroom in all parts of the means of egress ramp shall be not less than 2000 mm. 1012.5.3 Restr ictions. Means of egress ramps shall not reduce in width in the direction of egress travel. Projections into the required ramp and landing width are prohibited. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the clear width to less than 1000 mm.

1012.6.5 Doorways. Where doorways are located adjacent to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances required by ICC A117.1 are permitted to overlap the required landing area. 1012.7 Ramp construction. Ramps shall be built of materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall be permitted for all types of construction. 1012.7.1 Ramp surface. The surface of ramps shall be of slip-resistant materials that are securely attached. 1012.7.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor ramps and outdoor approaches to ramps shall be

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designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. 1012.8 Handrails. Ramps with a rise greater than 150 mm shall have handrails on both sides. Handrails shall comply with Section 1014. 1012.9 Guards. Guards shall be provided where required by Section 1015 and shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1015. 1012.10 Edge protection. Edge protection complying with Section 1012.10.1 or 1012.10.2 shall be provided on each side of ramp runs and at each side of ramp landings. Exceptions: 1. Edge protection is not required on ramps that are not required to have handrails, provided they have flared sides that comply with the ICC A117.1 curb ramp provisions. 2. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp landings serving an adjoining ramp run or stairway. 3. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp landings having a vertical dropoff of not more than 13 mm within 250 mm horizontally of the required landing area. 1012.10.1 Cur b, rail, wall or bar r ier. A curb, rail, wall or barrier shall be provided to serve as edge protection. A curb shall be not less than 100 mm in height. Barriers shall be constructed so that the barrier prevents the passage of a 100 mmdiameter sphere, where any portion of the sphere is within 100 mm of the floor or ground surface. 1012.10.2 Extended floor or ground surface. The floor or ground surface of the ramp run or landing shall extend 300 mm minimum beyond the inside face of a handrail complying with Section 1014.

exit passageway is more than 30 m or the listed viewing distance for the sign, whichever is less, from the nearest visible exit sign. Exceptions: 1. Exit signs are not required in rooms or areas that require only one exit or exit access. 2. Main exterior exit doors or gates that are obviously and clearly identifiable as exits need not have exit signs where approved by the building official. 3. Exit signs are not required in occupancies in Group U and individual sleeping units or dwelling units in Group R-1, R-2 or R-3. 4. Exit signs are not required in dayrooms, sleeping rooms or dormitories in occupancies in Group I-3. 5. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exit signs are not required on the seating side of vomitories or openings into seating areas where exit signs are provided in the concourse that are readily apparent from the vomitories. Egress lighting is provided to identify each vomitory or opening within the seating area in an emergency. 1013.2 Floor-level exit signs in Group R-1. Where exit signs are required in Group R-1 occupancies by Section 1013.1, additional lowlevel exit signs shall be provided in all areas serving guest rooms in Group R-1 occupancies and shall comply with Section 1013.5. The bottom of the sign shall be not less than 250 mm nor more than 300 mm above the floor level. The sign shall be flush mounted to the door or wall. Where mounted on the wall, the edge of the sign shall be within 100 mm of the door frame on the latch side. 1013.3 Illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated.

SECTION 1013 EXIT SIGNS 1013.1 Where required. Exits and exit access doors shall be marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direction of egress travel. The path of egress travel to exits and within exits shall be marked by readily visible exit signs to clearly indicate the direction of egress travel in cases where the exit or the path of egress travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Intervening means of egress doors within exits shall be marked by exit signs. Exit sign placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor or

Exception: Tactile signs required by Section 1013.4 need not be provided with illumination. 1013.4 Raised character and braille exit signs. A sign stating EXIT in visual characters, raised characters and braille and complying with ICC A117.1 shall be provided adjacent to each door to an area of refuge, an exterior area for assisted rescue, an exit stairway or ramp, an exit passageway and the exit discharge. 1013.5 Internally illuminated exit signs. Electrically powered, self-luminous and

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photoluminescent exit signs shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 924 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and Chapter 27. Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. 1013.6 Externally illuminated exit signs. Externally illuminated exit signs shall comply with Sections 1013.6.1 through 1013.6.3. 1013.6.1 Gr aphics. Every exit sign and directional exit sign shall have plainly legible letters not less than 150 mm high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than 20 mm wide. The word “EXIT” shall have letters having a width not less than 50 mm wide, except the letter “I,” and the minimum spacing between letters shall be not less than 10 mm. Signs larger than the minimum established in this section shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height. The word “EXIT” shall be in high contrast with the background and shall be clearly discernible when the means of exit sign illumination is or is not energized. If a chevron directional indicator is provided as part of the exit sign, the construction shall be such that the direction of the chevron directional indicator cannot be readily changed. 1013.6.2 Exit sign illumination. The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than 55 lux. 1013.6.3 Power source. Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. To ensure continued illumination for a duration of not less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the sign illumination means shall be connected to an emergency power system provided from storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Chapter 27. Exceptions: 1. Approved exit sign illumination means that provide continuous illumination independent of external power sources for a duration of not less than 90 minutes, in case of primary power loss, are not required to be connected to an emergency electrical system. 2. Group I-2 Condition 2 exit sign illumination shall not be provided by unit equipment battery only.

SECTION 1014 HANDRAILS 1014.1 Where required. Handrails serving stairways, ramps, stepped aisles and ramped aisles

shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with SBC 201 Section 1607.8. Handrails required for stairways by Section 1011.11 shall comply with Sections 1014.2 through 1014.9. Handrails required for ramps by Section 1012.8 shall comply with Sections 1014.2 through 1014.8. Handrails for stepped aisles and ramped aisles required by Section 1029.15 shall comply with Sections 1014.2 through 1014.8. 1014.2 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair tread nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be uniform, not less than 850 mm and not more than 950 mm. Handrail height of alternating tread devices and ship’s ladders, measured above tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 750 mm and not more than 850 mm. Exceptions: 1. Where handrail fittings or bendings are used to provide continuous transition between flights, the fittings or bendings shall be permitted to exceed the maximum height. 2. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are associated with a Group R-3 occupancy or associated with individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; where handrail fittings or bendings are used to provide continuous transition between flights, transition at winder treads, transition from handrail to guard, or where used at the start of a flight, the handrail height at the fittings or bendings shall be permitted to exceed the maximum height. 3. Handrails on top of a guard where permitted along stepped aisles and ramped aisles in accordance with Section 1029.15. 1014.3 Handrail graspability. Required handrails shall comply with Section 1014.3.1 or shall provide equivalent graspability. Exception: In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; handrails shall be Type I in accordance with Section 1014.3.1, Type II in accordance with Section 1014.3.2 or shall provide equivalent graspability. 1014.3.1 Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of not less than 32 mm and not greater than 50 mm. Where

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the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of not less than 100 mm and not greater than 160 mm with a maximum cross-sectional dimension of 60 mm and minimum cross-sectional dimension of 25 mm. Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.25 mm. 1014.3.2 Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 160 mm shall provide a graspable finger recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall begin within a distance of 20 mm measured vertically from the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a depth of not less than 8 mm within 22 mm below the widest portion of the profile. This required depth shall continue for not less than 10 mm to a level that is not less than 45 mm below the tallest portion of the profile. The width of the handrail above the recess shall be not less than 32 mm to not greater than 70 mm. Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.25 mm. 1014.4 Continuity.Exceptions: 1. Handrails within dwelling units are permitted to be interrupted by a newel post at a turn or landing. 2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout, starting easing or starting newel is allowed over the lowest tread. 3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bottom surface of the handrail that do not project horizontally beyond the sides of the handrail within 38 mm of the bottom of the handrail shall not be considered obstructions. For each 13 mm of additional handrail perimeter dimension above 100 mm, the vertical clearance dimension of 38 mm shall be permitted to be reduced by 3 mm. 4. Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces with slopes not steeper than 1:20, the bottoms of the handrail gripping surfaces shall be permitted to be obstructed along their entire length where they are integral to crash rails or bumper guards. 5. Handrails serving stepped aisles or ramped aisles are permitted to be discontinuous in accordance with Section 1029.15.1. 1014.5 Fittings. Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings. 1014.6 Handrail extensions. Handrails shall return to a wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent

flight of stairs or ramp run. Where handrails are not continuous between flights, the handrails shall extend horizontally not less than 300 mm beyond the top riser and continue to slope for the depth of one tread beyond the bottom riser. At ramps where handrails are not continuous between runs, the handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing 300 mm minimum beyond the top and bottom of ramp runs. The extensions of handrails shall be in the same direction of the flights of stairs at stairways and the ramp runs at ramps. Exceptions: 1. Handrails within a dwelling unit that is not required to be accessible need extend only from the top riser to the bottom riser. 2. Handrails serving aisles in rooms or spaces used for assembly purposes are permitted to comply with the handrail extensions in accordance with Section 1029.15. 3. Handrails for alternating tread devices and ship’s ladders are permitted to terminate at a location vertically above the top and bottom risers. Handrails for alternating tread devices are not required to be continuous between flights or to extend beyond the top or bottom risers. 1014.7 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail and a wall or other surface shall be not less than 38 mm. A handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements. 1014.8 Projections. On ramps and on ramped aisles that are part of an accessible route, the clear width between handrails shall be 900 mm minimum. Projections into the required width of aisles, stairways and ramps at each side shall not exceed 115 mm at or below the handrail height. Projections into the required width shall not be limited above the minimum headroom height required in Section 1011.3. Projections due to intermediate handrails shall not constitute a reduction in the egress width. Where a pair of intermediate handrails are provided within the stairway width without a walking surface between the pair of intermediate handrails and the distance between the pair of intermediate handrails is greater than 150 mm, the available egress width shall be reduced by the distance between the closest edges of each such intermediate pair of handrails that is greater than 150 mm.

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1014.9 Intermediate handrails. Stairways shall have intermediate handrails located in such a manner that all portions of the stairway minimum width or required capacity are within 750 mm of a handrail. On monumental stairs, handrails shall be located along the most direct path of egress travel.

1015.3 Height. Required guards shall be not less than 1000 mm high, measured vertically as follows: 1. From the adjacent walking surfaces. 2. On stairways and stepped aisles, from the line connecting the leading edges of the tread nosings. 3. On ramps and ramped aisles, from the ramp surface at the guard.

SECTION 1015 GUARDS 1015.1 General. Guards shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1015.2 through 1015.7. Operable windows with sills located more than 1800 mm above finished grade or other surface below shall comply with Section 1015.8. 1015.2 Where required. Guards shall be located along open-sided walking surfaces, including mezzanines, equipment platforms, aisles, stairs, ramps and landings that are located more than 750 mm measured vertically to the floor or grade below at any point within 900 mm horizontally to the edge of the open side. Guards shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with SBC 201 Section 1607.8. Exception: Guards are not required for the following locations: 1. On the loading side of loading docks or piers. 2. On the audience side of stages and raised platforms, including stairs leading up to the stage and raised platforms. 3. On raised stage and platform floor areas, such as runways, ramps and side stages used for entertainment or presentations. 4. At vertical openings in the performance area of stages and platforms. 5. At elevated walking surfaces appurtenant to stages and platforms for access to and utilization of special lighting or equipment. 6. Along vehicle service pits not accessible to the public. 7. In assembly seating areas at cross aisles in accordance with Section 1029.16.2. 1015.2.1 Glazing. Where glass is used to provide a guard or as a portion of the guard system, the guard shall comply with Section 2407. Where the glazing provided does not meet the strength and attachment requirements of SBC 201 Section 1607.8, complying guards shall be located along glazed sides of open-sided walking surfaces.

Exceptions: 1. For occupancies in Group R-3 not more than three stories above grade in height and within individual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2 not more than three stories above grade in height with separate means of egress, required guards shall be not less than 900 mm in height measured vertically above the adjacent walking surfaces or adjacent fixed seating. 2. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, guards on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not less than 850 mm measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads. 3. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, where the top of the guard also serves as a handrail on the open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall be not less than 850 mm and not more than 950 mm measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads. 4. The guard height in assembly seating areas shall comply with Section 1029.16 as applicable. 5. Along alternating tread devices and ship’s ladders, guards where the top rail also serves as a handrail shall have height not less than 750 mm and not more than 850 mm, measured vertically from the leading edge of the device tread nosing. 1015.4 Opening limitations. Required guards shall not have openings that allow passage of a sphere 100 mm in diameter from the walking surface to the required guard height. Exceptions: 1. From a height of 900 mm to 1100 mm, guards shall not have openings that allow passage of a sphere 110 mm in diameter.

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2. The triangular openings at the open sides of a stair, formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail shall not allow passage of a sphere 150 mm in diameter. 3. At elevated walking surfaces for access to and use of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment, guards shall not have openings that allow passage of a sphere 525 mm in diameter. 4. In areas that are not open to the public within occupancies in Group I-3, F, H or S, and for alternating tread devices and ship’s ladders, guards shall not have openings that allow passage of a sphere 525 mm in diameter. 5. In assembly seating areas, guards required at the end of aisles in accordance with Section 1029.16.4 shall not have openings that allow passage of a sphere 100 mm in diameter up to a height of 650 mm. From a height of 650 mm to 1100 mm above the adjacent walking surfaces, guards shall not have openings that allow passage of a sphere 200 mm in diameter. 6. Within individual dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, guards on the open sides of stairs shall not have openings that allow passage of a sphere 110 mm in diameter. 1015.5 Screen porches. Porches and decks that are enclosed with insect screening shall be provided with guards where the walking surface is located more than 750 mm above the floor or grade below. 1015.6 Mechanical equipment, systems and devices. Guards shall be provided where various components that require service are located within 3000 mm of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is located more than 750 mm above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall extend not less than 750 mm beyond each end of such components. The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a sphere 525 mm in diameter. Exception: Guards are not required where permanent fall arrest/restraint anchorage connector devices that comply with ANSI/ASSE Z 359.1 are affixed for use during the entire roof covering lifetime. The devices shall be reevaluated for possible replacement when the entire roof covering is replaced. The devices shall be placed not more than 3000 mm on center along hip and ridge lines

and placed not less than 3000 mm from the roof edge or open side of the walking surface. 1015.7 Roof access. Guards shall be provided where the roof hatch opening is located within 3000 mm of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is located more than 750 mm above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a sphere 525 mm in diameter. Exception: Guards are not required where permanent fall arrest/restraint anchorage connector devices that comply with ANSI/ASSE Z 359.1 are affixed for use during the entire roof covering lifetime. The devices shall be reevaluated for possible replacement when the entire roof covering is replaced. The devices shall be placed not more than 3000 mm on center along hip and ridge lines and placed not less than 3000 mm from the roof edge or open side of the walking surface. 1015.8 Window openings. Windows in Group R2 and R-3 buildings including dwelling units, where the top of the sill of an operable window opening is located less than 900 mm above the finished floor and more than 1800 mm above the finished grade or other surface below on the exterior of the building, shall comply with one of the following: 1. Operable windows where the top of the sill of the opening is located more than 23 m above the finished grade or other surface below and that are provided with window fall prevention devices that comply with ASTM F2006. 2. Operable windows where the openings will not allow a 100 mm-diameter sphere to pass through the opening when the window is in its largest opened position. 3. Operable windows where the openings are provided with window fall prevention devices that comply with ASTM F2090. 4. Operable windows that are provided with window opening control devices that comply with Section 1015.8.1. 1015.8.1 Window opening contr ol devices. Window opening control devices shall comply with ASTM F2090. The window opening control device, after operation to release the control device allowing the window to fully open, shall not reduce the minimum net clear opening area of the window unit to less than the area required by Section 1030.2.

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2.1. The stock is of the same hazard classification as that found in the main retail area.

SECTION 1016 EXIT ACCESS 1016.1 General. The exit access shall comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 1003 through 1015. Exit access arrangement shall comply with Sections 1016 through 1021.

2.2. Not more than 50 percent of the exit access is through the stockroom. 2.3. The stockroom is not subject to locking from the egress side.

1016.2 Egress through intervening spaces. Egress through intervening spaces shall comply with this section. 1. Exit access through an enclosed elevator lobby is permitted. Access to not less than one of the required exits shall be provided without travel through the enclosed elevator lobbies required by Section 3006. Where the path of exit access travel passes through an enclosed elevator lobby, the level of protection required for the enclosed elevator lobby is not required to be extended to the exit unless direct access to an exit is required by other sections of this code. 2. Egress from a room or space shall not pass through adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, except where such adjoining rooms or areas and the area served are accessory to one or the other, are not a Group H occupancy and provide a discernible path of egress travel to an exit. Exception: Means of egress are not prohibited through adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces in a Group H, S or F occupancy where the adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces are the same or a lesser hazard occupancy group.

2.4. There is a demarcated, minimum 1100 mm-wide aisle defined by full- or partial-height fixed walls or similar construction that will maintain the required width and lead directly from the retail area to the exit without obstructions. 1016.2.1 Multiple tenants. Where more than one tenant occupies any one floor of a building or structure, each tenant space, dwelling unit and sleeping unit shall be provided with access to the required exits without passing through adjacent tenant spaces, dwelling units and sleeping units. Exception: The means of egress from a smaller tenant space shall not be prohibited from passing through a larger adjoining tenant space where such rooms or spaces of the smaller tenant occupy less than 10 percent of the area of the larger tenant space through which they pass; are the same or similar occupancy group; a discernible path of egress travel to an exit is provided; and the means of egress into the adjoining space is not subject to locking from the egress side. A required means of egress serving the larger tenant space shall not pass through the smaller tenant space or spaces.

3. An exit access shall not pass through a room that can be locked to prevent egress.

SECTION 1017 EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE

4. Means of egress from dwelling units or sleeping areas shall not lead through other sleeping areas, toilet rooms or bathrooms.

1017.1 General. Travel distance within the exit access portion of the means of egress system shall be in accordance with this section.

5. Egress shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes.

1017.2 Limitations. Exit access travel distance shall not exceed the values given in Table 1017.2.

Exceptions: 1. Means of egress are not prohibited through a kitchen area serving adjoining rooms constituting part of the same dwelling unit or sleeping unit. 2. Means of egress are not prohibited through stockrooms in Group M occupancies where all of the following are met:

1017.2.1 Exterior egress balcony increase. Exit access travel distances specified in Table 1017.2 shall be increased up to an additional 30 m provided the last portion of the exit access leading to the exit occurs on an exterior egress balcony constructed in accordance with Section 1021. The length of such balcony shall be not less than the amount of the increase taken. 1017.2.2 Gr oup F-1 and S-1 increase. The maximum exit access travel distance shall be 120 m in Group F-1 or S-1 occupancies where all of the following conditions are met:

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1. The portion of the building classified as Group F-1 or S-1 is limited to one story in height.

Exception: Non-public aisles serving less than 50 people and not required to be accessible by Chapter 11 need not exceed 700 mm in width.

2. The minimum height from the finished floor to the bottom of the ceiling or roof slab or deck is 7300 mm.

1018.4 Aisle accessways in Group M. An aisle accessway shall be provided on not less than one side of each element within the merchandise pad. The minimum clear width for an aisle accessway not required to be accessible shall be 750 mm. The required clear width of the aisle accessway shall be measured perpendicular to the elements and merchandise within the merchandise pad. The 750 mm minimum clear width shall be maintained to provide a path to an adjacent aisle or aisle accessway. The common path of egress travel shall not exceed 9 m from any point in the merchandise pad.

3. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 1017.3 Measurement. Exit access travel distance shall be measured from the most remote point within a story along the natural and unobstructed path of horizontal and vertical egress travel to the entrance to an exit. Exception: In open parking garages, exit access travel distance is permitted to be measured to the closest riser of an exit access stairway or the closest slope of an exit access ramp. 1017.3.1 Exit access stair ways and ramps. Travel distance on exit access stairways or ramps shall be included in the exit access travel distance measurement. The measurement along stairways shall be made on a plane parallel and tangent to the stair tread nosings in the center of the stair and landings. The measurement along ramps shall be made on the walking surface in the center of the ramp and landings.

SECTION 1018 AISLES 1018.1 General. Aisles and aisle accessways serving as a portion of the exit access in the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Aisles or aisle accessways shall be provided from all occupied portions of the exit access that contain seats, tables, furnishings, displays and similar fixtures or equipment. The minimum width or required capacity of aisles shall be unobstructed. Exception: Encroachments complying with Section 1005.7. 1018.2 Aisles in assembly spaces. Aisles and aisle accessways serving a room or space used for assembly purposes shall comply with Section 1029. 1018.3 Aisles in Groups B and M. In Group B and M occupancies, the minimum clear aisle width shall be determined by Section 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but shall be not less than that required for corridors by Section 1020.2.

Exception: For areas serving not more than 50 occupants, the common path of egress travel shall not exceed 23 m. 1018.5 Aisles in other than assembly spaces and Groups B and M. In other than rooms or spaces used for assembly purposes and Group B and M occupancies, the minimum clear aisle capacity shall be determined by Section 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but the width shall be not less than that required for corridors by Section 1020.2. Exception: Nonpublic aisles serving less than 50 people and not required to be accessible by Chapter 11 need not exceed 700 mm in width.

SECTION 1019 EXIT ACCESS STAIRWAYS AND RAMPS 1019.1 General. Exit access stairways and ramps serving as an exit access component in a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. The number of stories connected by exit access stairways and ramps shall include basem*nts, but not mezzanines. 1019.2 All occupancies. Exit access stairways and ramps that serve floor levels within a single story are not required to be enclosed. 1019.3 Occupancies other than Groups I-2 and I-3. In other than Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies, floor openings containing exit access stairways or ramps that do not comply with one of the conditions listed in this section shall be enclosed with a shaft enclosure constructed in accordance with Section 713. 1. Exit access stairways and ramps that serve or atmospherically communicate between only

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two stories. Such inter-connected stories shall not be open to other stories. 2. In Group R-1, R-2 or R-3 occupancies, exit access stairways and ramps connecting four stories or less serving and contained within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit or live/work unit. 3. Exit access stairways serving and contained within a Group R-3 congregate residence or a Group R-4 facility are not required to be enclosed. 4. Exit access stairways and ramps in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, where the area of the vertical opening between stories does not exceed twice the horizontal projected area of the stairway or ramp and the opening is protected by a draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 13. In other than Group B and M occupancies, this provision is limited to openings that do not connect more than four stories. 5. Exit access stairways and ramps within an atrium complying with the provisions of Section 404. 6. Exit access stairways and ramps in open parking garages that serve only the parking garage. 7. Exit access stairways and ramps serving open-air seating complying with the exit access travel distance requirements of Section 1029.7. 8. Exit access stairways and ramps serving the balcony, gallery or press box and the main assembly floor in occupancies such as theaters, places of social gatherings, auditoriums and sports facilities. 1019.4 Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies. In Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies, floor openings between stories containing exit access stairways or ramps are required to be enclosed with a shaft enclosure constructed in accordance with Section 713. Exception: In Group I-3 occupancies, exit access stairways or ramps constructed in accordance with Section 408 are not required to be enclosed.

SECTION 1020 CORRIDORS 1020.1 Construction. Corridors shall be fireresistance rated in accordance with Table 1020.1. The corridor walls required to be fire-resistance rated shall comply with Section 708 for fire partitions. Exceptions: 1. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in an occupancy in Group E where each room that is used for instruction has not less than one door opening directly to the exterior and rooms for assembly purposes have not less than one-half of the required means of egress doors opening directly to the exterior. Exterior doors specified in this exception are required to be at ground level. 2. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors contained within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit in an occupancy in Groups I-1 and R. 3. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in open parking garages. 4. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in an occupancy in Group B that is a space requiring only a single means of egress complying with Section 1006.2. 5. Corridors adjacent to the exterior walls of buildings shall be permitted to have unprotected openings on unrated exterior walls where unrated walls are permitted by Table 602 and unprotected openings are permitted by Table 705.8. 1020.2 Width and capacity. The required capacity of corridors shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but the minimum width shall be not less than that specified in Table 1020.2. Exception: In Group I-2 occupancies, corridors are not required to have a clear width of 2400 mm in areas where there will not be stretcher or bed movement for access to care or as part of the defend-in-place strategy. 1020.3 Obstruction. The minimum width or required capacity of corridors shall be unobstructed. Exception: Encroachments complying with Section 1005.7. 1020.4 Dead ends. Where more than one exit or exit access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that there are no dead ends in corridors more than 6000 mm in length.

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Exceptions: 1. In occupancies in Group I-3 of Condition 2, 3 or 4, the dead end in a corridor shall not exceed 15 m. 2. In occupancies in Groups B, E, F, I-1, M, R1, R-2, R-4, S and U, where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the length of the dead-end corridors shall not exceed 15 m. 3. A dead-end corridor shall not be limited in length where the length of the dead-end corridor is less than 2.5 times the least width of the dead-end corridor. 1020.5 Air movement in corridors. Corridors shall not serve as supply, return, exhaust, relief or ventilation air ducts. Exceptions:

4. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut down upon detection of sprinkler water flow where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system. 5. The space between the corridor ceiling and the floor or roof structure above the corridor is used as a component of an approved engineered smoke control system. 1020.6 Corridor continuity. Fire-resistance-rated corridors shall be continuous from the point of entry to an exit, and shall not be interrupted by intervening rooms. Where the path of egress travel within a fire-resistance-rated corridor to the exit includes travel along unenclosed exit access stairways or ramps, the fire-resistance rating shall be continuous for the length of the stairway or ramp and for the length of the connecting corridor on the adjacent floor leading to the exit.

1. Use of a corridor as a source of makeup air for exhaust systems in rooms that open directly onto such corridors, including toilet rooms, bathrooms, dressing rooms, smoking lounges and janitor closets, shall be permitted, provided that each such corridor is directly supplied with outdoor air at a rate greater than the rate of makeup air taken from the corridor.

Exceptions:

2. Where located within a dwelling unit, the use of corridors for conveying return air shall not be prohibited.

1021.1 General. Balconies used for egress purposes shall conform to the same requirements as corridors for minimum width, required capacity, headroom, dead ends and projections.

3. Where located within tenant spaces of 93 m2 or less in area, utilization of corridors for conveying return air is permitted. 4. Incidental air movement from pressurized rooms within health care facilities, provided that the corridor is not the primary source of supply or return to the room. 1020.5.1 Cor ridor ceiling. Use of the space between the corridor ceiling and the floor or roof structure above as a return air plenum is permitted for one or more of the following conditions: 1. The corridor is not required to be of fireresistance-rated construction. 2. The corridor is separated from the plenum by fire-resistance-rated construction. 3. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut down upon activation of the airhandling unit smoke detectors required by the SBC 501.

1. Foyers, lobbies or reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms. 2. Enclosed elevator lobbies as permitted by Item 1 of Section 1016.2 shall not be construed as intervening rooms.

SECTION 1021 EGRESS BALCONIES

1021.2 Wall separation. Exterior egress balconies shall be separated from the interior of the building by walls and opening protectives as required for corridors. Exception: Separation is not required where the exterior egress balcony is served by not less than two stairways and a dead-end travel condition does not require travel past an unprotected opening to reach a stairway. 1021.3 Openness. The long side of an egress balcony shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases. 1021.4 Location. Exterior egress balconies shall have a minimum fire separation distance of 3000 mm measured at right angles from the exterior edge of the egress balcony to the following:

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1. Adjacent lot lines. 2. Other portions of the building. 3. Other buildings on the same lot unless the adjacent building exterior walls and openings are protected in accordance with Section 705 based on fire separation distance. For the purposes of this section, other portions of the building shall be treated as separate buildings.

SECTION 1022 EXITS 1022.1 General. Exits shall comply with Sections 1022 through 1027 and the applicable requirements of Sections 1003 through 1015. An exit shall not be used for any purpose that interferes with its function as a means of egress. Once a given level of exit protection is achieved, such level of protection shall not be reduced until arrival at the exit discharge. Exits shall be continuous from the point of entry into the exit to the exit discharge. 1022.2 Exterior exit doors. Buildings or structures used for human occupancy shall have not less than one exterior door that meets the requirements of Section 1010.1.1. 1022.2.1 Detailed requirements. Exterior exit doors shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1010.1. 1022.2.2 Arr angement. Exterior exit doors shall lead directly to the exit discharge or the public way.

SECTION 1023 INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAYS AND RAMPS 1023.1 General. Interior exit stairways and ramps serving as an exit component in a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Interior exit stairways and ramps shall be enclosed and lead directly to the exterior of the building or shall be extended to the exterior of the building with an exit passageway conforming to the requirements of Section 1024, except as permitted in Section 1028.1. An interior exit stairway or ramp shall not be used for any purpose other than as a means of egress and a circulation path. 1023.2 Construction. Enclosures for interior exit stairways and ramps shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with SBC 201 Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with SBC 201 Section 711, or both. Interior exit stairway and ramp enclosures shall have a fireresistance rating of not less than 2 hours where

connecting four stories or more and not less than 1 hour where connecting less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the interior exit stairways or ramps shall include any basem*nts, but not any mezzanines. Interior exit stairways and ramps shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 hours. Exceptions: 1. Interior exit stairways and ramps in Group I3 occupancies in accordance with the provisions of Section 408.3.8. 2. Interior exit stairways within an atrium enclosed in accordance with Section 404.6. 1023.3 Termination. Interior exit stairways and ramps shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way. Exception: A combination of interior exit stairways, interior exit ramps and exit passageways, constructed in accordance with Sections 1023.2, 1023.3.1 and 1024, respectively, and forming a continuous protected enclosure, shall be permitted to extend an interior exit stairway or ramp to the exit discharge or a public way. 1023.3.1 Extension. Where interior exit stairways and ramps are extended to an exit discharge or a public way by an exit passageway, the interior exit stairway and ramp shall be separated from the exit passageway by a fire barrier constructed in accordance with SBC 201 Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with SBC 201 Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than that required for the interior exit stairway and ramp. A fire door assembly complying with SBC 201 Section 716.5 shall be installed in the fire barrier to provide a means of egress from the interior exit stairway and ramp to the exit passageway. Openings in the fire barrier other than the fire door assembly are prohibited. Penetrations of the fire barrier are prohibited. Exceptions: 1. Penetrations of the fire barrier in accordance with Section 1023.5 shall be permitted. 2. Separation between an interior exit stairway or ramp and the exit passageway extension shall not be required where there are no openings into the exit passageway extension. 1023.4 Openings. Interior exit stairway and ramp opening protectives shall be in accordance with the

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requirements of SBC 201 Section 716. Openings in interior exit stairways and ramps other than unprotected exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access to the enclosure from normally occupied spaces and for egress from the enclosure. Elevators shall not open into interior exit stairways and ramps. 1023.5 Penetrations. Penetrations into or through interior exit stairways and ramps are prohibited except for equipment and ductwork necessary for independent ventilation or pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway for fire department (Civil Defense) communication systems and electrical raceway serving the interior exit stairway and ramp and terminating at a steel box not exceeding 0.01 m2. Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with SBC 201 Section 714. There shall not be penetrations or communication openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent interior exit stairways and ramps. Exception: Membrane penetrations shall be permitted on the outside of the interior exit stairway and ramp. Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with SBC 201 Section 714.3.2. 1023.6 Ventilation. Equipment and ductwork for interior exit stairway and ramp ventilation as permitted by Section 1023.5 shall comply with one of the following items: 1. Such equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior to the building and shall be directly connected to the interior exit stairway and ramp by ductwork enclosed in construction as required for shafts. 2. Where such equipment and ductwork is located within the interior exit stairway and ramp, the intake air shall be taken directly from the outdoors and the exhaust air shall be discharged directly to the outdoors, or such air shall be conveyed through ducts enclosed in construction as required for shafts. 3. Where located within the building, such equipment and ductwork shall be separated from the remainder of the building, including other mechanical equipment, with construction as required for shafts. In each case, openings into the fire-resistance-rated construction shall be limited to those needed for maintenance and operation and shall be protected by opening protectives in accordance with Section 716 for shaft enclosures.

systems shall be independent of other building ventilation systems. 1023.7 Interior exit stairway and ramp exterior walls. Exterior walls of the interior exit stairway or ramp shall comply with the requirements of SBC 201 Section 705 for exterior walls. Where non-rated walls or unprotected openings enclose the exterior of the stairway or ramps and the walls or openings are exposed by other parts of the building at an angle of less than 180 degrees, the building exterior walls within 3000 mm horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall have a fireresistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. This construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 3000 mm above the top-most landing of the stairway or ramp, or to the roof line, whichever is lower. 1023.8 Discharge identification. An interior exit stairway and ramp shall not continue below its level of exit discharge unless an approved barrier is provided at the level of exit discharge to prevent persons from unintentionally continuing into levels below. Directional exit signs shall be provided as specified in Section 1013. 1023.9 Stairway identification signs. A sign shall be provided at each floor landing in an interior exit stairway and ramp connecting more than three stories designating the floor level, the terminus of the top and bottom of the interior exit stairway and ramp and the identification of the stairway or ramp. The signage shall also state the story of, and the direction to, the exit discharge and the availability of roof access from the interior exit stairway and ramp for the fire department (Civil Defense) . The sign shall be located 1500 mm above the floor landing in a position that is readily visible when the doors are in the open and closed positions. In addition to the stairway identification sign, a floorlevel sign in visual characters, raised characters and braille complying with ICC A117.1 shall be located at each floor-level landing adjacent to the door leading from the interior exit stairway and ramp into the corridor to identify the floor level. 1023.9.1 Signage requirements. Stairway identification signs shall comply with all of the following requirements: 1. The signs shall be a minimum size of 450 mm by 300 mm.

The interior exit stairway and ramp ventilation

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2. The letters designating the identification of the interior exit stairway and ramp shall be not less than 38 mm in height. 3. The number designating the floor level shall be not less than 125 mm in height and located in the center of the sign. 4. Other lettering and numbers shall be not less than 25 mm in height. 5. Characters and their background shall have a nonglare finish. Characters shall contrast with their background, with either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background. 6. Where signs required by Section 1023.9 are installed in the interior exit stairways and ramps of buildings subject to Section 1025, the signs shall be made of the same materials as required by Section 1025.4. 1023.10 Elevator lobby identification signs. At landings in interior exit stairways where two or more doors lead to the floor level, any door with direct access to an enclosed elevator lobby shall be identified by signage located on the door or directly adjacent to the door stating “Elevator Lobby.” Signage shall be in accordance with Section 1023.9.1, Items 4, 5 and 6. 1023.11 Smokeproof enclosures. Where required by Section 403.5.4 or 405.7.2, interior exit stairways and ramps shall be smokeproof enclosures in accordance with Section 909.20. 1023.11.1 Ter mination and extension. A smokeproof enclosure shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way. The smokeproof enclosure shall be permitted to be extended by an exit passageway in accordance with Section 1023.3. The exit passageway shall be without openings other than the fire door assembly required by Section 1023.3.1 and those necessary for egress from the exit passageway. The exit passageway shall be separated from the remainder of the building by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with SBC 201 Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with SBC 201 Section 711, or both. Exceptions: 1. Openings in the exit passageway serving a smoke-proof enclosure are permitted where the exit passageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure, and openings are

protected as required for access from other floors. 2. The fire barrier separating the smoke-proof enclosure from the exit passageway is not required, provided the exit passageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure. 3. A smoke-proof enclosure shall be permitted to egress through areas on the level of exit discharge or vestibules as permitted by Section 1028. 1023.11.2 Enclosure access. Access to the stairway or ramp within a smokeproof enclosure shall be by way of a vestibule or an open exterior balcony. Exception: Access is not required by way of a vestibule or exterior balcony for stairways and ramps using the pressurization alternative complying with Section 909.20.5.

SECTION 1024 EXIT PASSAGEWAYS 1024.1 Exit passageways. Exit passageways serving as an exit component in a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. An exit passageway shall not be used for any purpose other than as a means of egress and a circulation path. 1024.2 Width. The required capacity of exit passageways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1 but the minimum width shall be not less than 1100 mm, except that exit passageways serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall be not less than 900 mm in width. The minimum width or required capacity of exit passageways shall be unobstructed. Exception: Encroachments complying with Section 1005.7. 1024.3 Construction. Exit passageway enclosures shall have walls, floors and ceilings of not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating, and not less than that required for any connecting interior exit stairway or ramp. Exit passageways shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with SBC 201 Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with SBC 201 Section 711, or both. 1024.4 Termination. Exit passageways on the level of exit discharge shall terminate at an exit discharge. Exit passageways on other levels shall terminate at an exit.

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1024.5 Openings. Exit passageway opening protectives shall be in accordance with the requirements of SBC 201 Section 716. Except as permitted in Section 402.8.7, openings in exit passageways other than unprotected exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access to the exit passageway from normally occupied spaces and for egress from the exit passageway. Where an interior exit stairway or ramp is extended to an exit discharge or a public way by an exit passageway, the exit passageway shall comply with Section 1023.3.1. Elevators shall not open into an exit passageway. 1024.6 Penetrations. Penetrations into or through an exit passageway are prohibited except for equipment and ductwork necessary for independent pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway for fire department (Civil Defense) communication and electrical raceway serving the exit passageway and terminating at a steel box not exceeding 0.01 m2. Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 714. There shall not be penetrations or communicating openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent exit passageways. Exception: Membrane penetrations shall be permitted on the outside of the exit passageway. Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with SBC 201 Section 714.3.2. 1024.7 Ventilation. Equipment and ductwork for exit passageway ventilation as permitted by Section 1024.6 shall comply with one of the following: 1. The equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior to the building and shall be directly connected to the exit passageway by ductwork enclosed in construction as required for shafts. 2. Where the equipment and ductwork is located within the exit passageway, the intake air shall be taken directly from the outdoors and the exhaust air shall be discharged directly to the outdoors, or the air shall be conveyed through ducts enclosed in construction as required for shafts. 3. Where located within the building, the equipment and ductwork shall be separated from the remainder of the building, including other mechanical equipment, with construction as required for shafts.

In each case, openings into the fire-resistance-rated construction shall be limited to those needed for maintenance and operation and shall be protected by opening protectives in accordance with Section 716 for shaft enclosures. Exit passageway ventilation systems shall be independent of other building ventilation systems.

SECTION 1025 LUMINOUS EGRESS PATH MARKINGS 1025.1 General. Approved luminous egress path markings delineating the exit path shall be provided in high-rise buildings of Group A, B, E, I, M, and R-1 occupancies in accordance with Sections 1025.1 through 1025.5. Exception: Luminous egress path markings shall not be required on the level of exit discharge in lobbies that serve as part of the exit path in accordance with Section 1028.1, Exception 1. 1025.2 Markings within exit components. Egress path markings shall be provided in interior exit stairways, interior exit ramps and exit passageways, in accordance with Sections 1025.2.1 through 1025.2.6. 1025.2.1 Steps. A solid and continuous stripe shall be applied to the horizontal leading edge of each step and shall extend for the full length of the step. Outlining stripes shall have a minimum horizontal width of 25 mm and a maximum width of 50 mm. The leading edge of the stripe shall be placed not more than 13 mm from the leading edge of the step and the stripe shall not overlap the leading edge of the step by not more than 13 mm down the vertical face of the step. Exception: The minimum width of 25 mm shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994. 1025.2.2 Landings. The leading edge of landings shall be marked with a stripe consistent with the dimensional requirements for steps. 1025.2.3 Handr ails. Handrails and handrail extensions shall be marked with a solid and continuous stripe having a minimum width of 25 mm. The stripe shall be placed on the top surface of the handrail for the entire length of the handrail, including extensions and newel post caps. Where handrails or handrail extensions bend or turn corners, the stripe shall not have a gap of more than 100 mm.

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Exception: The minimum width of 25 mm shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994. 1025.2.4 Perimeter demar cation lines. Stair landings and other floor areas within interior exit stairways, interior exit ramps and exit passageways, with the exception of the sides of steps, shall be provided with solid and continuous demarcation lines on the floor or on the walls or a combination of both. The stripes shall be 25 mm to 50 mm wide with interruptions not exceeding 100 mm. Exception: The minimum width of 25 mm shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994. 1025.2.4.1 Floor-mounted demarcation lines. Perimeter demarcation lines shall be placed within 100 mm of the wall and shall extend to within 50 mm of the markings on the leading edge of landings. The demarcation lines shall continue across the floor in front of all doors. Exception: Demarcation lines shall not extend in front of exit discharge doors that lead out of an exit and through which occupants must travel to complete the exit path. 1025.2.4.2 Wall-mounted demarcation lines. Perimeter demarcation lines shall be placed on the wall with the bottom edge of the stripe not more than 100 mm above the finished floor. At the top or bottom of the stairs, demarcation lines shall drop vertically to the floor within 50 mm of the step or landing edge. Demarcation lines on walls shall transition vertically to the floor and then extend across the floor where a line on the floor is the only practical method of outlining the path. Where the wall line is broken by a door, demarcation lines on walls shall continue across the face of the door or transition to the floor and extend across the floor in front of such door. Exception: Demarcation lines shall not extend in front of exit discharge doors that lead out of an exit and through which occupants must travel to complete the exit path. 1025.2.4.3 Transition. Where a wallmounted demarcation line transitions to a floormounted demarcation line, or vice versa, the wallmounted demarcation line shall drop vertically to the floor to meet a complimentary extension of the floor-mounted demarcation line, thus forming a continuous marking.

1025.2.5 Obstacles. Obstacles at or below 2000 mm in height and projecting more than 100 mm into the egress path shall be outlined with markings not less than 25 mm in width comprised of a pattern of alternating equal bands, of luminous material and black, with the alternating bands not more than 50 mm thick and angled at 45 degrees. Obstacles shall include, but are not limited to, standpipes, hose cabinets, wall projections and restricted height areas. However, such markings shall not conceal any required information or indicators including but not limited to instructions to occupants for the use of standpipes. 1025.2.6 Doors within the exit path. Doors through which occupants must pass in order to complete the exit path shall be provided with markings complying with Sections 1025.2.6.1 through 1025.2.6.3. 1025.2.6.1 Emergency exit symbol. The doors shall be identified by a low-location luminous emergency exit symbol complying with NFPA 170. The exit symbol shall be not less than 100 mm in height and shall be mounted on the door, centered horizontally, with the top of the symbol not higher than 450 mm above the finished floor. 1025.2.6.2 Door hardware markings. Door hardware shall be marked with not less than 0.010 m2 of luminous material. This marking shall be located behind, immediately adjacent to, or on the door handle or escutcheon. Where a panic bar is installed, such material shall not be less than 25 mm wide for the entire length of the actuating bar or touchpad. 1025.2.6.3 Door frame markings. The top and sides of the door frame shall be marked with a solid and continuous 25 mm to 50 mm-wide stripe. Where the door molding does not provide sufficient flat surface on which to locate the stripe, the stripe shall be permitted to be located on the wall surrounding the frame. 1025.3 Uniformity. Placement and dimensions of markings shall be consistent and uniform throughout the same enclosure. 1025.4 Self-luminous and photoluminescent. Luminous egress path markings shall be permitted to be made of any material, including paint, provided that an electrical charge is not required to maintain the required luminance. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, self-luminous materials and photoluminescent materials. Materials shall comply with either of the following standards:

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1. UL 1994. 2. ASTM E2072, except that the charging source shall be 11 lux of fluorescent illumination for 60 minutes, and the minimum luminance shall be 30 milicandelas per square meter at 10 minutes and 5 mili-candelas per square meter after 90 minutes. 1025.5 Illumination. Where photoluminescent exit path markings are installed, they shall be provided with not less than 11 lux of illumination for not less than 60 minutes prior to periods when the building is occupied and continuously during occupancy.

SECTION 1026 HORIZONTAL EXITS 1026.1 Horizontal exits. Horizontal exits serving as an exit in a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. A horizontal exit shall not serve as the only exit from a portion of a building, and where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the total number of exits or total exit minimum width or required capacity shall be horizontal exits. Exceptions: 1. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise two-thirds of the required exits from any building or floor area for occupancies in Group I-2. 2. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise 100 percent of the exits required for occupancies in Group I-3. Not less than 0.6 m2 of accessible space per occupant shall be provided on each side of the horizontal exit for the total number of people in adjoining compartments. 1026.2 Separation. The separation between buildings or refuge areas connected by a horizontal exit shall be provided by a fire wall complying with Section 706; or by a fire barrier complying with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly complying with Section 711, or both. The minimum fireresistance rating of the separation shall be 2 hours. Opening protectives in horizontal exits shall also comply with Section 716. Duct and air transfer openings in a fire wall or fire barrier that serves as a horizontal exit shall also comply with Section 717. The horizontal exit separation shall extend vertically through all levels of the building unless floor assemblies have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours with no unprotected openings.

Exception: A fire-resistance rating is not required at horizontal exits between a building area and an above-grade pedestrian walkway constructed in accordance with Section 3104, provided that the distance between connected buildings is more than 6000 mm. Horizontal exits constructed as fire barriers shall be continuous from exterior wall to exterior wall so as to divide completely the floor served by the horizontal exit. 1026.3 Opening protectives. Fire doors in horizontal exits shall be self-closing or automaticclosing when activated by a smoke detector in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3. Doors, where located in a cross-corridor condition, shall be automatic- closing by activation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3. 1026.4 Refuge area. The refuge area of a horizontal exit shall be a space occupied by the same tenant or a public area and each such refuge area shall be adequate to accommodate the original occupant load of the refuge area plus the occupant load anticipated from the adjoining compartment. The anticipated occupant load from the adjoining compartment shall be based on the capacity of the horizontal exit doors entering the refuge area. 1026.4.1 Capacity. The capacity of the refuge area shall be computed based on a net floor area allowance of 0.28 m2 for each occupant to be accommodated therein. Exceptions: The net floor area allowable per occupant shall be as follows for the indicated occupancies: 1. 0.6 m2 per occupant for occupancies in Group I-3. 2. 1.4 m2 per occupant for occupancies in Group I-2.

ambulatory

3. 2.8 m2 per occupant for non-ambulatory occupancies in Group I-2. 1026.4.2 Number of exits. The refuge area into which a horizontal exit leads shall be provided with exits adequate to meet the occupant requirements of this chapter, but not including the added occupant load imposed by persons entering the refuge area through horizontal exits from other areas. Not less than one refuge area exit shall lead directly to the exterior or to an interior exit stairway or ramp.

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Exception: The adjoining compartment shall not be required to have a stairway or door leading directly outside, provided the refuge area into which a horizontal exit leads has stairways or doors leading directly outside and are so arranged that egress shall not require the occupants to return through the compartment from which egress originates.

SECTION 1027 EXTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAYS AND RAMPS 1027.1 Exterior exit stairways and ramps. Exterior exit stairways and ramps serving as an element of a required means of egress shall comply with this section. 1027.2 Use in a means of egress. Exterior exit stairways shall not be used as an element of a required means of egress for Group I-2 occupancies. For occupancies in other than Group I-2, exterior exit stairways and ramps shall be permitted as an element of a required means of egress for buildings not exceeding six stories above grade plane or that are not high-rise buildings. 1027.3 Open side. Exterior exit stairways and ramps serving as an element of a required means of egress shall be open on not less than one side, except for required structural columns, beams, handrails and guards. An open side shall have not less than 3.3 m2 of aggregate open area adjacent to each floor level and the level of each intermediate landing. The required open area shall be located not less than 1000 mm above the adjacent floor or landing level. 1027.4 Side yards. The open areas adjoining exterior exit stairways or ramps shall be either yards, courts or public ways; the remaining sides are permitted to be enclosed by the exterior walls of the building.

1027.6 Exterior exit stairway and ramp protection. Exterior exit stairways and ramps shall be separated from the interior of the building as required in Section 1023.2. Openings shall be limited to those necessary for egress from normally occupied spaces. Where a vertical plane projecting from the edge of an exterior exit stairway or ramp and landings is exposed by other parts of the building at an angle of less than 180 degrees, the exterior wall shall be rated in accordance with Section 1023.7. Exceptions: 1. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for occupancies, other than those in Group R-1 or R-2, in buildings that are not more than two stories above grade plane where a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies is the first story above grade plane. 2. Separation from the interior of the building is not required where the exterior exit stairway or ramp is served by an exterior exit ramp or balcony that connects two remote exterior exit stairways or other approved exits with a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent open. To be considered open, the opening shall be not less than 50 percent of the height of the enclosing wall, with the top of the openings not less than 2.1 m above the top of the balcony. 3. Separation from the open-ended corridor of the building is not required for exterior exit stairways or ramps, provided that Items 3.1 through 3.5 are met:

1027.5 Location. Exterior exit stairways and ramps shall have a minimum fire separation distance of 3000 mm measured at right angles from the exterior edge of the stairway or ramps, including landings, to: 1. Adjacent lot lines. 2. Other portions of the building. 3. Other buildings on the same lot unless the adjacent building exterior walls and openings are protected in accordance with Section 705 based on fire separation distance. For the purposes of this section, other portions of the building shall be treated as separate buildings.

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3.1. The building, including open-ended corridors, and stairways and ramps, shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 3.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Section 1020. 3.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on each end to an exterior exit stairway or ramp complying with Section 1027. 3.4. The exterior walls and openings adjacent to the exterior exit stairway or ramp comply with Section 1023.7. 3.5. At any location in an open-ended corridor where a change of direction

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exceeding 45 degrees occurs, a clear opening of not less than 3.3 m2 or an exterior stairway or ramp shall be provided. Where clear openings are provided, they shall be located so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.

level and terminate at the same level of exit discharge, the termination of the exit access stairway or ramp and the exit discharge door of the interior exit stairway or ramp shall be separated by a distance of not less than 9 m or not less than one-fourth the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building, whichever is less. The distance shall be measured in a straight line between the exit discharge door from the interior exit stairway or ramp and the last tread of the exit access stairway or termination of slope of the exit access ramp.

SECTION 1028 EXIT DISCHARGE 1028.1 General. Exits shall discharge directly to the exterior of the building. The exit discharge shall be at grade or shall provide a direct path of egress travel to grade. The exit discharge shall not reenter a building. The combined use of Exceptions 1 and 2 shall not exceed 50 percent of the number and minimum width or required capacity of the required exits. Exceptions:

2. Not more than 50 percent of the number and minimum width or required capacity of the interior exit stairways and ramps is permitted to egress through a vestibule provided all of the following conditions are met:

1. Not more than 50 percent of the number and minimum width or required capacity of interior exit stairways and ramps is permitted to egress through areas on the level of discharge provided all of the following conditions are met:

2.1. The entire area of the vestibule is separated from areas below by construction conforming to the fireresistance rating of the interior exit stairway or ramp enclosure. 2.2. The depth from the exterior of the building is not greater than 3000 mm and the length is not greater than 9 m.

1.1. Discharge of interior exit stairways and ramps shall be provided with a free and unobstructed path of travel to an exterior exit door and such exit is readily visible and identifiable from the point of termination of the enclosure. 1.2. The entire area of the level of exit discharge is separated from areas below by construction conforming to the fireresistance rating for the enclosure.

2.3. The area is separated from the remainder of the level of exit discharge by a fire partition constructed in accordance with Section 708. Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature rise is not required. 2.4. The area is used only for means of egress and exits directly to the outside.

1.3. The egress path from the interior exit stairway and ramp on the level of exit discharge is protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system. Portions of the level of exit discharge with access to the egress path shall be either equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, or separated from the egress path in accordance with the requirements for the enclosure of interior exit stairways or ramps.

1028.2 Exit discharge width or capacity. The minimum width or required capacity of the exit discharge shall be not less than the minimum width or required capacity of the exits being served.

1.4. Where a required interior exit stairway or ramp and an exit access stairway or ramp serve the same floor

1028.4 Egress courts. Egress courts serving as a portion of the exit discharge in the means of egress

3. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1026 shall not be required to discharge directly to the exterior of the building.

1028.3 Exit discharge components. Exit discharge components shall be sufficiently open to the exterior so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases.

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system shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1028.4.1 and 1028.4.2. 1028.4.1 Width or capacity. The required capacity of egress courts shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but the minimum width shall be not less than 1100 mm, except as specified herein. Egress courts serving Group R-3 and U occupancies shall be not less than 900 mm in width. The required capacity and width of egress courts shall be unobstructed to a height of 2.1 m. Exception: Encroachments complying with Section 1005.7. Where an egress court exceeds the minimum required width and the width of such egress court is then reduced along the path of exit travel, the reduction in width shall be gradual. The transition in width shall be affected by a guard not less than 900 mm in height and shall not create an angle of more than 30 degrees with respect to the axis of the egress court along the path of egress travel. The width of the egress court shall not be less than the required capacity. 1028.4.2 Constr uction and openings. Where an egress court serving a building or portion thereof is less than 3000 mm in width, the egress court walls shall have not less than 1-hour fireresistance-rated construction for a distance of 3000 mm above the floor of the egress court. Openings within such walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. Exceptions: 1. Egress courts serving an occupant load of less than 10. 2. Egress courts serving Group R-3. 1028.5 Access to a public way. The exit discharge shall provide a direct and unobstructed access to a public way. Exception: Where access to a public way cannot be provided, a safe dispersal area shall be provided where all of the following are met: 1. The area shall be of a size to accommodate not less than 0.46 m2 for each person. 2. The area shall be located on the same lot not less than 15 m away from the building requiring egress. 3. The area shall be permanently maintained and identified as a safe dispersal area.

4. The area shall be provided with a safe and unobstructed path of travel from the building.

SECTION 1029 ASSEMBLY 1029.1 General. A room or space used for assembly purposes that contains seats, tables, displays, equipment or other material shall comply with this section. 1029.1.1 Bleachers. Bleachers, grandstands and folding and telescopic seating, that are not building elements, shall comply with ICC 300. 1029.1.1.1 Spaces under grandstands and bleachers. Where spaces under grandstands or bleachers are used for purposes other than ticket booths less than 9 m2 and toilet rooms, such spaces shall be separated by fire barriers complying with Section 707 and horizontal assemblies complying with Section 711 with not less than 1-hour fireresistance-rated construction. 1029.2 Assembly main exit. A building, room or space used for assembly purposes that has an occupant load of greater than 300 and is provided with a main exit, that main exit shall be of sufficient capacity to accommodate not less than one-half of the occupant load, but such capacity shall be not less than the total required capacity of all means of egress leading to the exit. Where the building is classified as a Group A occupancy, the main exit shall front on not less than one street or an unoccupied space of not less than 3000 mm in width that adjoins a street or public way. In a building, room or space used for assembly purposes where there is not a well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are provided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the perimeter of the building provided that the total capacity of egress is not less than 100 percent of the required capacity. 1029.3 Assembly other exits. In addition to having access to a main exit, each level in a building used for assembly purposes having an occupant load greater than 300 and provided with a main exit, shall be provided with additional means of egress that shall provide an egress capacity for not less than one-half of the total occupant load served by that level and shall comply with Section 1007.1. In a building used for assembly purposes where there is not a well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are provided, exits for each level shall be permitted to be distributed around the perimeter of

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the building, provided that the total width of egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width. 1029.4 Foyers and lobbies. In Group A-1 occupancies, where persons are admitted to the building at times when seats are not available, such persons shall be allowed to wait in a lobby or similar space, provided such lobby or similar space shall not encroach upon the minimum width or required capacity of the means of egress. Such foyer, if not directly connected to a public street by all the main entrances or exits, shall have a straight and unobstructed corridor or path of travel to every such main entrance or exit. 1029.5 Interior balcony and gallery means of egress. For balconies, galleries or press boxes having a seating capacity of 50 or more located in a building, room or space used for assembly purposes, not less than two means of egress shall be provided, with one from each side of every balcony, gallery or press box. 1029.6 Capacity of aisle for assembly. The required capacity of aisles shall be not less than that determined in accordance with Section 1029.6.1 where smoke-protected assembly seating is not provided and with Section 1029.6.2 or 1029.6.3 where smoke-protected assembly seating is provided. 1029.6.1 Without smoke pr otection. The required capacity in millimeters of the aisles for assembly seating without smoke protection shall be not less than the occupant load served by the egress element in accordance with all of the following, as applicable: 1. Not less than 7.6 mm of aisle capacity for each occupant served shall be provided on stepped aisles having riser heights 175 mm or less and tread depths 275 mm or greater, measured horizontally between tread nosings. 2. Not less than 0.127 mm of additional aisle capacity for each occupant shall be provided for each 2.5 mm of riser height above 175 mm. 3. Where egress requires stepped aisle descent, not less than 1.9 mm of additional aisle capacity for each occupant shall be provided on those portions of aisle capacity having no handrail within a horizontal distance of 750 mm. 4. Ramped aisles, where slopes are steeper than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-

percent slope), shall have not less than 5.6 mm of clear aisle capacity for each occupant served. Level or ramped aisles, where slopes are not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope), shall have not less than 5.1 mm of clear aisle capacity for each occupant served. 1029.6.2 Smoke-pr otected assembly seating. The required capacity in millimeters of the aisle for smoke-protected assembly seating shall be not less than the occupant load served by the egress element multiplied by the appropriate factor in Table 1029.6.2. The total number of seats specified shall be those within the space exposed to the same smoke protected environment. Interpolation is permitted between the specific values shown. A life safety evaluation, complying with NFPA 101, shall be done for a facility utilizing the reduced width requirements of Table 1029.6.2 for smokeprotected assembly seating. Exception: For outdoor smoke-protected assembly seating with an occupant load not greater than 18,000, the required capacity in millimeters shall be determined using the factors in Section 1029.6.3. 1029.6.2.1 Smoke control. Aisles and aisle accessways serving a smoke-protected assembly seating area shall be provided with a smoke control system complying with Section 909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the smoke level not less than 1800 mm above the floor of the means of egress. 1029.6.2.2 Roof height. A smoke-protected assembly seating area with a roof shall have the lowest portion of the roof deck not less than 4500 mm above the highest aisle or aisle accessway. Exception: A roof canopy in an outdoor stadium shall be permitted to be less than 4500 mm above the highest aisle or aisle accessway provided that there are no objects less than 2000 mm above the highest aisle or aisle accessway. 1029.6.2.3 Automatic sprinklers. Enclosed areas with walls and ceilings in buildings or structures containing smoke-protected assembly seating shall be protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Exceptions: 1. The floor area used for contests, performances or entertainment provided the roof construction is more than 15 m above

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the floor level and the use is restricted to lowfire-hazard uses. 2. Press boxes and storage facilities less than 93 m2 in area. 3. Outdoor seating facilities where seating and the means of egress in the seating area are essentially open to the outside. 1029.6.3 Outdoor smoke-pr otected assembly seating. The required capacity in millimeters of aisles shall be not less than the total occupant load served by the egress element multiplied by 2.0 mm where egress is by stepped aisle and multiplied by 1.52 mm where egress is by level aisles and ramped aisles. Exception: The required capacity in millimeters of aisles shall be permitted to comply with Section 1029.6.2 for the number of seats in the outdoor smoke-protected assembly seating where Section 1029.6.2 permits less capacity. 1029.7 Travel distance. Exits and aisles shall be so located that the travel distance to an exit door shall be not greater than 60 m measured along the line of travel in non-sprinklered buildings. Travel distance shall be not more than 76 m in sprinklered buildings. Where aisles are provided for seating, the distance shall be measured along the aisles and aisle accessways without travel over or on the seats. Exceptions: 1. Smoke-protected assembly seating: The travel distance from each seat to the nearest entrance to a vomitory or concourse shall not exceed 60 m. The travel distance from the entrance to the vomitory or concourse to a stairway, ramp or walk on the exterior of the building shall not exceed 60 m. 2. Open-air seating: The travel distance from each seat to the building exterior shall not exceed 120 m. The travel distance shall not be limited in facilities of Type I or II construction. 1029.8 Common path of egress travel. The common path of egress travel shall not exceed 9 m from any seat to a point where an occupant has a choice of two paths of egress travel to two exits. Exceptions: 1. For areas serving less than 50 occupants, the common path of egress travel shall not exceed 23 m.

2. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the common path of egress travel shall not exceed 15 m. 1029.8.1 Path through adjacent row. Where one of the two paths of travel is across the aisle through a row of seats to another aisle, there shall be not more than 24 seats between the two aisles, and the minimum clear width between rows for the row between the two aisles shall be 300 mm plus 15.2 mm for each additional seat above seven in the row between aisles. Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating there shall be not more than 40 seats between the two aisles and the minimum clear width shall be 300 mm plus 7.5 mm for each additional seat. 1029.9 Assembly aisles are required. Every occupied portion of any building, room or space used for assembly purposes that contains seats, tables, displays, similar fixtures or equipment shall be provided with aisles leading to exits or exit access doorways in accordance with this section. 1029.9.1 Minimum aisle width. The minimum clear width for aisles shall comply with one of the following: 1. 1200 mm for stepped aisles having seating on each side. Exception: 900 mm where the stepped aisles serve less than 50 seats. 2. 900 mm for stepped aisles having seating on only one side. Exception: 600 mm between a stepped aisle handrail and seating where a stepped aisle does not serve more than five rows on one side. 3. 600 mm between a stepped aisle handrail or guard and seating where the stepped aisle is subdivided by a mid-aisle handrail. 4. 1100 mm for level or ramped aisles having seating on both sides. Exceptions: 1. 900 mm where the aisle serves less than 50 seats. 2. 750 mm where the aisle does not serve more than 14 seats. 5. 900 mm for level or ramped aisles having seating on only one side. Exception: For other than ramped aisles that serve as part of an accessible route, 750 mm where the ramped aisle does not serve more than 14 seats.

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1029.9.2 Aisle catchment ar ea. The aisle shall provide sufficient capacity for the number of persons accommodated by the catchment area served by the aisle. The catchment area served by an aisle is that portion of the total space served by that section of the aisle. In establishing catchment areas, the assumption shall be made that there is a balanced use of all means of egress, with the number of persons in proportion to egress capacity.

seating and tread edges except for permitted projections.

1029.9.3 Conver ging aisles. Where aisles converge to form a single path of egress travel, the required capacity of that path shall be not less than the combined required capacity of the converging aisles.

Exception: Handrails are permitted to project into the required width of stepped aisles and ramped aisles in accordance with Section 1014.8.

1029.9.4 Unifor m width and capacity. Those portions of aisles, where egress is possible in either of two directions, shall be uniform in minimum width or required capacity. 1029.9.5 Dead end aisles. Each end of an aisle shall be continuous to a cross aisle, foyer, doorway, vomitory, concourse or stairway in accordance with Section 1029.9.7 having access to an exit. Exceptions: 1. Dead-end aisles shall be not greater than 6000 mm in length. 2. Dead-end aisles longer than 16 rows are permitted where seats beyond the 16th row dead-end aisle are not more than 24 seats from another aisle, measured along a row of seats having a minimum clear width of 300 mm plus 15 mm for each additional seat above seven in the row where seats have backrests or beyond 10 where seats are without backrests in the row. 3. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the dead end aisle length of vertical aisles shall not exceed a distance of 21 rows. 4. For smoke-protected assembly seating, a longer dead-end aisle is permitted where seats beyond the 21-row dead-end aisle are not more than 40 seats from another aisle, measured along a row of seats having an aisle accessway with a minimum clear width of 300 mm plus 7.6 mm for each additional seat above seven in the row where seats have backrests or beyond 10 where seats are without backrests in the row. 1029.9.6 Aisle measur ement. The clear width for aisles shall be measured to walls, edges of

Exception: The clear width of aisles adjacent to seating at tables shall be permitted to be measured in accordance with Section 1029.12.1. 1029.9.6.1 Assembly aisle obstructions. There shall not be obstructions in the minimum width or required capacity of aisles.

1029.9.7 Stair ways connecting to stepped aisles. A stairway that connects a stepped aisle to a cross aisle or concourse shall be permitted to comply with the assembly aisle walking surface requirements of Section 1029.13. Transitions between stairways and stepped aisles shall comply with Section 1029.10. 1029.9.8 Stair ways connecting to vomitor ies. A stairway that connects a vomitory to a cross aisle or concourse shall be permitted to comply with the assembly aisle walking surface requirements of Section 1029.13. Transitions between stairways and stepped aisles shall comply with Section 1029.10. 1029.10 Transitions. Transitions between stairways and stepped aisles shall comply with either Section 1029.10.1 or 1029.10.2. 1029.10.1 Tr ansitions and stair ways that maintain stepped aisle riser and tr ead dimensions. Stepped aisles, transitions and stairways that maintain riser and tread dimensions shall comply with Section 1029.13 as one exit access component. 1029.10.2 Tr ansitions to stair ways that do not maintain stepped aisle riser and tr ead dimensions. Transitions to stairways from stepped aisles with riser and tread dimensions that differ from the stairways shall comply with Sections 1029.10.2.1 through 1029.10.3. 1029.10.2.1 Stairways and stepped aisles in a straight run. Transitions where the stairway is a straight run from the stepped aisle shall have a minimum depth of 550 mm where the treads on the descending side of the transition have greater depth and 750 mm where the treads on the descending side of the transition have lesser depth. 1029.10.2.2 Stairways and stepped aisles that change direction. Transitions where the stairway changes direction from the stepped aisle shall have

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a minimum depth of 275 mm or the stepped aisle tread depth, whichever is greater, between the stepped aisle and stairway.

each additional 300 mm, or fraction thereof, beyond 3600 mm of aisle accessway length measured from the center of the seat farthest from an aisle.

1029.10.3 Tr ansition mar king. A distinctive marking stripe shall be provided at each nosing or leading edge adjacent to the transition. Such stripe shall be not less than 25 mm, and not more than 50 mm, wide. The edge marking stripe shall be distinctively different from the stepped aisle contrasting marking stripe.

Exception: Portions of an aisle accessway having a length not exceeding 1800 mm and used by a total of not more than four persons.

1029.11 Construction. Aisles, stepped aisles and ramped aisles shall be built of materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of construction of the building. Exception: Wood handrails shall be permitted for all types of construction. 1029.11.1 Walking sur face. The surface of aisles, stepped aisles and ramped aisles shall be of slip-resistant materials that are securely attached. The surface for stepped aisles shall comply with Section 1011.7.1. 1029.11.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor aisles, stepped aisles and ramped aisles and outdoor approaches to aisles, stepped aisles and ramped aisles shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on the walking surface. 1029.12 Aisle accessways. Aisle accessways for seating at tables shall comply with Section 1029.12.1. Aisle accessways for seating in rows shall comply with Section 1029.12.2. 1029.12.1 Seating at tables. Where seating is located at a table or counter and is adjacent to an aisle or aisle accessway, the measurement of required clear width of the aisle or aisle accessway shall be made to a line 480 mm away from and parallel to the edge of the table or counter. The 480 mm distance shall be measured perpendicular to the side of the table or counter. In the case of other side boundaries for aisles or aisle accessways, the clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of seating and tread edges.

1029.12.1.2 Seating at table aisle accessway length. The length of travel along the aisle accessway shall not exceed 9 m from any seat to the point where a person has a choice of two or more paths of egress travel to separate exits. 1029.12.2 Clear width of aisle accessways serving seating in rows. Where seating rows have 14 or fewer seats, the minimum clear aisle accessway width shall be not less than 300 mm measured as the clear horizontal distance from the back of the row ahead and the nearest projection of the row behind. Where chairs have automatic or self-rising seats, the measurement shall be made with seats in the raised position. Where any chair in the row does not have an automatic or self-rising seat, the measurements shall be made with the seat in the down position. For seats with folding tablet arms, row spacing shall be determined with the tablet arm in the used position. Exception: For seats with folding tablet arms, row spacing is permitted to be determined with the tablet arm in the stored position where the tablet arm when raised manually to vertical position in one motion automatically returns to the stored position by force of gravity. 1029.12.2.1 Dual access. For rows of seating served by aisles or doorways at both ends, there shall be not more than 100 seats per row. The minimum clear width of 300 mm between rows shall be increased by 7.6 mm for every additional seat beyond 14 seats where seats have backrests or beyond 21 where seats are without backrests. The minimum clear width is not required to exceed 550 mm.

Exception: Where tables or counters are served by fixed seats, the width of the aisle or aisle accessway shall be measured from the back of the seat.

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the row length limits for a 300 mm-wide aisle accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway minimum clear width shall be increased, are in Table 1029.12.2.1.

1029.12.1.1 Aisle accessway capacity and width for seating at tables. Aisle accessways serving arrangements of seating at tables or counters shall comply with the capacity requirements of Section 1005.1 but shall not have less than 300 mm of width plus 13 mm of width for

1029.12.2.2 Single access. For rows of seating served by an aisle or doorway at only one end of the row, the minimum clear width of 300 mm between rows shall be increased by 15.2 mm for every additional seat beyond seven seats where seats have backrests or beyond 10 where seats are without

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backrests. The minimum clear width is not required to exceed 550 mm. Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the row length limits for a 300 mm aisle accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway minimum clear width shall be increased, are in Table 1029.12.2.1. 1029.13 Assembly aisle walking surfaces. Ramped aisles shall comply with Sections 1029.13.1 through 1029.13.1.3. Stepped aisles shall comply with Sections 1029.13.2 through 1029.13.2.4. 1029.13.1 Ramped aisles. Aisles that are sloped more than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope) shall be considered a ramped aisle. Ramped aisles that serve as part of an accessible route in accordance with Sections 1009 and 1108.2 shall have a maximum slope of one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope). The slope of other ramped aisles shall not exceed one unit vertical in 8 units horizontal (12.5-percent slope). 1029.13.1.1 Cross slope. The slope measured perpendicular to the direction of travel of a ramped aisle shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope). 1029.13.1.2 Landings. Ramped aisles shall have landings in accordance with Sections 1012.6 through 1012.6.5. Landings for ramped aisles shall be permitted to overlap required aisles or cross aisles. 1029.13.1.3 Edge protection. Ramped aisles shall have edge protection in accordance with Sections 1012.10 and 1012.10.1. Exception: In assembly spaces with fixed seating, edge protection is not required on the sides of ramped aisles where the ramped aisles provide access to the adjacent seating and aisle accessways. 1029.13.2 Stepped aisles. Aisles with a slope exceeding one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope) shall consist of a series of risers and treads that extends across the full width of aisles and complies with Sections 1029.13.2.1 through 1029.13.2.4. 1029.13.2.1 Treads. Tread depths shall be not less than 275 mm and shall have dimensional uniformity. Exception: The tolerance between adjacent treads shall not exceed 5 mm.

1029.13.2.2 Risers. Where the gradient of stepped aisles is to be the same as the gradient of adjoining seating areas, the riser height shall be not less than 100 mm nor more than 200 mm and shall be uniform within each flight. Exceptions: 1. Riser height non-uniformity shall be limited to the extent necessitated by changes in the gradient of the adjoining seating area to maintain adequate sightlines. Where nonuniformities exceed 5 mm between adjacent risers, the exact location of such nonuniformities shall be indicated with a distinctive marking stripe on each tread at the nosing or leading edge adjacent to the nonuniform risers. Such stripe shall be not less than 25 mm, and not more than 50 mm, wide. The edge marking stripe shall be distinctively different from the contrasting marking stripe. 2. Riser heights not exceeding 230 mm shall be permitted where they are necessitated by the slope of the adjacent seating areas to maintain sightlines. 1029.13.2.2.1 Construction tolerances. The tolerance between adjacent risers on a stepped aisle that were designed to be equal height shall not exceed 5 mm. Where the stepped aisle is designed in accordance with Exception 1 of Section 1029.13.2.2, the stepped aisle shall be constructed so that each riser of unequal height, determined in the direction of descent, is not more than 10 mm in height different from adjacent risers where stepped aisle treads are less than 550 mm in depth and 20 mm in height different from adjacent risers where stepped aisle treads are 550 mm or greater in depth. 1029.13.2.3 Tread contrasting marking stripe. A contrasting marking stripe shall be provided on each tread at the nosing or leading edge such that the location of each tread is readily apparent when viewed in descent. Such stripe shall be not less than 25 mm, and not more than 50 mm, wide. Exception: The contrasting marking stripe is permitted to be omitted where tread surfaces are such that the location of each tread is readily apparent when viewed in descent. 1029.13.2.4 Nosing and profile. Nosing and riser profile shall comply with Sections 1011.5.5 through 1011.5.5.3.

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1029.14 Seat stability. In a building, room or space used for assembly purposes, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor. Exceptions: 1. In a building, room or space used for assembly purposes or portions thereof without ramped or tiered floors for seating and with 200 or fewer seats, the seats shall not be required to be fastened to the floor. 2. In a building, room or space used for assembly purposes or portions thereof without ramped or tiered floors for seating, the seats shall not be required to be fastened to the floor. 3. In a building, room or space used for assembly purposes or portions thereof without seating at tables and without ramped or tiered floors for seating and with greater than 200 seats, the seats shall be fastened together in groups of not less than three or the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor. 4. In a building, room or space used for assembly purposes where flexibility of the seating arrangement is an integral part of the design and function of the space and seating is on tiered levels, not more than 200 seats shall not be required to be fastened to the floor. Plans showing seating, tiers and aisles shall be submitted for approval. 5. Groups of seats within a building, room or space used for assembly purposes separated from other seating by railings, guards, partial height walls or similar barriers with level floors and having not more than 14 seats per group shall not be required to be fastened to the floor. 6. Seats intended for musicians or other performers and separated by railings, guards, partial height walls or similar barriers shall not be required to be fastened to the floor. 1029.15 Handrails. Ramped aisles having a slope exceeding one unit vertical in 15 units horizontal (6.7-percent slope) and stepped aisles shall be provided with handrails in compliance with Section 1014 located either at one or both sides of the aisle or within the aisle width. Exceptions: 1. Handrails are not required for ramped aisles with seating on both sides.

2. Handrails are not required where, at the side of the aisle, there is a guard with a top surface that complies with the graspability requirements of handrails in accordance with Section 1014.3. 3. Handrail extensions are not required at the top and bottom of stepped aisles and ramped aisles to permit crossovers within the aisles. 1029.15.1 Discontinuous handr ails. Where there is seating on both sides of the aisle, the midaisle handrails shall be discontinuous with gaps or breaks at intervals not exceeding five rows to facilitate access to seating and to permit crossing from one side of the aisle to the other. These gaps or breaks shall have a clear width of not less than 550 mm and not greater than 900 mm, measured horizontally, and the mid-aisle handrail shall have rounded terminations or bends. 1029.15.2 Handr ail ter mination. Handrails located on the side of stepped aisles shall return to a wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stepped aisle flight. 1029.15.3 Mid-aisle ter mination. Mid-aisle handrails shall not extend beyond the lowest riser and shall terminate within 450 mm, measured horizontally, from the lowest riser. Handrail extensions are not required. Exception: Mid-aisle handrails shall be permitted to extend beyond the lowest riser where the handrail extensions do not obstruct the width of the cross aisle. 1029.15.4 Rails. Where mid-aisle handrails are provided in stepped aisles, there shall be an additional rail located approximately 300 mm below the handrail. The rail shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with SBC 201 Section 1607.8.1.2. 1029.16 Assembly guards. Guards adjacent to seating in a building, room or space used for assembly purposes shall be provided where required by Section 1015 and shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1015 except where provided in accordance with Sections 1029.16.1 through 1029.16.4. At bleachers, grandstands and folding and telescopic seating, guards must be provided where required by ICC 300 and Section 1029.16.1. 1029.16.1 Perimeter guar ds. Perimeter guards shall be provided where the footboards or walking surface of seating facilities are more than

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750 mm above the floor or grade below. Where the seatboards are adjacent to the perimeter, guard height shall be 1000 mm high minimum, measured from the seatboard. Where the seats are selfrising, guard height shall be 1000 mm high minimum, measured from the floor surface. Where there is an aisle between the seating and the perimeter, the guard height shall be measured in accordance with Section 1015.2. Exceptions: 1. Guards that impact sightlines shall be permitted to comply with Section 1029.16.3. 2. Bleachers, grandstands and folding and telescopic seating shall not be required to have perimeter guards where the seating is located adjacent to a wall and the space between the wall and the seating is less than 100 mm. 1029.16.2 Cr oss aisles. Cross aisles located more than 750 mm above the floor or grade below shall have guards in accordance with Section 1015. Where an elevation change of 750 mm or less occurs between a cross aisle and the adjacent floor or grade below, guards not less than 650 mm above the aisle floor shall be provided. Exception: Where the backs of seats on the front of the cross aisle project 600 mm or more above the adjacent floor of the aisle, a guard need not be provided. 1029.16.3 Sightline-constr ained guar d heights. Unless subject to the requirements of Section 1029.16.4, a fascia or railing system in accordance with the guard requirements of Section 1015 and having a minimum height of 650 mm shall be provided where the floor or footboard elevation is more than 750 mm above the floor or grade below and the fascia or railing would otherwise interfere with the sightlines of immediately adjacent seating. 1029.16.4 Guar ds at the end of aisles. A fascia or railing system complying with the guard requirements of Section 1015 shall be provided for the full width of the aisle where the foot of the aisle is more than 750 mm above the floor or grade below. The fascia or railing shall be a minimum of 900 mm high and shall provide a minimum 1000 mm measured diagonally between the top of the rail and the nosing of the nearest tread.

SECTION 1030 EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE 1030.1 General. In addition to the means of egress required by this chapter, provisions shall be made for emergency escape and rescue openings in Group R-2 occupancies in accordance with Tables 1006.3.2(1) and 1006.3.2(2) and Group R-3 occupancies. Basem*nts and sleeping rooms below the fourth story above grade plane shall have at least one exterior emergency escape and rescue opening in accordance with this section. Where basem*nts contain one or more sleeping rooms, emergency escape and rescue openings shall be required in each sleeping room, but shall not be required in adjoining areas of the basem*nt. Such openings shall open directly into a public way or to a yard or court that opens to a public way. Exceptions: 1. Basem*nts with a ceiling height of less than 2000 mm shall not be required to have emergency escape and rescue openings. 2. Emergency escape and rescue openings are not required from basem*nts or sleeping rooms that have an exit door or exit access door that opens directly into a public way or to a yard, court or exterior exit balcony that opens to a public way. 3. Basem*nts without habitable spaces and having not more than 18 m2 in floor area shall not be required to have emergency escape and rescue openings. 1030.2 Minimum size. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 0.53 m2. Exception: The minimum net clear opening for grade-floor emergency escape and rescue openings shall be 0.46 m2. 1030.2.1 Minimum dimensions. The minimum net clear opening height dimension shall be 600 mm. The minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 500 mm. The net clear opening dimensions shall be the result of normal operation of the opening. 1030.3 Maximum height from floor. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall have the bottom of the clear opening not greater than 1100 mm measured from the floor. 1030.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall be operational from the inside of the room without the use of keys

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or tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and rescue openings provided the minimum net clear opening size complies with Section 1030.2 and such devices shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal operation of the emergency escape and rescue opening. Where such bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are installed in existing buildings, smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11 regardless of the valuation of the alteration. 1030.5 Window wells. An emergency escape and rescue opening with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground level shall be provided with a window well in accordance with Sections 1030.5.1 and 1030.5.2. 1030.5.1 Minimum size. The minimum horizontal area of the window well shall be 0.84 m2, with a minimum dimension of 900 mm. The area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue opening to be fully opened. 1030.5.2 Ladders or steps. Window wells with a vertical depth of more than 1100 mm shall be equipped with an approved permanently affixed ladder or steps. Ladders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 300 mm, shall project at least 75 mm from the wall and shall be spaced not more than 450 mm on center (o.c.) vertically for the full height of the window well. The ladder or steps shall not encroach into the required dimensions of the window well by more than 150 mm. The ladder or steps shall not be obstructed by the emergency escape and rescue opening. Ladders or steps required by this section are exempt from the stairway requirements of Section 1011.

SECTION 1031 MAINTENANCE OF THE MEANS OF EGRESS 1031.1 General. The means of egress for buildings or portions thereof shall be maintained in accordance with this section. 1031.2 Reliability. Required exit accesses, exits and exit discharges shall be continuously maintained free from obstructions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or other emergency when the building area served by the means of egress is occupied. An exit or exit passageway shall not be used for any purpose that interferes with a means of egress.

1031.2.1 Security devices and egress locks. Security devices affecting means of egress shall be subject to approval of the fire code official. Security devices and locking arrangements in the means of egress that restrict, control, or delay egress shall be installed and maintained as required by this chapter. 1031.3 Obstructions. A means of egress shall be free from obstructions that would prevent its use, including the accumulation of snow and ice. 1031.3.1 Gr oup I-2. In Group I-2, the required clear width for aisles, corridors and ramps that are part of the required means of egress shall comply with Section 1020.2. The facility shall have a plan to maintain the required clear width during emergency situations. Exception: In areas required for bed movement, equipment shall be permitted in the required width where all the following provisions are met: 1. The equipment is low hazard and wheeled. 2. The equipment does not reduce the effective clear width for the means of egress to less than 1.5 m. 3. The equipment is limited to: 3.1. Equipment and carts in use; 3.2. Medical emergency equipment; 3.3. Infection control carts; and 3.4. Patient equipment.

lift

and

transportation

4. Medical emergency equipment and patient lift and transportation equipment, when not in use, is required to be located on one side of the corridor. 5. The equipment is limited in number to a maximum of one per patient sleeping room or patient care room within each smoke compartment. 1031.4 Exit signs. Exit signs shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 1011. Decorations, furnishings, equipment or adjacent signage that impairs the visibility of exit signs, creates confusion or prevents identification of the exit shall not be allowed. 1031.5 Nonexit identification. Where a door is adjacent to, constructed similar to and can be confused with a means of egress door, that door shall be identified